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The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.


pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

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The 8 Periodic Tables most recently added to the database:

1893     Nechaev's Truncated Cones
2003     Stable Isotopes, Periodic Table of
2020     Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements
1958     Landau & Lifshitz's Periodic System of Mendeleev
2020     Periodic Ziggurat of The Elements
1969     Mendeleevian Conference, Periodicity and Symmetries in the Elementary Structure of Matter
1874     von Richter's Periodic System of the Elements
2018     Christmas Periodic Table of Substances


1893

Nechaev's Truncated Cones

René Vernon (who found this formulation) writes:

This weird and wonderful table appears in Teleshov & Teleshova (2019, p. 230). It is attributed by them to Nechaev (1893) and is apparently discussed by Ipatiev (1904):

    "... We would also like to mention one more version of the periodic table, namely the one offered by V. Ipatiev. Ipatiev's version was one of the first to have been applied in a school textbook, and is also concise and accompanied by a detailed methodological commentary. More specifically, Ipatiev is important in directing our attention to the fact that an essential feature common to all elements should be chosen if the elements are to be systematized. Furthermore, Ipatiev also offered another crucial insight in arguing that this selected feature must satisfy certain conditions, namely: 1) it must be measurable, 2) it must be common to all elements and 3) it must be paramount, i.e. that all the remaining properties of the elements must depend on it [Ipatiev]."

  • The caption accompanying the table is: "Scanning of the projection of rotational bodies in the form of truncated cones as used in Nechaev's spatial construction of the periodic system, 1893."
  • Looking at the table it seems to anticipate, after a fashion, the double periodicity noticed by later authors.
  • Alternatively, if turned on its side, it would be just five columns wide.
  • Between Ce (ignoring Di) and Yb, there are spaces for 12 missing elements, which is one too many.
  • Pulling Yb back by one position would have done the trick.

References:

Ipat'ev, V. & Sapozhnikov, A. (1904). Kratkij kurs himii po programme voennyh uchilishh [A concise course in chemistry for military academies]. Sankt-Peterburg: tip. V. Demakova.

Nechaev N. P. (1893). Graficheskoe postroenie periodicheskoj sistemy jelementov Mendeleeva. Sposob Nechaeva [Graphic construction of Mendeleev's periodic system of elements. Nechaev's way]. Moskva: tip. Je. Lissnera i Ju. Romana

Teleshov S, Teleshova E.: The international year of the periodic table: An overview of events before and after the creation of the periodic table. In V Lamanauskas (ed.).: Science and technology Education: Challenges and possible solutions. Proceedings of the 3rd International Baltic Symposium on Science and Technology Education, BalticSTE2019, Šiauliai, 17-20 June, 2019. pp. 227-232, (2019)

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2003

Stable Isotopes, Periodic Table of

From Boeyens, JCA 2003, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 257, 33 a periodic table of the 264 stable isotopes arranged as an 11 x 24 matrix.

Click the image to enlarge:

Thanks to René for the tip!

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2020

Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements

From Eric Scerri, a periodic table of books about the periodic table & the chemical elements... many by Eric Scerri himself.

See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Click to enlarge:

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1958

Landau & Lifshitz's Periodic System of Mendeleev

L.D. Landau & E.M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Volume 3 of A Course of Theoretical Physics), pages 255-258. (Note: First published in English in 1958, the link is to the 1963 3rd ed. of the English version translated from Russian.)

René Vernon writes:

The authors discuss aspects of the periodic system of D I Mendeleev. The electron configurations of hydrogen & helium are briefly noted. This is followed by three tables setting out the electron configurations of the s, p, d & f elements.

Some extracts from the text follow:

"The elucidation of the nature of the periodic variation of properties, observed in the series of elements when they are placed in order of increasing atomic number, requires an examination of the peculiarities in the successive completion of the electron shells of atoms." (p. 252)

"Many properties of atoms (including the chemical properties of elements...) depend principally on the outer regions of the electron envelopes." (p. 254)

"The elements containing complete d and f shells (or not containing these shells at all) are called elements of the principal groups; those in which the filling up of these states is actually in progress are called elements of the intermediate groups. These groups of elements are conveniently considered separately." (p. 254)

"We see that the occupation of different states occurs very regularly in the series of elements of the principal groups: first the s states and then the p states are occupied for each principal quantum number n. The electron configurations of the ions of these elements are also regular (until electrons from the d and f shells are removed in the ionisation): each ion has the configuration corresponding to the preceding atom. Thus, the Mg+ ion has the configuration of the sodium atom, and the Mg++ ion that of neon." (p. 255)

"Let us now turn to the elements of the intermediate groups. The filling up of the 3d, 4d, and 5d shells takes place in groups of elements called respectively the iron group, the palladium group and the platinum group. Table 4 gives those electron configurations and terms of the atoms in these groups that are known from experimental spectroscopic data. As is seen from this table, the d shells are filled up with considerably less regularity than the s and p shells in the atoms of elements of the principal groups. Here a characteristic feature is the 'competition' between the s and d states."

"This lack of regularity is observed in the terms of ions also: the electron configurations of the ions do not usually agree with those of the preceding atoms. For instance, the V+ ion has the configuration 3d4 (and not 3d24s2 like titanium) ; the Fe+ ion has 3d64s1 (instead of 3d54s2 as in manganese)."

"A similar situation occurs in the filling up of the 4f shell; this takes place in the series of elements known as the rare earths. † The filling up of the 4f shell also occurs in a slightly irregular manner characterised by the 'competition' between 4f, 5d and 6s states."

"† In books on chemistry, lutetium is also usually placed with the rare-earth elements. This, however, is incorrect, since the 4f shell is complete in lutetium; it must therefore be placed in the platinum group."

"The last group of intermediate elements begins with actinium. In this group the 6d and 5f shells are filled, similarly to what happens in the group of rare-earth elements." (p. 256–257)

The authors exclude lanthanum from the rare earths since the 4f shell has not started filling. Yet actinium and thorium are included by them with what we now call the actinoids even though these two metals have no f electrons. No explanation is provided for this puzzling lack of consistency with their categories.





René Vernon writes: I have joined up their one note and three tables. (Curium was the last known element at their time of writing; transcurium elements are shown in parentheses.):

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2020

Periodic Ziggurat of The Elements

By René Vernon, the Periodic Ziggurat of the Elements. Click to enlarge:

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1969

Mendeleevian Conference, Periodicity and Symmetries in the Elementary Structure of Matter

Atti del Convegno mendeleeviano : periodicità e simmetrie nella struttura elementare della materia : Torino-Roma, 15-21 settembre 1969 / [editor M. Verde] Torino : Accademia delle Scienze di Torino ; Roma : Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1971 VIII, 460 p.

Google Translate: Proceedings of the Mendeleevian Conference: periodicity and symmetries in the elementary structure of matter: Turin-Rome, 15-21 September 1969 / [editor M. Verde] Turin: Turin Academy of Sciences; Rome: National Academy of the Lincei, 1971 VIII, 460 p.

From the Internet Archive, the scanned book. Papers are in Italian & English.

For the 100th Anniversary of Mendeleev's iconic periodic table, a conference was held to look at (review) the elementary structure of matter. The 1960s saw huge developments in particle physics, including the theory of quarks. Papers were presented by many notable scientists including John Archibald Wheeler and the Nobel laureates: Emilio Segrè & Murray Gell-Mann.




Thanks to René for the tip!

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1874

von Richter's Periodic System of the Elements

From page 244 of A Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry by Victor von Richter, Published by Blakiston (US ed. in English, 1885). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org. The first edition was published in 1874 in German. von Richter was was from the Baltic region, in the the Russian empire at the time.

von Richter's work is almost certainly the first chemistry textbook based on the periodic system. Many (indeed most) modern Inorganic Chemistry texts follow this format, but NOT the Chemogenesis web book!

von Richter, writes:





Thanks to René for the tip!

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2018

Christmas Periodic Table of Substances

By Tom Gauld for New Scientist 22/29 December 2018 pp90:

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pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables