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The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.


pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

Select from here:        Or search:    


The 8 Periodic Tables most recently added to the database:

1952     Coryell's Periodic Table in Long Form
2019     Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements
1949     Catalan's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado
1932     Bacher & Goudsmith's Periodic System and Index
2019     Janet Rejuvenated: Stewart-Tsimmerman-Nawa
2016     Mystery of Matter: Three Videos
1860     Karlsruhe Congress
1858     Cannizzaro's Letter


1952

Coryell's Periodic Table in Long Form

Charles D. Coryell The periodic table: The 6d-5f mixed transition group, J. Chem. Educ., vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 62–64 1952.

Coryell (1912–1971), was an American chemist involved in the discovery of promethium.

René Vernon writes:

"In Coryell's table, just two elements are shown as having two solid 'tie lines':

Yttrium: to La-Ac and to Lu-Ac

Silicon: to Ti-Zr-Hf and to Ge-Sn-Pb.

"These days Ti-Zr-Hf-Rf is deemed to make-up group 4 (rightly so given group 4 is the first to exhibit characteristic transition metal properties) whereas C-Si-Ge-Sn-Pb-Fl is deemed to make-up group 14.

The solid tie lines Coryell shows between Hf-Th, Ta-Pa, and W-U would now be rendered in broken form.

If Coryell's table was mapped to a 32- or 18-column form, group 3 would presumably be shown as bifurcating after Y.

The circle around indium is possibly a typo(?): indium has two stable isotopes, In-113 (4.29%) & In-115 (95.71%)... actually, In-155 has a half-life of 4.4x1014 years."

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2019

Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements

Randhir Bhavial Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements poster, as presented 4th International Conference on Periodic Table at St. Petersburg, Russia.

Click here, or on the image, to enlarge:

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1949

Catalan's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado

Two versions of Catalan's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado. The first from C.E. Moore 1949, Atomic Energy Levels, National Bureau of Standards, Circular no. 467, Washington DC, vol. 1, table 25 (1949) and the second as referenced here: http://www.miguelcatalan.net/pdfs/bibliografia/biblio09.pdf.

Click on either image to enlarge:

Thanks to René for the tip!

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1932

Bacher & Goudsmith's Periodic System and Index

R.F. Bacher RF and S.A. Goudsmith, Atomic Energy States, McGraw-Hill, New York, p. xiii. 1932:

Thanks to René for the tip!

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2019

Janet Rejuvenated: Stewart-Tsimmerman-Nawa

An updated version of Philip Stewart's Janet Rejuvenated by Valery Tsimmerman redrawn by Nawa.

Click here to enlarge.

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2016

Mystery of Matter: Three Videos

From Alpha-Omega, three videos about the discovery of the Periodic Table.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history's most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment.

Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor.

Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements.

Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie's groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today's television audience.:

 

 

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1860

Karlsruhe Congress

The Karlsruhe Congress of 1860 was called so that European chemists could discuss a number of issues, including atomic weights.

From Wikipedia (lightly edited):

"The Karlsruhe meeting ended with no firm agreement on the vexing problem of atomic and molecular weights. However, on the meeting's last day reprints of Stanislao Cannizzaro's 1858 paper on atomic weights were distributed. Cannizzaro's efforts exerted an almost immediate influence on the delegates.

"Lothar Meyer later wrote that on reading Cannizzaro's paper: 'The scales seemed to fall from my eyes.'

"An important long-term result of the Karlsruhe Congress was the adoption of the now-familiar atomic weights. Prior to the Karlsruhe meeting, and going back to Dalton's work in 1803, several systems of atomic weights were in use.

"Following the Karlsruhe meeting, values of about 1 for hydrogen, 12 for carbon, 16 for oxygen, and so forth were adopted. This was based on a recognition that certain common gaseous elements, such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine were composed of diatomic molecules and not individual atoms: H2, N2, O2, Cl2, etc."

Once enough elements had been discovered, and their atomic weights correctly deduced, the time was ripe to develop versions of the periodic table systems. These came 'thick & fast' after the Karlsruhe Congress.

Many thanks to Carmen Giunta, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Le Moyne College who provided the information about the important Karlsruhe Congress.

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1858

Cannizzaro's Letter

Letter of Professor Stanislao Cannizzaro to Professor S. De Luca: Sketch of a Course of Chemical Philosophy given in the Royal University of Genoa, Il Nuovo Cimento, vol. vii. (1858), pp. 321-366.

Read the full letter/paper, in English translation, here.

Many thanks to Carmen Giunta, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Le Moyne College who provided the information about, and link to, Cannizzaro's Letter. See a list of other classic chemistry papers.

Cannizzaro writes:

"I believe that the progress of science made in these last years has confirmed the hypothesis of Avogadro, of Ampère, and of Dumas on the similar constitution of substances in the gaseous state; that is, that equal volumes of these substances, whether simple or compound, contain an equal number of molecules: not however an equal number of atoms, since the molecules of the different substances, or those of the same substance in its different states, may contain a different number of atoms, whether of the same or of diverse nature."

From the Science History of Science Institute:

"In 1858 Cannizzaro outlined a course in theoretical chemistry for students at the University of Genoa,where he had to teach without benefit of a laboratory. He used the hypothesis of a fellow Italian, Amedeo Avogadro, who had died just two years earlier, as a pathway out of the confusion rampant among chemists about atomic weights and the fundamental structure of chemical compounds."

Mark Leach writes:

"Before a periodic table of the chemical elements – which orders the elements by atomic weight and then groups them by property – could be developed it was necessary to know the atomic weight values. However, to deduce the atomic weights was a problem as it was necessary to know the ratios of how the elements combined, the stoichiometry.

"Tables of atomic weight data by Dalton (1808), Wollaston (1813) and Daubeny (1831) show progress, but the 1858 Cannizzaro letter was the first where the atomic weight data is more or less both complete and accurate.

"I have extracted the element atomic weight data from the paper, and given the % error with respect to modern atomic weight/mass data. Only titanium is significantly out! It is clear that Cannizzaro knew that hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, bromine & iodine existed as diatomic molecules."

Element Symbol Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Hydrogen H 1 1.008 -0.8%
Boron B 11 10.81 1.7%
Carbon C 12 12.011 -0.1%
Nitrogen N 14 14.007 0.0%
Oxygen O 16 15.999 0.0%
Sodium Na 23 22.99 0.0%
Magnesium Mg 24 24.305 -1.3%
Aluminium Al 27 26.982 0.1%
Silicon Si 28 28.085 -0.3%
Sulphur S 32 32.06 -0.2%
Phosphorus P 32 30.974 3.2%
Chlorine Cl 35.5 35.45 0.1%
Potassium K 39 39.098 -0.3%
Calcium Ca 40 40.078 -0.2%
Chromium Cr 53 51.996 1.9%
Manganese Mn 55 54.938 0.1%
Iron Fe 56 55.845 0.3%
Titanium Ti 56 47.867 14.5%
Copper Cu 63 63.546 -0.9%
Zinc Zn 66 65.38 0.9%
Arsenic As 75 74.922 0.1%
Bromine Br 80 79.904 0.1%
Zirconium Zr 89 91.224 -2.5%
Silver Ag 108 107.87 0.1%
Tin Sn 117.6 118.71 -0.9%
Iodine I 127 126.9 0.1%
Platinum Pt 197 195.08 1.0%
Mercury Hg 200 200.59 -0.3%
Lead Pb 207 207.2 -0.1%
Diatomic Molecule Formula Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Hydrogen H2 2 2.016 -0.8%
Oxygen O2 32 31.998 0.0%
Sulphur S2 64 64.12 -0.2%
Chlorine Cl2 71 70.9 0.1%
Bromine Br2 160 159.808 0.1%
Iodine I2 254 253.8 0.1%
Molecule Formula Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Water H2O 18 18.015 -0.1%
Hydrochloric Acid HCl 36.5 36.458 0.1%
Methane CH4 16 16.043 -0.3%
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 34 34.076 -0.2%
Diethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3 74 74.123 -0.2%
Carbon disulphide CS2 76 76.131 -0.2%
Chloroethane CH3CH2Cl 64.5 64.512 0.0%

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pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables