There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
Books & Reviews about the Periodic Table of the Elements, by date:
From page 244 of A Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry by Victor von Richter, Published by Blakiston (US ed. in English, 1885). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org. The first edition was published in 1874 in German. von Richter was was from the Baltic region, in the the Russian empire at the time.
History of the Discovery of the Group 18 (erstwhile Group 0) Elements
John Marks has provided a concise history of the discovery of the Group 18 elements and the element name"Nitron/Radon".
Radioactivity was discovered by Becquerel in 1896 and the Curies noted transferred radioactivity rather like the induction of electric or magnetic charge. Radon was discovered in 1900, by Dorn in Halle; Rutherford discovered thoron in 1899; and Debierne discovered actinon in 1903. The time-line is:
1868 Lockyer observed the spectrum of helium in the solar corona
1894 Ramsay discovers argon
1895 Ramsay isolates helium
1898 Ramsay discovers krypton, neon & xenon
1899 Curie observes an emanation from radium
1899 Rutherford observes an emanation from thorium
1900 Dorn identifies radon
1902 Rutherford & Soddy characterize thoron
1903 Rutherford & Soddy isolate radon
1903 Debierne observes an emanation from actinium
1904 Ramsay names the isotopic emanations exactinio, exradio & exthorio and surmises they are one element, probably an inert gas
So niton (from Latin nitens = shining) was noticed by the Curies in 1899 as an emanation from radium. That same year Rutherford noted an identical emanation from thorium, and in 1903 Debierne discovered the same emanation from actinium. All three ('radon', 'thoron' and 'actinon') were identified as an element by Ramsay in 1904 and characterized by him in 1909.
Ramsay named the element niton after its most prominent property viz. that it glowed in the dark.
With the introduction of Soddy's isotopes, it became clear that: thoron was Nt-220, radon was Nt-222 & actinon was Nt-219.
There are natural traces of other isotopes (e.g. Nt-217, Nt-218) from beta disintegration of astatine. So "radon" was just one isotope of niton.
The foregoing history of niton is uncontroversial and the name niton, Nt, for Z = 86 dates at least from Professor Young´s textbook of stoichiometry in 1908.
A book reviewing The Periodic Law by A.E. Garrett, pub. D. Appelton & Co (1909). This work shows the state of knowledge in the first decade of the 20th century.
René Vernon writes:
"On page 43 Garrett notes that, '[Thomas] Carnelley was the first English chemist to work out in detail the manner in which the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights. His papers on this subject appeared in the Philosophical Magazine between the years 1879 and 1885.' "
I now see Deming used different thickness sloping lines to represent the different degrees of similarity between the main groups and their corresponding transition metal groups.
The line between Li-Na and group 11 is dashed, denoting the weakest relationship.
Be-Mg are in group 2
The line between Be-Mg and group 12 is not dashed, denoting a stronger relationship.
B-Al are in group 3
The line between B-Al and Ga-In-Tl is thicker yet.
When I plot up to 20 chemical properties v Z going down these options I get the following values for the average smoothness of the trendlines:
73.5% for Li-Na-Cu(+2)-Ag(+1)-Au(+3) versus 84% for Li-Na-K-Rb-Cs
70% Be-Mg over Zn versus 85% for Be-Mg-Ca-Sr-Ba
81% for B-Al-Ga-In-Tl versus 88% B-Al-Sc-Y-La
I would have thought the smoothness for the line between Li-Na and Cu would be < 70%, consistent with Deming’s dashed line. But the thickness of the line would depend on what Deming took into account when he drew it. The common wisdom about groups 1 and 11 is that their similarities are: "confined almost entirely to the stoichiometries (as distinct from the chemical properties) of the compounds in the +1 oxidation state." (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2002, p. 1177). Kneen et al. (1972, p. 521) say that, "the differences between the properties of the group IA and IB elements are those between a strongly and weakly electropositive metal." On this basis I follow Deming’s dashed line. I’ve appended some notes about Group 1 and Group 11.
Main group 4 is C-Si-Ge-Sn-Pb
The line between Si and Ti-Zr-Hf is thick
The line between N-P and V is less thick
The line between O-S and Cr is less thick again
The line between F-Cl and Mn is dashed
I have [calculated] a smoothness for C-Si-Ti-Zr-Hf of 86% versus 70% for C-Si-Ge-Sn-Pb. Since Ti shows some transition metal chemistry but not C-Si, it is perhaps plausible to keep C-Si-Ge-Sn-Pb together (as Deming did
Deming was a smart author. Nigh on a century later and the metrics check out.
More about group 1 and group 11
There may be a little more to the relationship between Li-Na & Cu-Ag-Au, than is ordinarily appreciated. For example:
The resulting composite "group" has two electropositive metals and three more electronegative metals so its overall nature is more nuanced then purely group 1 or purely group 11
The ionic radii of Li+ and Cu+ are 0.76 and 0.77 Å, and there is at least some discussion in the literature about substitution phenomena (Vasilev et al. 2019, p. 2-15; Udaya et al. 2020, p. 98; Kubenova 2021 et al.)
Group 1 and 11 metal atoms form clusters relatively easily including Au_42+, Ag_64+, Rb_75+, Na_43+ (Mile et al. 1991, p. 134; Wulfsberg 2000, p. 631).
In an organometallic context, Schade & Scheyler (1988, p. 196) wrote that, "There is much evidence that differences between group 1 and group 11 metals are not of principal but rather gradual manner."
Although most nonmagnetic metals exhibit superconductivity it is significant that the Group 1 and 11 metals do not become superconducting at very low temperatures (Rao & Gopalakrishnan 1997, p. 398).
Gold forms intermetallic compounds with all alkali metals (Schwerdtfeger et al. 1989. p. 1769)
Greenwood NN & Earnshaw A 2002, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd ed., Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford
Kubenova et al. 2021, "Some thermoelectric phenomena in copper chalcogenides replaced by lithium and sodium alkaline metals", Nanomaterials 2021, vol. 11, no. 9. article 2238, https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092238
Mile et al. 1991, "Matrix-isolation studies of the structures and reactions of small metal particles", Farady Discussions, vol. 92, pp. 129–145 (134), https://doi.org/10.1039/FD9919200129
Rao CNR & Gopalakrishnan J 1997, New Directions on Solid State Chemistry, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Schade C & Schleyer PVR 1988, "Sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium: X-Ray structural analysis of their organic compounds", Advances in Organometallic Chemistry, vol. 27, Stone FGA & West R (eds), Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 169–278
Schwerdtfeger et al. 1989, "Relativistic effects in gold chemistry. I. Diatomic gold compounds.", The Journal of Chemical Physics, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 1762–1774. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.457082
Udaya et al. 2020, Metal sulphides for lithium-ion batteries, in Inamuddin, Ahmer & Asiri (eds), Lithium-ion batteries: Materials and applications, Materials Research Forum, Millersville PA, pp. 91–122
Vasiliev AN et al. 2019, Low-dimensional Magnetism, CRC Press, Boca Raton
Wulfsberg 2000, Inorganic chemistry, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA
"A mathematical expression of the periodic law was put forward in 1937 in an article by Chin-Fang Hsueh and Ming-Chien Chiang: J Chinese Chem Soc, 5, 263 (In English.) They derived a property equation from which the numerical magnitude of a property P is related to the atomic number Z of the element in question in terms of valence V, a function of the periodic factor y, the principal quantum number n, and two parameters a and p, which are constants for a given family of elements but different for different families."
