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# The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.

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 Year:  2024 PT id = 1303

### Bilateral Symmetry in the Periodic Binodic Table

René Vernon, who developed these ideas, writes:

This table is adapted from the work of Gutiérrez-Samanez (2020), who discusses mathematising the chemical periodic system as a grid, which leads to a quadratic function or “binódica function” formed by pairs of periods or binodos (dyads).

The difference is that whereas Gutiérrez-Samanez showed the first pair of periods as H-He and Li-Be, this table shows the first period as e-n and H-He. Here, e is the electron and n is the neutron. Each pair of periods is shown pancake style rather than in a single row. The formula for the length of each paired period or binode is 2n2 = 2, 8, 16, 32.

The idea of paired periods has a long history; it seems to have originated with Werner in 1905.

According to Jensen:

"The temptation to read more into the shape of the table than is really there is almost overwhelming. Even someone as great as Werner was tempted (1905). Having postulated a missing element between H and He, he decided to perfect the symmetry of his table by guaranteeing that rows of differing length always occurred in pairs. Consequently, he further postulated a row of three missing elements lying above the H-X-He row."

Rydberg (1913, pp. 12–13) used a formula 4n^2 for the number of elements in the paired periods: 4, 16, 32, 64. This formula is also used by Gutiérrez-Samanez.

Paired periods were also used by Janet (1928), Saz (1931), Achimov (1946) and Baca Mendoza (1953).

References

• Achimov EI 1946, Zhur. Obshchei Khim., vol. 16, p. 961; https://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php?PT_id=776
• Baca Mendoza O 1953, Leyes Genéticas de los elementos Químicos, Nuevo Sistema Periódico, National University of Cusco, https://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/Mendoza_PT.pdf, accessed May 12, 2024
• Gutiérrez-Samanez JA 2020, Binódic periodic system: a mathematical approach, Found Chem, vol. 22, pp. 235–266 (255)
• Janet C1928, Essais de classification hélicoïdale des éléments chimiques. Imprimerie Départementale de l’Oise, Beauvais, https://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php?PT_id=152
• Jensen WB 1986, Classification, symmetry and the periodic table, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, vol. 12B, no. 12, pp. 487–510 (508)
• Rydberg JR 1913, Untersuchungen über das system der grundstoffe, Lunds Univ. Ärsskrift, vol. 9, no. 18. In French: 1914, Recherches sur le système des éléments, Journal de Chimie Physique, vol. 12, p. 585
• Saz E 1931, Iberica, vol. 35, p. 186
• Wemer A 1905, Beitrag zum Aufbau des periodischen Systems, Ber. Deut. Chem. Ges, vol. 38, pp. 914–921, 2022–2027
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