Lewis Acid/Base Interaction Matrix Database


Type 7 Lewis Acid/Base Complexation Chemistry
Common Strong & Weak Brønsted Bases and Ionic Salts

               Li+      +     CH3        LiCH3
               Na+     +     OH         NaOH
               Ca2+     +    6H2O        Ca2+(aq)

Bonding:

The s-LUMO Lewis acids like to be multiply complexed by Lobe-HOMO Lewis base ligands to achieve maximum spherical symmetry about the cation.

Complexes form as ionic crystal lattice (cesium fluoride) or they may generate polar-covalent bonds (methyl lithium).

Charge: The charge on a Type 7 complex can be negative, neutral or positive.
Chemistry:

With a few important exceptions – for example, amines and the saline hydrides – most of the proton abstracting (Brønsted base) reagents are Type 7 Lewis acid/base complexes:

   NaOH     KNH2     LiCH3     CH3COONa    NaHCO3   Na2CO3     etc.

Other Type 7 complexes, in which the Lobe-HOMO Lewis Base is the conjugate base of a strong Brønsted acid, are non-basic ionic salts:

      KCl     NaI     LiBr   etc.

In polar solvent solution (water, THF, DMF or DMSO), Type 7 complexes may show differing degrees of ion pairing:

Polar solvation requires the solvent to have lone pair Lobe-HOMO centres which compete with the Type 7 Complexes’ Lobe-HOMO Lewis base centre.

Methyl lithium, for example, is usually considered to be a 1:1 polarised covalent compound, however, in diethyl ether or THF solvents the lithium cation is co-complexed with solvent molecules.

In alkane solvents alkyl lithium reagents aggregate into hexamers and higher structures, Wikipedia.

Congeneric Series:

There are many important congeneric series: alkyl carbanion reagents become more basic as the alkyl groups are replaced by hydrogen ligands, and as the metal counter ion becomes congenerically heavier.

Regular changes in physical properties occur as pairs of congeneric Lewis acid/base series interact to form congeneric series, planars and volumes of complexes:

Type 7 Lewis acid/base complex (generic)
Alkenyl lithium (generic)

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Alkyl lithium (generic)

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sec Alkyl sulfonate

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Aluminium isopropoxide

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Aluminium nitride

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Barium amide

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Barium bromide

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Barium carbide

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Barium carbonate

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Barium chloride

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Barium chromate

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Barium fluoride

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Barium hydroxide

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Barium iodide

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Barium nitrate

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Barium nitride

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Barium oxalate

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Barium oxide

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Barium peroxide

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Barium phosphide

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Barium selenide

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Barium sulfate

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Barium sulfide

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Barium telluride

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Benzyl lithium

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Beryllate ion

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Beryllium amide

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Beryllium bromide

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Beryllium carbide

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Beryllium carbonate

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Beryllium chloride

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Beryllium fluoride

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Beryllium hydroxide

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Beryllium iodide

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Beryllium nitride

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Beryllium oxide

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Beryllium phosphide

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Beryllium selenide

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Beryllium sulfate

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Beryllium sulfide

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Beryllium telluride

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n-Butyllithium

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sec-Butyllithium

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tert-Butyllithium

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Calcium acetate

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Calcium amide

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Calcium bromide

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Calcium carbide

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Calcium carbonate

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Calcium chloride

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Calcium cyanamide

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Calcium fluoride

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Calcium hydrogen carbonate

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Calcium hydroxide

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Calcium hypochlorite

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Calcium iodide

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Calcium metaborate

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Calcium nitride

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Calcium oxalate

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Calcium oxide

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Calcium phosphate, tribasic

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Calcium phosphide

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Calcium selenide

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Calcium silicate

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Calcium sulfate

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Calcium sulfate dihydrate

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Calcium sulfate hemihydrate

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Calcium sulfide

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Calcium sulfite

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Calcium telluride

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Cesium amide

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Cesium arsenide

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Cesium bromide

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Cesium carbide

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Cesium carbonate

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Cesium chloride

more here
Cesium fluoride

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Cesium hydrogen sulfide

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Cesium hydroxide

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Cesium iodide

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Cesium oxide

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Cesium peroxide

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Cesium phosphide

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Cesium selenide

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Cesium stibnide

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Cesium sulfide

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Cesium superoxide

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Cesium telluride

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Disodium peroxodisulfate

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Gallium oxide

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Grignard reagent (generic)

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Grignard reagent, alkyl magnesium bromide (generic)

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Grignard reagent, alkyl magnesium chloride (generic)

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Indium oxide

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Lithium acetylacetone complex

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Lithium acetylide

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Lithium arsenide

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Lithium bis(acetylacetone) complex

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Lithium bromide

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Lithium chloride

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Lithium diisopropylamide

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Lithium enolate (generic)

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Lithium fluoride

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Lithium hydrogen sulfide

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Lithium hydroxide

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Lithium imide

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Lithium iodide

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Lithium nitride

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Lithium oxide

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Lithium peroxide

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Lithium phosphide

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Lithium selenide

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Lithium stearate

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Lithium stibnide

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Lithium sulfide

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Lithium superoxide

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Lithium telluride

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Magnesium amide

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Magnesium bromide

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Magnesium carbide

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Magnesium carbonate

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Magnesium chloride

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Magnesium fluoride

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Magnesium hydroxide

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Magnesium iodide

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Magnesium nitrate hexahydrate

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Magnesium nitride

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Magnesium oxalate

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Magnesium oxide

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Magnesium phosphide

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Magnesium selenide

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Magnesium sulfate

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Magnesium sulfate septahydrate

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Magnesium sulfide

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Magnesium telluride

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Methyl lithium in diethyl ether

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Methyl lithium/Tetramethylethylenediamine complex

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Methyl magnesium iodide

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2-Norbornyl lithium

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Phenyl lithium

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Potassium arsenide

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Potassium arsenite

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Potassium bromate

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Potassium bromide

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Potassium tertiary butoxide

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Potassium carbide

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Potassium carbonate

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Potassium chlorate

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Potassium chloride

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Potassium cyanide

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Potassium fluoride

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Potassium hydrogen carbonate

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Potassium hydrogen difluoride

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Potassium hydrogen sulfide

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Potassium hydroxide

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Potassium iodide

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Potassium ion 18-crown-6 complex

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Potassium nitrosodisulfonate

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Potassium oxide

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Potassium ozonide

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Potassium perbromate

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Potassium perchlorate

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Potassium peroxide

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Potassium phosphide

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Potassium phthalimide

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Potassium selenide

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Potassium stibnide

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Potassium sulfate

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Potassium sulfide

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Potassium superoxide

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Potassium telluride

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Potassium trisalicaldehyde complex

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Rubidium amide

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Rubidium arsenide

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Rubidium bromide

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Rubidium carbide

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Rubidium chloride

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Rubidium fluoride

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Rubidium hydrogen sulfide

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Rubidium hydroxide

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Rubidium iodide

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Rubidium oxide

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Rubidium peroxide

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Rubidium phosphide

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Rubidium selenide

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Rubidium stibnide

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Rubidium sulfide

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Rubidium superoxide

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Rubidium telluride

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Sodamide

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Sodium acetate

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Sodium aluminate

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Sodium arsenide

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Sodium azide

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Sodium bisulfite

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Sodium borate, fused

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Sodium bromate

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Sodium bromide

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Sodium carbide

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Sodium carbonate

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Sodium carbonate perhydrate

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Sodium chlorate

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Sodium chloride

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Sodium chlorite

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Sodium cyanide

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Sodium disulfite

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Sodium dithionate

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Sodium dithionite

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Sodium fluoride

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Sodium formate

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Sodium hydrogen carbonate

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Sodium hydrogen sulfide

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Sodium hydrogen sulfite

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Sodium hydroxide

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Sodium hydroxide solution

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Sodium iodide

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Sodium metaborate

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Sodium methoxide

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Sodium nitrate

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Sodium nitrite

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Sodium orthoborate

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Sodium oxalate

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Sodium oxide

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Sodium perborate

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Sodium perchlorate

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Sodium peroxide

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Sodium phosphate, tribasic

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Sodium phosphide

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Sodium selenide

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Sodium stibnide

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Sodium sulfate

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Sodium sulfate decahydrate

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Sodium sulfide

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Sodium sulfide nonahydrate

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Sodium sulfite

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Sodium sulfite septahydrate

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Sodium superoxide

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Sodium telluride

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Sodium tetrahydroxyaluminate

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Sodium tetrathionate

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Sodium thiosulfate

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Sodium tripolyphosphate

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Strontium amide

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Strontium bromide

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Strontium carbide

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Strontium carbonate

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Strontium chloride

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Strontium fluoride

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Strontium hydroxide

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Strontium iodide

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Strontium nitride

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Strontium oxalate

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Strontium oxide

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Strontium phosphide

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Strontium selenide

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Strontium sulfate

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Strontium sulfide

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Strontium telluride

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Thallium(I) oxide

more here
Thallium(I) triiodide

more here
Thallium(III) oxide

more here


Interactions and reactions classified as:
Type 7 Lewis Acid/Base Complexation Chemistry
      1 +1 + 1 +1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 + 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 +1 1
      1 +1 + 1
      1 +1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 +7 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 +9 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 +7 1
      1 +1 +2 1
      2 +1 +10 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
       +
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +3 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +2 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +2
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +2 1 +1
      1 +2 +1 + 1 +1
      1 +1 +1 + 1 +2
      1 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      3 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      2 +1 1 +2
      2 +1 1 +2
      2 +1 1 +2
      2 +1 1 +2
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 + 1 +1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      3 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      3 +2 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +1 1 +1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 1 +2 +2
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      2 +1 1 +2
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 2
      2 +1 1
      1 +1 1
       +
       +
      2 +1 1
      1 +2 +6 1
       +
      1 +1 + 1
      1 +2 1
      1 +1 + 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 + 1 +2
      1 +1 + 1 +2
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1
      1 +1 1



Poster
Nucleophiles & Bases

© Mark R. Leach 1999-


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