A memorial work, Ley De Configuraciones Electronicas, published posthumously in 1965 to honor Oswaldo Baca Mendoza (1908–1962 Cusco, Peru) and his 1959 Neuvo Sistema Periodico. Download the full PDF file (in Spanish).
There is an interesting point made in the text concerning the term "Rare Earths":
"The name rare earths is actually a misnomer for these elements are neither rare nor earths. They are metals, and they are quite abundant. Cerium, which is the most abundant, ranks 28th in the abundances of the naturally occurring elements and is more plentiful than beryllium, cobalt, germanium, lead, tin, or uranium. The least abundant naturally occurring rare earth, thulium, is more plentiful than cadmium, gold, iodine, mercury, platinum, or silver. Indeed, 25% of the elements are scarcer than thulium."
Mendeleevian Conference, Periodicity and Symmetries in the Elementary Structure of Matter
Atti del Convegno mendeleeviano : periodicità e simmetrie nella struttura elementare della materia : Torino-Roma, 15-21 settembre 1969 / [editor M. Verde]
Torino : Accademia delle Scienze di Torino ; Roma : Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1971
VIII, 460 p.
Google Translate: Proceedings of the Mendeleevian Conference: periodicity and symmetries in the elementary structure of matter: Turin-Rome, 15-21 September 1969 / [editor M. Verde]
Turin: Turin Academy of Sciences; Rome: National Academy of the Lincei, 1971
VIII, 460 p.
Until World War II, the three heaviest known elements – thorium, protactinium & uranium – were believed to be related to hafnium, tantalum & tungsten respectively. Similarly, elements 93 to 100 were expected to fit neatly into the periodic table:
Synthesis and study of the transuranic elements – neptunium & plutonium – indicated that these new elements were "cousins" of uranium and in 1944 should be placed into a new "uranide" group.
Subsequently (1944/45), Seaborg advanced the theory that elements heavier than actinium actually constitute a distinct "actinide" group that mirrors the lanthanide rare-earth group:
Finally, Seaborg postulated what a future periodic table, up to Z = 168, may look like:
The first chemical slide rules are of interest here because they are, in effect, early periodic tables. But the are more than this, as they can be used for performing chemical calculations. Writing in Bull. Hist. Chem. 12 (1992) (and here), William D. Williams of Harding University writes:
"An article by George Bodner in the Winter 1990 issue of the
Bulletin described a rare chemical slide rule designed by Lewis
C. Beck and Joseph Henry - their little-known Improved
Scale of Chemical Equivalents. [My] paper attempts to place
this slide rule in context by describing its origins, as well as
some of its predecessors and successors."
Some chemical slide rules mentioned in the text:
Wollaston's 1813/14 slide rule of chemical equivalents: here, here & here
Nagayasu Nawa writes and provides an explanation as how Wollaston's chemical equivalents slide rules should be used:
"It is very interesting slide rule for me.
Because we actually used slide rule in 1960s. There were not the
electronic calculator in the world. I think it would be used as a simple slide rule of The Law of Definite
Proportions by J.L. Proust 1799."
'10 water', for example, may be hydrating water in chemical compound
'Chlorine' may be HClO: HCl(35) + O(10) = HClO(45), etc.
"In this review, the evolution of the Modern Periodic Table is traced beginning with the original version of Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869.Emphasis is placed on the upper end with a description of the revision to accommodate the actinide series of elements at the time of World War II and the more recent research on the observed and predicted chemical properties of the transactinide elements (beyond atomic number 103).A Modern Periodic Table includes undiscovered elements up to atomic number 118 and a Futuristic Periodic Table with additional undiscovered elements up to atomic number 168 is included."
"These matrix tables are inspired by the method used by the Peruvian chemist Oswaldo Baca Mendoza (1908-1962).
"The tables are read in this way:
The Law of Formation of nuclei generates all the horizontal series Z, is dependent on n (series of integers numbers) and a constant K = 1. In the step-to-right tables (n) it will be equal to or greater than 0. In Janet's Left-Step table, (n) will be less than or equal to (-1). The values of this series Z will serve as a constant for the second law.
"The Group Formation Law or vertical series. Its generate the numeric values of the columns either from left to right or from right to left. In system A -1: With the first law: n = 0, then Z = 1. The vertical series Zg = 1, 3 11, 19, 37, 55, 87 ... That is: 1H, 3Li, 11Na, 19K, 37Rb, 55Cs, 87Fr, 119, 169 ... Changing the values of n or Z, all the columns of the table will be obtained.
"In system A -2: With the first law: on the left, n = -1, then Z = 0. The vertical series Zg will be: 2He, 10Ne, 18Ar, 36Kr, 54Xe, 86Rn, 118Og, 168, 218. .. Similarly, changing the n or Z values, we can fills the columns of the table.
In system B -1: With the first law: for n = 0, then Z = 1. The vertical series Zg will be; 1H, 3Li, 5B, 13Al, 21Sc, 39Y, 57La, 89Ac, 121, 171 ... By varying the values of n or Z, the entire table is filled.
In system B -2: (Its mathematizes the Janet system). With the first law: on the left, for n = -1, then Z = 0.
"The vertical series Zg will be; 2He, 4Be, 12Mg, 20Ca, 38Sr, 56Ba, 88Ra, 120, 170, 220 ... By varying the values of n or Z, the entire table is filled.
The third law of the limiting the periods or periodic law, appears graphically, by comparison between rows: For example: in table B -1, in column Z = 3, after 1H and 2He, en of the first horizontal line, the value 3 appears, which is already entered in the first column as 3Li, therefore, that part of the first horizontal row (from 3 to 50) is deleted.
"The same happens with the number 5 in column 3, which is already in the first column as 5B, therefore it will be deleted in the second row from 5 to 52. The same applies to pair 13, 21 of the column Z = 9, same, with the pair 39, 57 of the column Z = 19 and of the pair 89, 121 of the column Z = 33. For that reason the periods: P are duplicated function: 2 (1 ^ 2), 2 (1 ^ 2), 2 (2 ^ 2), 2 (2 ^ 2), 2 (3 ^ 2), 2 (3 ^ 2) .... = 2, 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32 ... and the forms are exact and staggered.
The colors represent the quantum functions: s (red), p (orange), d (yellow), f (green), g (blue)."
The tangible materials included with this study set complement APH's Periodic Table of the Elements Reference Chart and allow students to enhance their understanding of concepts consistent with the National Science Standards.
Inspired by Samir Azer, a science teacher at the Kentucky School for the Blind, this set can assist in the instruction and demonstration of concepts related to the arrangement of the periodic table, atomic structure, ionic and covalent bonding, and balancing of chemical equations to students who benefit from a hands-on, interactive model.
Special attention was given to make the materials tactually discriminable and visually appealing to the target population, yet appropriate for all students regardless of visual acuity:
Edited by Eric Scerri (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
Published by: Imperial College Press in London
The book contains key articles by Eric Scerri, the leading authority on the history and philosophy of the periodic table of the elements. These articles explore a range of topics such as the historical evolution of the periodic system as well as its philosophical status and its relationship to modern quantum physics. In this present volume, many of the more in-depth research papers, which formed the basis for this publication, are presented in their entirety; they have also been published in highly accessible science magazines (such as American Scientist), and journals in history and philosophy of science, as well as quantum chemistry. This must-have publication is completely unique as there is nothing of this form currently available on the market.
Chemistry, Spectroscopy, and the Question of Reduction
Electronic Configuration Model, Quantum Mechanics and Reduction
The Periodic Table and the Electron
How Good is the Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System
Prediction and the Periodic Table
Löwdin's Remarks on the Aufbau Principle and a Philosopher's View of Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry
The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present
The Past and Future of the Periodic Table
The Dual Sense of the Term "Elements", Attempts to Derive the Madelung Rule, and the Optimal Form of the Periodic Table, If Any
Readership: Academic readers: philosophers and science historians, science
educators, chemists and physicists.
Pub. date: Scheduled Fall 2009
"Much anticipated (by me at least), this is the definitive be-all, end-all book of the elements. Like my poster, it contains beautiful photographs of all the chemical elements, shining out from a deep black background. But unlike my poster, it's not limited to just one picture per element. Instead each element gets a whole 2-page spread. At 10" x 20" (25cm x 50cm), each spread is as large as the whole place mat version of my poster! And several of the more popular elements even get two spreads.
There are literally hundreds and hundreds of photos in this book, nearly all of them taken by myself and my co-author Nick Mann of objects in my collection."
Part 1 Before Mendeleev (17min) covers the events leading up to Mendeleev's invention of the periodic table, including the work of several precursors such as de Chancourtois, Newlands, Odling, Hinrichs, and Meyer.
Part 2 Mendeleeve & Beyond (20 min). The second part covers Mendeleev's working out of his periodic system and the work of his successors, as well as some interesting questions such as whether the periodic table can be entirely deduced from quantum mechanics and the mystery of the Knight's Move pattern of properties.
The videos feature interviews with Dr. Eric Scerri of UCLA, with added narration, animations, illustrations, photos, captions, etc. by David V. Black as well as publication artwork and notes by Edward G. Mazurs.
"The Periodic Table is one of our crowning scientific achievements, but it's also a treasure trove of passion, adventure, betrayal, and obsession. The fascinating tales in The Disappearing Spoon follow carbon, neon, silicon, gold, and every single element on the table as they play out their parts in human history, finance, mythology, conflict, the arts, medicine, and the lives of the (frequently) mad scientists who discovered them: Why did a little lithium help cure poet Robert Lowell of his madness? And how did Gallium (Ga, 31) become the go-to element for laboratory pranksters?"
"The Disappearing Spoon has the answers, fusing science with the classic lore of invention, investigation, discovery, and alchemy, from the Big Bang through the end of time."
CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0):
Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements by Hugh Aldersey-Williams and published by Viking, ISBN: 9780670918119.
Everything is made of them, from the furthest reaches of the universe to this book that you hold in your hands, including you.
Like you, the elements have lives: personalities and attitudes, talents and shortcomings, stories rich with meaning. You may think of them as the inscrutable letters of the periodic table but you know them much better than you realise.
Welcome to a dazzling tour through history and literature, science and art. Here you'll meet iron that rains from the heavens and noble gases that light the way to vice. You'll learn how lead can tell your future while zinc may one day line your coffin. You'll discover what connects the bones in your body with the Whitehouse in Washington, the glow of a streetlamp with the salt on your dinner table.
From ancient civilisations to contemporary culture, from the oxygen of publicity to the phosphorus in your pee, the elements are near and far and all around us. Unlocking their astonishing secrets and colourful pasts, Periodic Tales will take you on a voyage of wonder and discovery, excitement and novelty, beauty and truth. Along the way, you'll find that their stories are our stories, and their lives are inextricable from our own.
From the Japanese artist Bunpei Yorifuji comes Wonderful Life with the Elements, an illustrated guide to the periodic table that gives chemistry a friendly face, available from Amazon.
In this super periodic table, every element is a unique character whose properties are represented visually: heavy elements are fat, man-made elements are robots, and noble gases sport impressive afros. Every detail is significant, from the length of an element's beard to the clothes on its back. You'll also learn about each element's discovery, its common uses, and other vital stats like whether it floats - or explodes - in water.
There is also a full review with more images from Wired.
Dr. Eric Scerri from the Chemistry Department at UCLA giving a distinguished invited lecture at the Oscar Peterson auditorium of Concordia University, in Montreal. The topic is the history and iconic nature of the Periodic Table.
ericscerri.com is the personal internet domain and website of Eric Scerri: chemist and leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of the periodic table. He is founder and editor-in-chief of the international journal Foundations of Chemistry, which publishes academic papers concerned with the PT, and is the author of the respected book: The Periodic Table and Its Significance (Oxford University Press, 2007).
The website has links to all of Eric's extensive publications, including online video lectures and interviews and external links.
Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System
From Eric Scerri's forthcoming book A Tale of Seven Elements (Oxford University Press, 2013) and used by permission of the author, is the most complete and up-to-date list of Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System, including some titles in foreign languages.
Additional books in other languages can be found listed in Mazurs, 1974
H. Alderesey-Williams, Periodic Tales, Viking Press, 2011
N.P. Agafoshin, Ley Periódica y Sistema Periódico de los Elementos de Mendeleiev, Ed. Reverté S.A., Barcelona, 1977
I. Asimov, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Lancer Books, New York, 1966
P.W. Atkins, The Periodic Kingdom, Basic Books, New York, NY, 1995
O. Baca Mendoza, Leyes Geneticas de los Elementos Quimicos. Nuevo Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Cuzco, Cuzco, Peru, 1953
P. Ball, A Guided Tour of the Ingredients, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002
P. Ball, A Very Short Introduction to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2004
I. Barber, Sorting The Elements: The Periodic Table at Work, Rourke Publishing, Vero Beach, Florida, US, 2008
R. Baum (ed), Celebrating the Periodic Table, Chemical & Engineering News, A Special Collector's Issue, September 8, 2003
H.A. Bent, New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law, Author House, Bloomington IN, 2006
J. Bernstein, Plutonium, Joseph Henry, Washington DC, 2007
J. C.A. Boeyens, D.C. Lavendis, Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter, Springer, Berlin, 2008
N. Bohr, Collected Works Vol 4. The Periodic System (1920-1923), Nielsen J Rud (Editor), North Holland Publishing Company, 1977
T. Bondora, The Periodic Table of Elements Coloring Book, Bondora Educational Media Publications, 2010
D.G. Cooper, The Periodic Table, 3rd edition. Butterworths, London, 1964
P.A. Cox, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989
P. Depovere, La Classification périodique des éléments, De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2002
H. Dingle and G.R. Martin, Chemistry and Beyond: Collected Essays of F.A.
Paneth, Interscience, New York, NY, 1964
S. Dockx, Theorie Fondamentale du Systeme Periodique des Elements, Office Internationale de Librairie, Bruxelles, 1950
A. Ducrocq, Les éléments au pouvoir, Julliard, Paris, 1976
A. Ede, The Chemical Elements, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006
J. Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition. Clarendon, Oxford University Press, 1998
J. Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001
P. Enghag, Encyclopedia of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004
D.E. Fisher, Much Ado About (Practically) Nothing, The History of the Noble Gases, Oxford University Press, New York, 2010
I. Freund, The Study of Chemical Composition: An Account of its Method and
Historical Development, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1968
J. García-Sancho & F. Ortega-Chicote, Periodicidad Química, Trillas, México, 1984
A. E. Garrett, The Periodic Law, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1909
L. Garzon Ruiperez, De Mendeleiev a Los Superelementos, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, 1988
L. Gonik, C. Criddle, The Cartoon Guide to Chemistry, Harper Resource, New York, 2005
M. Gordin, A Well-Ordered Thing, Dimitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table, Basic Books, New York, 2004
T. Gray, The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009
D. Green, The Elements, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Scholastic Inc. New York, 2012
R. Hefferlin, Periodic Systems and their Relation to the Systematic Analysis of
Molecular Data, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1989
D.L. Heiserman, Exploring the Chemical Elements and their Compounds, McGraw-Hill New York, 1991
S. Hofmann, Beyond Uranium, Taylor & Francis, London, 2002
F. Hund, Linienspektren und Periodisches System der Elemente, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, 1927
W.B. Jensen, Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869-1905, Dover, Mineola, NY, 2005
S. Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown & Co., New York, 2010
D.M. Knight, Classical Scientific Papers, Chemistry Second Series, American, Elsevier, New York, NY
P.K. Kuroda, The Origin of the Chemical Elements, and the Oklo Phenomenon, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982
H.M. Leicester and H.S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400-1900, 1st
Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., London, 1952
M.F. L'Annunziata, Radioactivity, Introduction and History, Elsevier, 2007
S.E.V. Lemus, Clasificación periódica de Mendelejew, Guatemalan Ministry of Public Education, Guatemala, 1959
P. Levi, The Periodic Table, 1st American Edition. Schocken Books, New York, NY, 1984
R. Luft, Dictionnaire des Corps Simples de la Chimie, Association Cultures et Techniques, Nantes, 1997
J. Marshall, Discovery of the Elements, Pearson Custom Publishing, 1998
E. Mazurs, Graphic Representation of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, Alabama University Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1974
D. Mendeleeff, An Attempt Towards A Chemical Conception of the Ether,
translated by G. Kamensky. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1904
D. Mendeleeff, The Principles of Chemistry, translated by G. Kamensky, 5th
Edition, vol. 2. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1891
L. Meyer, Modern Theories of Chemistry, 5th Edition, translated by P.P. Bedson, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1888
L. Meyer, Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry, 2nd Edition, translated by P.P.
Bedson and W.C. William. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1899
F. Mohr, (E), Gold Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, 2009
D. Morris, The Last Sorcerers, The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table, Joseph Henry Press, New York, 2003
I. Nechaev, G.W. Jenkins, The Chemical Elements, Tarquin Publications, Norfolk, UK, 1997
R.D. Osorio Giraldo, M.V. Alzate Cano, La Tabla Periodica, Bogota, Colombia, 2010
M.J. Pentz, (General Editor), The Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding, Open University Press, Bletchley, Buckinghamshire, UK, 1971
I.V. Peryanov, D.N. Trifonov, Elementary Order: Mendeleev's Periodic System, translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1984
J.S.F. Pode, The Periodic Table, John Wiley, New York, NY, 1971
R.J. Puddephatt, The Periodic Table of the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972
R.J. Puddephatt and P.K. Monaghan, The Periodic Table of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986
H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007
E. Rabinowitsch, E. Thilo, Periodisches System, Geschichte und Theorie, Stuttgart, 1930
R. Rich, Periodic Correlations, Benjamin, New York, 1965
J. Ridgen, Hydrogen, The Essential Element, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002
H. Rossotti, Diverse Atoms, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998
D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Periodic Table Into the 21st Century, Research Studies Press, Baldock, UK, 2004
D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Mathematics of the Periodic Table, Nova Scientific Publishers, New York, 2006
G. Rudorf, The Periodic Classification and the Problem of Chemical Evolution, Whittaker & Co., London, New York, 1900
G. Rudorf, Das periodische System, seine Geschichte und Bedeutung für die chemische Sysytematik, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1904
O. Sacks, Uncle Tungsten, Vintage Books, New York, 2001
R.T. Sanderson, Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements, School Technical Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI, 1971
S. E. Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009
E.R. Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007
E.R. Scerri, Selected Papers on the Periodic Table, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore, 2009
E.R. Scerri, A Very Short Introduction to the Periodic Table, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Also translated into Spanish and Arabic.
E.R. Scerri, Le Tableau Périodique, Son Histoire et sa Signification, EDP Sciences, 2011, (translated by R. Luft); Japanese Translation by Hisao Mabuchi et. al.
C. Schmidt, Das periodische System der chemischen Elementen, Leipzig, 1917.
G.T. Seaborg, W.D. Loveland, The Elements Beyond Uranium, Wiley, New York, 1990
M.S. Sethi, M. Satake, Periodic Tables and Periodic Properties, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India, 1992
H.H. Sisler, Electronic Structure, Properties, and the Periodic Law, Reinhold, New York, 1963
P. Strathern, Mendeleyev's Dream, Hamish-Hamilton, London, 1999
R.S. Timmreck, The Power of the Periodic Table, Royal Palm Publishing, 1991
M. Tweed, Essential Elements, Walker and Company, New York, 2003
F.P. Venable, The Development of the Periodic Law, Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA, 1896
M.E. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, Journal of Chemical Education, Easton PA, 1960
B.D. Wilker, The Mystery of the Periodic Table, Bethlehem Books, New York, 2003
J. Van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969
T. Zoellner, Uranium, Penguin Books, London, 2009
A. Zwertska, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998
Works by D. I. Mendeleev
Nauchnyi arkhiv. Periodicheskii zakon, t. I, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1953
Periodicheskii zakon. Dopolnitel'nye materialy. Klassiki nauki, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1960
Periodicheskii zakon. Klassiki nauki, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1958
From Mark R Leach's paper, Concerning electronegativity as a basic elemental property and why the periodic table is usually represented in its medium form, Journal & PDF.
Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.
When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:
"30 Second Elements presents you with the foundations of chemical knowledge, distilling the 50 most significant chemical elements into half-a-minute individual entries, using nothing more than two pages, 300 words and one picture. Divided into seven chapters, it includes the atomic details of the other 68 elements and the relationships of all 118, as well as biographies of the chemists who transformed scientific knowledge and unlocked the mysteries of life itself. Illustrated with explosive graphics, here is the quickest way to know your arsenic from your europium".
Emili Besalú, Departament de Química i Institut de Química Computacíonal i Catàlisis, Universitat de Girona, C/Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 69, 17071 Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (8), pp 1009-1013
Publication Date (Web)
"A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification. From the information given, the whole procedure can be reproduced by any interested reader having a basic background in statistics and with the help of the supplementary material provided. Intermediate calculations are instructive because they quantify several concepts the students know only at a qualitative level. The final scores representation reveals an unexpected periodic table presenting some interesting features and points for discussion."
Since 1993 – and with its rather bland interface – WebElements has given access to vast quantities of in depth chemical data & information. This is the professional chemist's periodic table:
Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table is undoubtedly the most attractive PT available in web space, but there is more. Clicking around the website gives access to a host of information, pictures & anecdotes from Theo's extraordinary and extensive collection of chemical elements:
Ptable has a super-slick, and very fast interface. It is data/information rich and is available in 50 languages:
Five Formulations Showing The History & Development
But, it was Mendeleev's Tabelle I that was first near complete periodic table formulation of the then known elements (no Group 18 rare gasses, note). Crucially, Mendeleev identified gaps and was able to make predictions about the chemical properties of the missing substances. Plus, Mendeleev promoted his ideas with great energy:
Werner's 1905 Periodic Table is remarkably modern looking. The formulation is a long form that separates transition metals and rare earths, but he guessed wrong on how many existed:
Janet's Left Step formulation of 1928 is one for the purists as it clearly shows the chemical elements arranged into s, p, d & f-blocks of the recently developed quantum mechanical description of atomic structure:
The long form and medium form PTs have electronegativity trending from top-right (electronegative) to bottom left (electropositive), and many aspects of periodicity corollate with electronegativity: atomic radius, first ionisation energy, etc.
Thus, the long form and medium form periodic tables are commonly used in the classroom:
An Alternative Formulation
The internet database contains many, many alternative formulations, and these are often spiral and/or three dimensional. These exemplified by the 1965Alexander DeskTopper Arrangement. To see the variety of formulations available, check out the Spiral & Helical and 3-Dimensional formulations in the database:
The periodic table as a motif is a useful and commonly used infographic template for arranging many types of object with, from 50 to 150 members.
There are numerous examples in the Non-Chemistry section where dozens of completely random representations can be found:
Rogue Elements: What's Wrong with the Periodic Table
An article in New Scientist by Celeste Biever (news editor at Nature), Image by Martin Reznik
Weights gone awry, elements changing position, the ructions of relativity – chemistry's iconic chart is far from stable, and no one knows where it will end
IF IMITATION is the sincerest form of flattery, the periodic table has many true admirers. Typefaces, types of meat and even the Muppets have been ordered in its image. For chemists, knowing an element's position in the periodic table, and the company it keeps, is still the most reliable indicator of its properties – and a precious guide in the search for new substances. "It rivals Darwin's Origin of Species in terms of the impact of bringing order out of chaos," says Peter Edwards of the University of Oxford.
The origins of the periodic table lie in the 19th century, when chemists noticed that patterns began to emerge among the known chemical elements when they... click here to continue:
Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts
A series of BBC World Service Radio Programs, available as MP3 Podcasts, talking about the chemical elements with a strong business/technology bias, rather than the more usual chemical or historical approach:
"As a young boy, neurologist, author and Radiolab favorite Oliver Sacks pored over the pages of the Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, fantasizing about the day that he, like the shy gas Xenon, would find a companion with whom to connect and share. That companion turned out to be the Periodic Table of the Elements itself, a relationship he's never outgrown. He introduces us to the elements that he's known and loved."
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a multimedia project about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long (and continuing) quest to understand what the world is made of – to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. In a nutshell, the project is about the human story behind the Periodic Table of the Elements.
The centerpiece of the project is a three-hour series that premieres Aug. 19, 2015 on PBS. The Mystery of Matter introduces viewers to some of history's most extraordinary scientists:
Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen – and radical interpretation of it – led to the modern science of chemistry
Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements
Dmitri Mendeleev, whose Periodic Table brought order to the growing gaggle of elements
Marie Curie, whose groundbreaking research on radioactivity cracked open a window into the atom
Henry Moseley, whose investigation of atomic number redefined the Periodic Table
Glenn Seaborg, whose discovery of plutonium opened up a whole new realm of elements, still being explored today.
The Mystery of Matter will show not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words, and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together into a coherent, compelling whole is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor best known for his roles on Lost and Person of Interest. Eric Scerri appears as the expert.
From Alpha-Omega, three videos about the discovery of the Periodic Table.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history's most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment.
Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor.
Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements.
Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie's groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today's television audience.:
Similarity is one of the key concepts of the periodic table, which was historically addressed by assessing the resemblance of chemical elements through that of their compounds. A contemporary approach to the similarity among elements is through quantum chemistry, based on the resemblance of the electronic properties of the atoms involved. In spite of having two approaches, the historical one has been almost abandoned and the quantum chemical oversimplified to free atoms, which are of little interest for chemistry. Here we show that a mathematical and computational historical approach yields well-known chemical similarities of chemical elements when studied through binary compounds and their stoichiometries; these similarities are also in agreement with quantum chemistry results for bound atoms. The results come from the analysis of 4,700 binary compounds of 94 chemical elements through the definition of neighbourhoods for every element that were contrasted producing similarity classes. The method detected classes of elements with different patterns on the periodic table, e.g. vertical similarities as in the alkali metals, horizontal ones as in the 4th-row platinum metals and mixed similarities as in the actinoids with some transition metals. We anticipate the methodology here presented to be a starting point for more temporal and even more detailed studies of the periodic table.
Theo Gray collects elements and has put together this awesome Periodic Table Table. This week Reactions explores the science and chemistry going on inside this periodic table.
Step into his office at Wolfram Research, and you'll see a silicon disc engraved with Homer Simpson, a jar of mercury, uranium shells and thousands of other chemical artifacts. But his real DIY masterpiece is the world's first "periodic table table". Within this masterfully constructed table-top lay samples of nearly every element known to man, minus the super-radioactive ones.
Theo Gray is 2011 winner of the ACS Grady Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public. The Periodic Table Table is a testament to Theo's love for chemistry -- as well as his Ebay buying habits -- and is full of fascinating stories.
The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev attempted nothing less than to pull apart the fabric of reality and expose the hidden patterns that lie beneath everything in existence, from shoes and ships and sealing wax to cabbages and kings. The result was something known to almost everyone who has ever been to school: the Periodic Table of the elements. But why this particular arrangement? And why is it still the foundation of chemistry?
The presenter Quentin Cooper is joined by:
Hugh Aldersey-Williams, who since he was a teenager, has collected samples of elements and has drawn on his samples and knowledge to write Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements.
Michael Gordin, Professor of History at Princeton University and the author of A Well-Ordered Thing: Dmitri Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table.
Ann Robinson, Historian at the University of Massachusetts studying the development of the periodic table.
Eugene Babaev, Professor of Chemistry at Moscow State University who maintains both Russian and English websites on Mendeleev and his work.
Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table
Since 1969, the international chemistry community has only held conferences on the topic of the Periodic Table three times, and the 2012 conference in Cusco, Peru was the first in almost a decade. The conference was highly interdisciplinary, featuring papers on geology, physics, mathematical and theoretical chemistry, the history and philosophy of chemistry, and chemical education, from the most reputable Periodic Table scholars across the world. Eric Scerri and Guillermo Restrepo have collected fifteen of the strongest papers presented at this conference, from the most notable Periodic Table scholars. The collected volume will contain pieces on chemistry, philosophy of science, applied mathematics, and science education.
Eric Scerri is a leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of chemistry and especially the periodic table. He is the author of numerous OUP books including A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science (2016) and The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction (2012). Scerri has been a full-time lecturer at UCLA for the past eighteen years where he regularly teaches classes in history and philosophy of science.
Guillermo Restrepo is a chemist specializing in mathematical and philosophy of chemistry with more than sixty scientific papers and book chapters on these and related areas. Restrepo was a professor of chemistry at the Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia) between 2004 and 2017, and since 2014 has been in Germany as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at Leipzig University and more recently as researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences.
1. Heavy, Superheavy...Quo Vadis?
2. Nuclear Lattice Model and the Electronic Configuration of the Chemical Elements
3. Amateurs and Professionals in Chemistry: The Case of the Periodic System
4. The Periodic System: A Mathematical Approach
5. The "Chemical Mechanics" of the Periodic Table
6. The Grand Periodic Function
7. What Elements Belong in Group 3 of the Periodic Table?
8. The Periodic Table Retrieved from Density Functional Theory Based Concepts: The Electron Density, the Shape Function and the Linear Response Function
9. Resemioticization of Periodicity: A Social Semiotic Perspective
10. Organizing the Transition Metals
11. The Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions: A New Periodic Table Founded on Non-Traditional Concepts
12. The Origin of Mendeleev's Discovery of the Periodic System
13. Richard Abegg and the Periodic Table
14. The Chemist as Philosopher: D. I. Mendeleev's "The Unit" and "Worldview"
15. The Philosophical Importance of the Periodic Table
By Steven Murov, a chronology of the events that have resulted in our present periodic table of the elements and
a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev (birthday, 02/08/1834) periodic table (1869).
"From Mendeleev's original design to physicist-favorite "left-step" rendition, the periodic table of elements has gone through many iterations since it was first used to organize elements 150 years ago - each with its own useful insights into the patterns of the elements":
Papers of Mendeleev, Odlings, Newlands & Chancourtois from the 1860s
Peter Wothers from the University of Cambridge with Sir Martyn Poliakoff, of the University of Nottingham discuss the discovery/development of the periodic table in the 1860s with the original publications.
Links to some of the formulations discussed in the video:
Scerri's The Periodic Table: Its Story & Its Significance 2nd Edition
The 2nd Edition of Eric Scerri's well regarded book, The Periodic Table: Its Story & Its Significance has been published by Oxford University Press and is available at all good bookshops, including online.
The Periodic Law, one of the great discoveries in human history, is magnificent in the art of chemistry. Different arrangements of chemical elements in differently shaped Periodic Tables serve for different purposes. "Can this Periodic Table be derived from quantum chemistry or physics?" can only be answered positively, if the internal structure of the Periodic Table is explicitly connected to facts and data from chemistry.
Quantum chemical rationalization of such a Periodic Tables is achieved by explaining the details of energies and radii of atomic core and valence orbitals in the leading electron configurations of chemically bonded atoms. The coarse horizontal pseudo-periodicity in seven rows of 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32 members is triggered by the low energy of and large gap above the 1s and nsp valence shells (2 ≤ n ≤ 6 !). The pseudo-periodicity, in particular the wavy variation of the elemental properties in the four longer rows, is due to the different behaviors of the s and p vs. d and f pairs of atomic valence shells along the ordered array of elements. The so-called secondary or vertical periodicity is related to pseudo-periodic changes of the atomic core shells.
The Periodic Law of the naturally given System of Elements describes the trends of the many chemical properties displayed inside the Chemical Periodic Tables. While the general physical laws of quantum mechanics form a simple network, their application to the unlimited field of chemical materials under ambient 'human' conditions results in a complex and somewhat accidental structure inside the Table that fits to some more or less symmetric outer shape. Periodic Tables designed after some creative concept for the overall appearance are of interest in non-chemical fields of wisdom and art.
150 years ago, in 1869, D. I. Mendeleev and L. Meyer independently published their ideas on the arrangement of the chemical elements in a periodic system. The United Nations and UNESCO therefore declared 2019 the "International Year of the Periodic Table". The question arises what is so special about this "simple table". Embark on a short journey into the history of the periodic table with the author. Get to know its predecessors and see how the Periodic Table of the Elements has evolved over the years. Discover the periodic properties of the elements. Find out what makes the periodic table so interesting and timeless, and see what other ideas there are and have been.
The author, Torsten Schmiermund has worked as a chemical engineer in the chemical industry for many years.
"Can quantum ideas explain chemistry's greatest icon?
Simplistic assumptions about the periodic table lead us astray.
"Such has been the scientific and cultural impact of Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table of the elements that many people assume it is essentially complete. [But] in its 150th year, can researchers simply raise a toast to the table's many dividends, and occasionally incorporate another heavy synthetic element?
"No – this invaluable compilation is still not settled. The placements of certain elements, even hydrogen and helium, are debated."
The article is accompanied by a fantastic illustration by Señor Salme with ideas from the Möbius strip and M.C. Escher:
Nicolay Kultovoy, website, as sent me a copy of his Periodic Table book, entitled [Google Translate]: Book 5. Part 11-08. A single quantum mechanical model of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the periodic table of chemical elements of D.I. Mendeleev.
Chapter 1. Triune (electrons, nucleons, chemical elements) quantum mechanical model of Colt. Three
1.1 the Rules of filling of the orbits of electrons.
1.2 Pyramidal lattice.
1.3 models with cubic sieve.
1.4 models with face-centered lattice.
1.5 quantum Mechanical form of the periodic table of chemical elements.
1.6 Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table.
Chapter 2. A lattice model of the nucleus. Model 62
2.1 Berezovsky G. N.
2.2 I. Boldov
2.5 Manturov V.
2.6 Semikov S. A.
2.7 alpha-partial model of the atomic nucleus.
2.8 Burtaev V.
Chapter 3. Various lattice (crystal) model of the nucleus of an atom. One hundred five
3.0 Luis Pauling.
3.1 Valery Tsimmerman. ADOMAH Periodic Table. Model 3-2.
3.2 Klishev B. V. Model 3-1.
3.3 Garai J. Model 3-1.
3.4 Winger E Model 4-2.
3.5 Norman D. Cook. Model 4-1.
3.6 Gamal A. Nasser. Model 4-1.
3.7 D. Asanbaeva Model 4-1.
3.8 Datsuk V. K.
3.9 Bolotov B.
3.10 Djibladze M. I.
3.11 Dyukin S. V.
3.12 A. N. Mishin.
3.13 M. M. Protodyakonov
3.14 Dry I. N.
3.15 Ulf-G. Meißner.
3.16 Foreign works.
Chapter 4. Long-period periodic table. One hundred eighty one
4.1 long-Period representation of the periodic table.
4.2 Artamonov, G. N.
4.3 Galiulin R. V.
4.4 E. K. Spirin
4.5. Khoroshavin L.
4.6 Step form proposed by Thomsen and Bohr.
4.7 Symmetrical shape of the periodic table.
Chapter 5. Construction of a periodic table based on the structure of orbitals. Two hundred twenty one
5.1 construction of the periodic table on the basis of orbitals.
5.2 Short V. M.
5.3 Kulakov, the Novosibirsk table of multiplets.
Chapter 6. Atomic structure. Two hundred forty eight
6.1 Table of isotopes.
6.2 the structure of the orbitals.
St Catharine's College: Celebrating the Periodic Table
The United Nations have proclaimed 2019 to be the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements since it is the 150th anniversary of the publication of Dmitri Mendeleev's first Periodic Table. But was it really the first?
St Catharine's College, Cambridge, in the UK, is proud to exhibit its fine collection of material relating to the early development of the Periodic Table. Starting from the first list of elements which emerged around the time of the French Revolution in the late 1780s, and the first list of atomic masses drawn up by Manchester chemist John Dalton, we explore why six different chemists from around the world each came up with their own versions of the iconic table in the 1860s.
"Curated by periodic table superfan Peter Wothers, the main body of the exhibition is a staggering collection of historic books that trace the creation of chemistry's roadmap.
"This is an unprecedented record of the periodic table's origins, from early alchemical texts through to original copies of Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 Elementary Treatise of Chemistry – the first true list of elements – and notes on the discoveries of (among others) John Newlands, Julius Lothar Meyer through to Dmitri Mendeleev".
A PBS video explaining how neutron star mergers lead to the formation of heavy elements, and how a merger only 80 million years before the formation of the solar system, 4.5 billions years ago, seeded the Earth wth the heavy elements of the periodic table:
A Collection of Essays by Chemists, Philosophers, Historians, and Educators
Edited by Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi published by Oxford University Press
A collection of 14 edited papers from historians of chemistry, philosophers of chemistry, and chemists with epistemological and educational concerns
Contains educational debates concerning how to teach and present the concept of elements
Provides a beneficial, scholarly, unique, and understandable overview of the current debate on the chemical elemen.
The concept of a chemical element is foundational within the field of chemistry, but there is wide disagreement over its definition. Even the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) claims two distinct definitions: a species of atoms versus one which identifies chemical elements with the simple substances bearing their names. The double definition of elements proposed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry contrasts an abstract meaning and an operational one. Nevertheless, the philosophical aspects of this notion are not fully captured by the IUPAC definitions, despite the fact that they were crucial for the construction of the Periodic Table. Although rich scientific literature on the element and the periodic table exists as well as a recent growth in the philosophy of chemistry, scholars are still searching for a definitive answer to this important question: What is an element?
Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi have teamed up to assemble a group of scholars to provide readers an overview of the current state of the debate on chemical elements from epistemological, historical, and educational perspectives. What Is A Chemical Element? fills a gap for the benefit of the whole chemistry community-experimental researchers, philosophers, chemistry educators, and anyone looking to learn more about the elements of the periodic table.
CHAPTER 1: The many questions raised by the dual concept of 'element' Eric R. Scerri
CHAPTER 2: From simple substance to chemical element Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
CHAPTER 3: Dmitrii Mendeleev's concept of the chemical element prior to the Periodic Law Nathan M. Brooks
CHAPTER 4: Referring to chemical elements and compounds: Colourless airs in late eighteenth century chemical practice Geoffrey Blumenthal, James Ladyman, and Vanessa Seifert
CHAPTER 5: The Changing Relation Between Atomicity and Elementarity: From Lavoisier to Dalton Marina P. Banchetti-Robino
CHAPTER 6: Origins of the Ambiguity of the Current Definition of Chemical Element Joseph E. Earley
CHAPTER 7: The Existence of Elements, and the Elements of Existence Robin F. Hendry
CHAPTER 8: Kant, Cassirer, and the Idea of Chemical Element Farzad Mahootian
CHAPTER 9: The Operational Definition of the Elements: A Philosophical Reappraisal Joachim Schummer
CHAPTER 10: Substance and Function: The case of Chemical Elements Jean-Pierre Llored
CHAPTER 11: Making elements Klaus Ruthenberg
CHAPTER 12: A formal approach to the conceptual development of chemical element Guillermo Restrepo
CHAPTER 13: Chemical Elements and Chemical Substances: Rethinking Paneth's Distinction Sara N. Hjimans
CHAPTER 14: The dual conception of the chemical element: epistemic aspects and implications for chemical education Elena Ghibaudi, Alberto Regis, and Ezio Roletto
Appendix: Reference list on the philosophy of chemistry
There is no particular connection between each of the elements and the book associated with it in the table, with the exception of: H, He, N, Ti, V, Nb, Ag, La, Au, Ac, U, Pu & Og.
The following is a list of references for each of the 118 books featured on Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements. Books published in languages other than English are shown in color. They include the Catalan, Croatian, French, German, Italian, Norwegian & Spanish languages:
J. Ridgen, Hydrogen,
the Essential Element, Harvard University Press,
Cambridge, MA, 2002.
W.M. Sears Jr., Helium, The Disappearing Element,
Springer, Berlin, 2015.
K. Lew, The
Alkali Metals, Rosen Central, New York, 2009.
S. Esteban Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico,
Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009. (Spanish)
E.R. Scerri. The
Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.
U. Lagerkvist, The Periodic Table and a Missed Nobel Prize, World Scientific, Singapore, 2012.
W.B. Jensen, Mendeleev
on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905, Dover,
Mineola, NY, 2005.
M. Kaji, H. Kragh, G. Pallo,
(eds.), Early Responses to the Periodic System, Oxford University, Press, New York, 2015.
E. Mazurs, Graphic
Representation of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, Alabama University Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1974.
T. Gray, The Elements: A Visual Exploration of
Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog &
N.C. Norman, Periodicity
and the s- and p-Block Elements, Oxford University
Press, Oxford, 2007.
M. Gordin, A
Well-Ordered Thing, Dimitrii
Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table, 2nd edition, Basic Books, New York, 2019.
S. Kean, The
Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown & Co., New
P.A. Cox, The
Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989.
J. Emsley, The
13th Element: The Sordid Tale of Murder, Fire, and Phosphorus, Wiley, New York, 2002.
P. Parsons, G. Dixon, The
Periodic Table: A Field Guide to the Elements, Qurcus, London, 2014.
P. Levi, The
Periodic Table, Schocken, New York, 1995.
B.D. Wiker, The
Mystery of the Periodic Table, Bethlehem Books,
New York, 2003.
H. Alderesey-Williams, Periodic Tales, Viking Press, 2011.
P. Strathern, Mendeleyev's Dream, Hamish-Hamilton, London, 1999.
D. Scott, Around
the World in 18 Elements, Royal Society of
Chemistry, London, 2015.
W. Collings, Gerhard Welsch, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, ASM International, Geauga County, Ohio, 1994.
D. Rehder, Bioinorganic
Vanadium Chemistry, Wiley-Blackwell, Weinheim,
K. Chapman, Superheavy, Bloomsbury Sigma, New York, 2019.
E.R. Scerri, E. Ghibaudi
(eds.), What is an Element? Oxford
University Press, New York, 2020.
M. Soon Lee, Elemental
Haiku, Ten Speed Press, New York, 2019.
J. Emsley, Nature's
Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements,
Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
T. James, Elemental, Robinson, London, 2018.
E.R. Scerri, The
Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007.
H. Rossotti, Diverse
Atoms, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
P. Ball, A Very Short Introduction to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2004.
I. Asimov, The
Building Blocks of the Universe, Lancer Books, New
J. Browne, Seven
Elements that Changed the World, Weidenfeld and
Nicholson, London, 2013.
N. Raos, Bezbroj
Lica Periodnog Sustava Elemenata, Technical
Museum of Zagreb, Croatia, 2010. (Croatian)
P. Strathern, The Knowledge, The Periodic Table,
Quadrille Publishing, London, 2015.
A. Ede, The Chemical Element, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006.
A. Stwertka, The
Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
E.R. Scerri, A
Tale of Seven Elements, Oxford University Press,
New York, 2013.
H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007.
M. Fontani, M. Costa, M.V. Orna
(eds.), The Lost Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2015.
M. Seegers, T. Peeters (eds.), Niobium: Chemical
Properties, Applications and Environmental Effects, Nova Science Publishers,
New York, 2013.
E.R. Scerri, Selected Papers on the Periodic Table, Imperial College Press, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore, 2009.
A. Dingle, The
Periodic Table, Elements with Style, Kingfisher,
Richmond, B.C. Canada, 2007.
G. Rudorf, Das
periodische System, seine Geschichte und Bedeutung für die chemische
Sysytematik, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1904. (German)
I. Nechaev, G.W. Jenkins, The Chemical Elements, Tarquin
Publications, Publications, Norfolk, UK, 1997.
P. Davern, The
Periodic Table of Poems, No Starch Press, San
C. Fenau, Non-ferrous metals from Ag to Zn, Unicore, Brussells, 2002.
J. Van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, A History of the
First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969.
M. Tweed, Essential
Elements, Walker and Company, New York, 2003.
M.E. Weeks, Discovery
of the Elements, Journal of Chemical Education,
Easton PA, 1960.
P. Wothers, Antimony Gold Jupiter's Wolf, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.
W. Zhu, Chemical
Elements in Life, World Scientific Press,
O. Sacks, Uncle
Tungsten, Vintage Books, New York, 2001.
Workshop on Teaching 3d-4s Orbitals Presented by Dr. Eric Scerri
Dr. Eric Scerri, UCLA Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, discusses many of the issues concerning the periodic table: the aufbau principle, Madelung's rule, the electronic and anomalous electronic structures of the transition elements, the Sc2+ ion, the Janet Left Step, Group 3: Sc, Y, Lu, Lr vs. Sc, Y, La, Ac, atomic spectroscopy, etc.
Many of the topics that concern those of us interested in the periodic table are discussed.
The Chemogenesis analysis – by Mark Leach – tells the story of how chemical structure and reactivity emerge from the periodic table of the elements. This video is a rapid dash through the story... which unfolds over many pages of the Chemogenesis Web Book.
The chemical elements are the "conserved principles" or "kernels" of chemistry that are retained when substances are altered. Comprehensive overviews of the chemistry of the elements and their compounds are needed in chemical science. To this end, a graphical display of the chemical properties of the elements, in the form of a Periodic Table, is the helpful tool. Such tables have been designed with the aim of either classifying real chemical substances or emphasizing formal and aesthetic concepts. Simplified, artistic, or economic tables are relevant to educational and cultural fields, while practicing chemists profit more from "chemical tables of chemical elements."
Such tables should incorporate four aspects:
(i) typical valence electron configurations of bonded atoms in chemical compounds (instead of the common but chemically atypical ground states of free atoms in physical vacuum);
(ii) at least three basic chemical properties (valence number, size, and energy of the valence shells), their joint variation across the elements showing principal and secondary periodicity;
(iii) elements in which the (sp)8, (d)10, and (f)14 valence shells become closed and inert under ambient chemical conditions, thereby determining the "fix-points" of chemical periodicity;
(iv) peculiar elements at the top and at the bottom of the Periodic Table.
While it is essential that Periodic Tables display important trends in element chemistry we need to keep our eyes open for unexpected chemical behavior in ambient, near ambient, or unusual conditions. The combination of experimental data and theoretical insight supports a more nuanced understanding of complex periodic trends and non-periodic phenomena.
This book provides an overview of the origins and evolution of the periodic system from its prehistory to the latest synthetic elements and possible future additions. The periodic system of the elements first emerged as a comprehensive classificatory and predictive tool for chemistry during the 1860s. Its subsequent embodiment in various versions has made it one of the most recognizable icons of science.
Based primarily on a symposium titled "150 Years of the Periodic Table" and held at the August 2019 national meeting of the American Chemical Society, this book describes the origins of the periodic law, developments that led to its acceptance, chemical families that the system struggled to accommodate, extension of the periodic system to include synthetic elements, and various cultural aspects of the system that were celebrated during the International Year of the Periodic Table.
Contributors include: Ann Robinson, Gary Patterson, Gisela Boek, Mary Virginia Orna, Simon Cotton, Jay Labinger, Kit Chapman, Virginia Trimble, Eric Scerri, William Jensen, Pekka Pyykko, Daniel Rabinovich, Carmen Giunta, Gregory Girolami, Vera Mainz
The following article is intended as a brief progress report from the group that has been tasked with mak-ing recommendations to IUPAC about the constitu-tion of group 3 of the periodic table (https://iupac.org/project/2015-039-2-200). It is also intended as a call for feedback or suggestions from members of IUPAC and other readers.
"Despite the periodic table having been discovered by chemists half a century before the discovery of electronic structure, modern designs are invariably based on physicists' definition of periods. This table is a chemists' table, reverting to the phenomenal periods that led to the table's discovery. In doing so, the position of hydrogen is clarified."
"We show, by analysing the space between 1800 and 2021, that the system has converged towards its current stable structure through six stages, respectively characterised by the finding of elements (1800–1826), the emergence of the core structure of the system (1826–1860), its organic chemistry bias (1860–1900) and its further stabilisation (1900–1948), World War 2 new chemistry (1948–1980) and the system final stabilisation (1980–)."
Periodic tables representative of each period in history. Families of similar elements (sets sharing colour) shown in each table summarise the patterns and do not necessarily imply continuity nor simultaneity of the families throughout the period: