There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
Use the buttons to select from the 1000+ Periodic Tables in the database:
Circular, Spiral and Helical Periodic Table formulations, by date:
The French geologist , Alexandre-Émile
Béguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make
use of atomic weights to produce a classification of periodicity. He drew
the elements as a continuous spiral around a metal cylinder divided into
16 parts. The atomic weight of oxygen was taken as 16 and was used as
the standard against which all the other elements were compared. Tellurium
was situated at the centre, prompting vis tellurique, or telluric
Many thanks to Peter Wothers – and courtesy of the Master and Fellows of St Catharine's College, Cambridge – comes a high quality image of the original 1862 formulation. Click here, or on the image to enlarge:
Watch Peter Wothers 'unravel' and show Prof. Martyn Poliakoff this first periodic table at 17min 50sec into the YouTube video below:
Some more information:
Chancourtois' original formulation
includes elements in their correct places, selected compounds and some
elements in more than one place. The helix was an important advance in
that it introduced the concept of periodicity, but it was flawed.
formulation was rediscovered in the 1889 (P. J. Hartog, "A First Foreshadowing
of the Periodic Law" Nature 41, 186-8 (1889)), and since then it has appeared
most often in a simplified form that emphasizes the virtues and eliminates
its flaws. [Thanks to CG
for this info.]
Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs' spiral "Programme of Atomechanics". Programm der Atomechanik oder die Chemie eine Mechanik de Pantome, Augustus Hageboek, Iowa City, IA (1867).
Hinrichs' system is based on the relationship of what he called: "pantogens, with its atoms called panatoms, which explains the numerical relations of atomic weights and gives a simple classification of the elements."
This classification system culminated in 1867 in his spiral periodic table, which better clarified the groupings of elements. Hinrichs' classification, while distinctly different from the other periodic tables of this period, "seems to capture many of the primary periodicity relationships seen in the modern periodic table... it is not cluttered by attempts to show secondary kinship relationships." (Scerri)
Johnstone Stoney's Spiral, taken from A. E. Garrett's The Periodic Law (page 167, 1909 pub. D. Appleton And Company). The reference is given – page 167 – is: Phil. Mag. , 4, pp 411 et seq.; Proc. Roy. Soc., 1888, p115.
Mazurs' reproduction (p. 82) of a periodic table formulation by Frank Austin Gooch and Claude Frederic Walker, from Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry, Macmillan, London and New York, p. 8/9, 1905 (ref Mazurs p.188):
Thanks to Laurie Palmer for the tip, and to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details.
"The arrangement of the elements in three series of eight groups each may be represented by a model in which large and small wooden balls, on a spiral wire, represent the common and rare elements respectively; those balls falling in the same vertical column representing elements in the same groups":
Hackh's spiral periodic table of 1914, from Das Synthetisches System
der Atome, Hamburg, Hephaestos.
Philip Stewart says:
"I believe that Hackh's 1914 spiral is of special interest it is the first spiral to take account of Mosley's atomic numbers, and the first to show successively larger pairs of coils. It is also interesting because H stands alone in the centre. I have only seen Mazurs' redrawn (as usual!) version, but Mazurs gives SciAm Supplement 1919 as one reference."
"The elements are arranged in order of atomic weights on an eccentric spiral. The four sets of curves include positions of similar elements. The first small turn carries H and He; the remainder of the inert elements and the halogens are on successive small turns in analogous positions.
"On the next larger turn are found the alkali, alkaline-earth, and aluminum family elements.
"The long periods require larger turns and the period containing the rare-earth elements requires the longest turn of all. Elements of the same group are found in the same plane passing through the axis of the spiral."
Janet's Helicoidal Classification, essentially his left-step formulation in its spiral version (ref. Charles Janet, La Classification Hélicoïdale des Éléments Chimiques. Beauvais: Imprimerie Départementale de l'Oise. 1928). Information supplied by Philip Stewart:
Janet produced six papers, in French, which are almost unobtainable as he had them privately printed and didn't distribute them properly. The shell-filling diagram dated from November 1930, six years before Madelung. Note that Janet uses Bohr's radial quantum number, k, which is l+1. In the text he formulates the n+k-1 rule. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.
Libedinski's Periodic Classification of The Elements
Simón Libedinski: PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS, from his book: Dialectical Materialism, in Nature, in Society and in Medicine, Ediciones Ercilla, Santiago de Chile, 1938, pp 56-57:
"Mendeleev's Table, like that of Werner and others, are not, however, more than flat projections of the actual ordering of the elements. There is as much difference between Mendeleev's Table and the real group as there is between the planisphere and a rotating globe. A rational representation, starting from the simplest element – the negative electron –, would be a spiral line that, surrounding said central point, first gave a small turn, touching only two bodies: hydrogen and helium. From here it would jump to a much larger orbit, in which it would touch eight bodies and then another equal, also of eight. From here, another jump to a much larger orbit, comprising eighteen bodies, and then another equal; from this point one jumps to another orbit, again augmented, comprising thirty-two bodies (including rare earths); and when this round is over, the last one begins, to vanish a short distance.
"In the dialectical grouping of the elements, which I have the satisfaction of exposing, the classic arrangement of the same is respected. Only the arrangement changes, which instead of being rectilinear, is spiral.
So I managed to suppress the anomaly of the double columns, and comfortably incorporate the important group of rare earths. I can not give my graphic the name of Tabla, because it is just the opposite: it aims to give the idea of ??space, and of movement in space.
The double columns of the Classic Table can be found here as well, but only if you look through the whole, considered as a planetary system of conical shape, with the electron at the vertex. Effectively: column 1 coincides, through space, with column 1a; column 4 with column 4 bis, etc.
The dialectical grouping also allows us to easily appreciate the remarkable dialectical character of the properties of matter: these properties are repeated periodically. These are the "returns" to qualities or previous properties, but not exactly equal to those, but only similar: and this resemblance, only to a certain extent. The difference is that that quality, those properties or some characteristic, are exalted to each dialectical return."
Contributed by Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, Cusco, Peru, March 2018 (using Google Translation)
From his paper, Periodicity Patterns of The Elements in J. Chem. Educ., 1939, 16 (7), p 335, K. Gordon Irwin presents a Periodic Chart of the Elements in Spiral Form. The paper is used to justify this formulation in terms of periodicity:
John D Clark's 1950 chart. It looks as though the experience of producing the 1949 version for Life Magazine caused him to have a radical rethink. John D. Clark, A modern periodic chart of chemical elements. Science,111, 661-663 (1950). Information supplied by Philip Stewart.
An interesting periodic table from 1964, found at an estate sale. The text says that the elements are: "arranged according to the atomic number Z and column relation to the rare gases", and is by Samuel Ruben (wikipedia).
The Alexander Arrangement of Elements is a 3D periodic table concept based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, and, like the first representation of elements in periods by de Chancourtois, connects every element data box in unbroken order.
Roy Alexander, a Brooklyn born science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, has told me in a personal communication: "I came up with the idea (being ignorant of anything but the flat Sargent Welch charts) in 1965. I wasn't able to patent [the downslant in the p-block] until 1971." (U.S.Patent #3,581,409)
At the time Roy had no idea that others had employed a similar technique to build a 3D table - including the very first periodic table developer, de Chancourtois, who is often credited with being the original discoverer of the periodicity of elements and the originator of the three-dimensional method of element arrangement and representation.
These 3D forms attempt to return the Seaborg separated f-block to its proper position in the table rather than remaining exiled. This, and contemporary attitudes about Hydrogen as being in more families than one - is uniquely addressed in Roy's 3D models.
Subsequent study of the Periodic Law and the periodic table's value in education convinced Roy that the basic rationale for developing the Alexander Arrangement of Elements was only one of the many good reasons for producing it for the public to share, so he sought and was granted a U.S. patent on the p-block downslant in order to manufacture and market the AAEs as teaching/learning aids.
Roy Alexander's goal of introducing the AAE into classrooms, laboratories, chemistry textbooks, and reference material remains the same today, but rather than replacing the conventional charts, its niche in education is at the very point that a lesson on arrangement of atoms into a chart begins. Element sequencing (vs. 24 breaks/gaps) credits the chart as well as the Periodic Law, which establishes subsequent confidence in the common flat charts, much as the world globe establishes the reality, and flat printed projections - maps - are vital (and relished) for convenience.
The first commercial production of Alexander Arrangements was in 1995, when Roy pioneered by constructing a website - periodictable.com - for marketing. Three versions were printed: two versions for student entry of element symbols, the larger die-cut for easier assembly.
An even larger model was produced with basic element data printed in the boxes, also die cut. These were printed on white card stock, with black ink.
Another version (below) was produced in conjunction with ATMI's annual report in 2000. This was added to Roy's product offerings, called the DeskTopper, and is still available. They are die cut to form a 7.25" high model with the f-block position attached after La, but can be altered to put La on the f-block. (See AAE Features at the top of this page.)
Marketing the Alexander Arrangements was moved to AllPeriodicTables.com in cooperation with Theodore Gray in 2006, who purchased the PeriodicTable.com domain name and funded the production of Roy's newest model, illustrated with Theo's amazing element photos.
For the first time, the elements beyond those naturally occurring have been omitted from a modern periodic table, simplifying initiation to chemistry. This factor denies the concept of obsolescence, and this version has been called the Forever Periodic Table. Details of this new 3D periodic table model kit have been placed at 3DPeriodicTable.com.
Monument to the periodic table, in front of the Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia. The monument honors Dmitri Mendeleev, and is by the artist Karol Lacko, academic sculptor born in 1938 in Spiská Noá Ves, and who died in 2007. (Many thanks to Fathi Habashi for finding this information.)
In his 1974 book Edward G. Mazurs (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press gives a comprehensive analysis of periodic table formulations.
Hyde's Periodic Relationships of The Elements (updated)
I received an email from Jeremy Sachs saying:
"Gelest don't seem to offer [this periodic table formulation] anymore, and because their version heavily modifies Hyde's original table, I've reproduced the 1975 version of his table with the permission of his surviving relatives."
"I designed a spiral periodic table which was published first in my book The Divine Plot: Astrology, Reincarnation, Cosmology and History (George Allen & Unwin, London, 1986) which attempts to correlate the PT with astrological understanding of the inherent properties of the signs and planets":
Gary Katz says: "The Periodic RoundTable is a unique three-dimensional model of the Periodic Table, an elegant spatial arrangement of the chemical elements that is both symmetrical and mathematical. It is the ultimate refinement of Mendeleev's scheme, one that will take us into the twenty-first century and beyond. The Periodic RoundTable possesses such a high degree of order because it is based exclusively on the system of ideal electronic configuration, which in turn is the basis of periodicity among the elements. In the Periodic RoundTable the electron shells are filled in the same order as the elements themselves appear, demonstrating a holistic relationship between the chemistry of the elements and the orbital descriptions of their electrons."
On John Pratt's website there is an article that is both an introduction to Helen Pawlowski's model of the atom and to her Circular Periodic Table, as well as a book review of her book The Visualization of the Atom (Riverton, UT: Pawlowski Family Trust, 1990). First Helen and her work are introduced, then the model's strengths and weaknesses are summarized:
Circular Model of the Atom: Opposition in the Elements
The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.
The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom.
Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.
Melinda Green writes: "This is an alternative version of the standard chemistry Periodic Table of the Elements that I developed. In high school I learned the basic concept of element families and how they were arranged into columns to show the periodicity in their electrical properties. I was fascinated with the idea, but immediately wondered whether there might be better ways of graphically showing those relationships." read lots more here
"As a curator of the Eugènia Balcells Foundation, I would like to share with you the project to celebrate the 2019 UN decreed International Year of the Periodic Table (IYPT).
"Eugènia Balcells included the mural Homage to The Elements in her exhibition FREQUENCIES at the Santa Monica Art Center in Barcelona in 2009. The exhibit incorporates the spectrum of light that identifies each element. The result is not just another presentation of the periodic table, but a tribute to the set of elements that, in their intertwining, make up the material world and to those spectra that, as Eugènia Balcells like to say are: 'the voice of matter'.
"Over the last few years, the mural Homage to The Elements has also been incorporated at the Pascual Vila Research and Development Center of the CSIC in Barcelona, at the Science Museum, CosmoCaixa, in Barcelona and we are finishing the formalities for its installation in the Universities of Tarragona and Girona. It has also been acquired by the Technische Universität Berlin, and by the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, both in Germany.
In the city of NY, where Eugènia lived for more than thirty years, the mural has found its place at the Maxine Greene High School for Imaginative Inquiry, located at the Martin Luther King Educational Campus in New York, in front of the Lincoln Center, the great ally artistic ally of the School.
"The Eugènia Balcells Foundation wants to actively collaborate in the celebration proposed by the United Nations offering to the educational world the mural Homage to The Elements, this sign that represents universal unity, and records the human knowledge acquired to this day."
"I am a Physics Prof. at Kyoto University, Japan. My field of study is experimental superconductivity. I recently found the work by Schaltenbrand in 1920 on your website. One might say that Elementouch is a re-invention of Schaltenbrand's, but by arranging the element names helically on three cylinders, its usefulness has been improved":
"To establish a new classification system components, Pierre Demers was assumed that the electronic structure of the atom contains one of my all others according to the equation Z = 117 to Z = 1. It is taking my electrons and removing them from my material that can reproduce all the elements and thus repeat the structure of your table. That is why this new organization is called the System Québécium":
"I am a self-taught, underground cartoonist - around the end of 2005 I began studying ether physics, & mid 2006 orgone biophysics. End of 2008 I was going through old note & sketch books while compiling pieces for a poetry book, & came across a sketch I did in 2003 of the first 20 elements of the periodic table in a spiral. I had just begun studying the ether vortex model of the atom & thought a vortex model of the periodicity might be a fun experiment so I played with it more. I didn't remember what inspired the original concept sketch 5 years later, but my guess was I had stayed up too late watching public television again. It probably had to do with some 4-Dimension ring concepts I was playing with, but by 2008 I was thoroughly involved in 3-D biophysics & wasn't thinking back to earlier thought experiments I had done."
"The compositions are largely artistic, naturalistic, & most are like steps on a story board, showing transformation of the table, distorting from from rectangular to spiral, then splitting between metals & noble gases like the wings of a bird, flapping, then joining again to make the spiral (then the spiral inflates to make a flower, wilts into a spider's web) - there are many transitions I have in mind, but I my work is not limited to the periodic table.":
Continuum of Elemental Properties is a user-friendly teaching tool that
is intended to accompany the Periodic Table of Elements. Hydrogen is
shown at the center, atomic numbers and symbols form an unbroken spiral,
and element groups 1 through 18 (noble gases, alkali metals, halogens,
etc.) are displayed by colored arcs. Beginning chemistry students can
visually see the continuity of atomic numbers in the Cyclical Continuum
as a way to introduce and orient them to the Periodic Table. Advanced
chemistry students can test their understanding of the Periodic Table's
organization by applying that knowledge to interpretation of the Cyclical
From the Garuda Biodynamics web site: "The Gyroscopic Periodic Table has been a natural progression developed from a study of Soil Science, Dr Steiner's Agriculture and Medical Courses, Astronomy and Astrology."
"The periodic table epitomizes chemistry, and evolving representations of chemical periodicity should reflect the ongoing advances in chemical understanding. In this respect, the traditional Mendeleev-style table appears sub-optimal for describing a variety of important higher-order periodicity patterns that have become apparent in the post-Mendeleevian quantal era. In this paper we analyze the rigorous mathematical origins of chemical periodicity in terms of the quantal nodal features of atomic valence orbitals, and we propose a variety of alternative 2D/3D display symbols, tables, and models.":
Tomás A. Carroll's Spherical & Russian Doll Formulations
Tomás A. Carroll has devised a spherical formulation of the Periodic Table, and from this a nested Russian Doll formulation.
Tomás writes: "I accept your veiled challenge that it is not possible to formulate a spherical periodic table and propose two solutions for your consideration. The EXCEL spreadsheet shows exactly how I transformed the quantum numbers from the standard 4D Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates in 3D, using two different centers. I included cylindrical coordinates too, just for fun."
Angular Form of the Periodic Table by Kamal Akhtar
"The complete periodic table is consists of two circles, principal circle and auxiliary circle. The principal circle is consist of seven tracks (periods) and eighteen sectors (groups). The auxiliary circle is consist of only two tracks, inner track and outer track. There is no division of sectors in auxiliary circle." Read more in a word.doc. View the full size PT.
KAMAL AKHTAR INSTITUTE OF NICE TEACHING EDUCATION AND LEARNING
1, RAJ COLONY, BEHIND J.V. JAIN INTER COLLEGE
OLD KALSIA ROAD, SAHARANPUR-247001 (U.P.), INDIA
"I'm a figurative sculptor, living in Minneapolis MN. A few years ago, while looking at a two dimensional version of the periodic table, I too wondered if it would be possible to create a Periodic Table without any visual breaks in its numerical sequence. Although I had never seen anything other than the rectangular flat table, I thought I might be able to solve this spatial continuity problem three dimensionally. I also wanted to limit myself to using a 3-D "line" that had no sudden changes in direction. After coming up with what I thought was a new and unique sculptural resolution, I put the project aside. Only recently (after re-building my paper model out of a translucent material) did I do some research on the web, and immediately recognized the strong likeness between my version and the Alexander Arrangement. Even more surprising was my models' visual similarity to Crookes' figure eight design from some 111 years ago.
"Although there are obviously many inventive and well thought out responses to this design challenge, I believe that my solution is a unique one, and an improvement over some of the previous three dimensional forms. The "line" of my model allows for contiguous numerical placement of all the symbols (while maintaining group continuity along its vertical axis), even as the shape of its plan view makes visual reference to the well-known symbol for infinity. What's more, in my version, the Lanthanide & Actinide series do not occupy a separate field but are fully integrated into the continuous linear flow. This piece, which I've entitled "In-Finite Form" speaks to the mystery of the endless flow of space, even as it folds back onto itself within the confines of a finite system."
This spiral, inspired by Stewart's Chemical Galaxy, is based on the modern periodic table with the elements strictly arranged in the increasing order of their atomic number and in accordance with their electron configurations.
The spiral separates the elements into the eight dominant 'A' groups of normal elements, and the eight corresponding 'B' subgroups of transitional and inner transitional elements, which have been incorporated as the inner spiral. The organisation of the elements closely follows H.G. Deming's 1923 Periodic Table where A B numeration was first utilized to correspond the characteristic oxides of the 'B' groups to those of the 'A' groups.
The result of this design places Group VIII, the triads Fe, Co, Ni, etc. as a subgroup of Group 0 (or 18 Helium Group) which conflicts with some modern periodic tables, though broadly agrees with Deming's original proposal (VIIIA and VIIIB).
Hydrogen, which generally cannot be considered as part of any group, has been placed with the Fluorine group VII which appears its natural place in the spiral.
Common names have been used where practicable to make the table more educational and reader-friendly. Element symbols have been included in the expanded poster of this table.
"The modern periodic table is based on quantum numbers and blocks, many problems faced the scientists and researchers when arranging the elements in the traditional and modern periodic tables as placing some elements in the incorrect place as (He) Helium, (La) Lanthanide and many others elements..." read the full pdf article here:
"My name is Marco Piazzalunga, I'm from Bergamo, Italy and i'm 12
I am very interested about chemistry and about your website
dedicated to the periodic tables of elements.
I've made one graphic version of the periodic table based on a
"round" model and i would like to know your opinion about it.
I'm sending you the file attached. I hope you enjoy it":
The design of the 2012 Alexander Arrangement of Elements (AAE) follows the principles of a three-dimensional model developed by Roy Alexander in 1965: a printed representation of element information based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, with every element data box physically and visually contiguous and continuous within the sequence of atomic numbers in generally accepted element property related columns - "...the periodic table the way it's supposed to be".
This is made possible by wrapping, folding, and joining the printed material and employing the patented p-block downslant of the element data boxes to allow the end element of a period to be adjacent to the first element of the next period.
Several unique features separate it from the previous four versions of the AAE
The visual effect mirrors the look of Theodore Gray's series of posters, books, element cards and periodictable.com website and apps for the Apple iPod and iPad.
Each element box is dominated by a Theodore Gray element photograph, with the element name, letter symbol, and atomic number relatively large, often overlapping the photo.
The period numbers (below, right) are printed at the interface of the end/beginning of the periods, folded 90 degrees on the model, and the blocks and columns (old & new numbers), are identified below the data boxes - and in the case of the Actinoids, above.
The element blocks connect at a central nexus (below, center), with the d- and f-blocks leaving, looping, and returning there, thus allowing the shorter period gaps above to be closed. For best visibility of the element data, these loops pinch together near the intersection. The p-block bends in a half-circle to join the s-block at the corner described above, with a patented 'downslant' where the element boxes gracefully sweep down a full box height (above) within this block to allow elimination of the "carriage return" effect: each period ending on the row above the next.
The extended Hydrogen data box, a characteristic of all Alexander Arrangements, is more extended in this model, reaching for the multiple positions of the H box that are still under discussion among experts. The extra-extended Hydrogen box, illustrated by a composite image of a hydrogen cloud in space, (above, right) loops over the s- and p-blocks. Starting up from behind the corner of Helium & Lithium, inside the half-helical tube to loop over Helium, attach above Lithium, Beryllium and then Carbon as the loop descends (joining the ascending portion) over the data boxes of the s- & p-blocks, terminating in contact with Fluorine, Neon, and corner-on to Neon.
The model size is the same as the previous Display Version of the AAE, but has fewer element data boxes, due to there being no photos of the lab created elements and for simplification of the educational application - introduction to property periodicity and organization of element data - the elements with atomic numbers over 94 are not included (see addendum).
Where the f-block begins and ends, between Barium and Lutetium, the f-block is held perpendicular to the only flat segment of the element display by a pair of triangular braces, which also create the flat area, aligning the s-block with the 'pinch' of the d-block. This is particularly apparent from the bottom, when the model is supported from above. (see below)
Designed by Roy Alexander, a science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, the Adobe Illustrator art for the model was started by Ann Grafelman, and continued by Roy from mid 2011 through November of 2012.
Photos were provided by Theodore Gray, and Element Collection funded the printing and die cutting performed by Strine Printing in York, Pennsylvania.
The model kit was first offered at Theo's PeriodicTable.com, then at Roy's AllPeriodicTables.com and the new 3dPeriodicTable.com, which site is dedicated to the 3D Forever Periodic Table only, with add-ons, application suggestions, and descriptions and commentary of all sorts.
Assembly instructions and step photos, as well as a number or completed model color photographs are included with the kit. These were developed with prototype models, and while functional, have been upgraded and accompanied by an assembly video at AlexanderArrangementOfElements.com/3D
Text relating to the abbreviation of the ever increasing number of elements is explained at two places on the 3D AAE illustrated periodic table model kit. One will remain with the model and one is removed at the time of assembly.
That which remains runs under the Actinoids and the d-block elements, where the lab created elements might ordinarily be expected to be found, says:
The lab created elements ordinarily found in this part of a periodic table are not to be found in nature, there can be no photographs of them, so nothing needs to be added to this element photo periodic table - ever - so it will never be obsolete, a Forever Periodic Table.
That which is removed says:
Naturally-occurring elements have been numbered variously, generally between 80 and 96, all for cogent scientific reasons.
For easier teaching and learning, we have included on this periodic table only the 92 elements actually currently existing on Earth and in the remainder of the Universe, and adding Technetium and Promethium, which, although they may have no stable forms, serve to fill what would otherwise be gaps in the sequence.
Not added for practical and educational reasons are 'elements' consisting only of pages and pages of computer data from smashing atoms in particle accelerators. Another reason is that there can be no photographs of them to show, and as a result, your arrangement is complete and never be obsolete - your Forever Periodic Table.
Included with the art of the periodic table on the die cut substrate that makes up the model is some background information about the the history of three dimensional periodic tables.
The first of these is about the discoverer of the concept of arranging the elements in periods suggested by the properties of the elements, de Chancourtois.
The second 3D periodic table information piece (on the rear of the de Chancourtois removable card) are sketches of a number of the 3D periodic tables found on the Chemogenesis website.
"My vortic periodic table created in marquetry may be of interest. I have always thought of vortic energies and with retirement time, I used my Marquetry Hobby to so create. Despite the inevitable Black Hole centre I have included the Higgs Boson there as a tribute to its discovery and potential as a window to elsewhere."
As a result, it is possible that element 118 is the very last one in the periodic table.
We have the sequence:
2 x 14 (blue)
4 x 10 (brown)
6 x 6 (violet)
8 x 2 (green)
and, logically, neither first nor last factor can be 0 or -2 (they differ in two columns above respectively by 2 and 4).
On the other hand, the coherence of the structure requires the existence of two additional elements at the beginning!
By Masahiko Suenaga, Kyushu University, Japan a 3D Left Step Periodic Table.
"Inspired by the work of Dr. Tsimmerman and Dr. Samanez, I have created a new 3D Left Step Periodic Table, which resembles to Mt. Fuji, recently registered as a World Heritage site. For more information, please visit my website":
The Bernard Periodic Spiral of the Elements (BPSE), depicts a novel rendition of the Periodic Table that replaces the flat rectangular format with a continuous unidirectional spiral that maintains all the properties of Group and Period formation.
Comparisons may be made with similar models spanning the last three decades of the 20th century (Alexander, 1971; Mazurs, 1974; & Kaufman, 1999).
In the chart form, this new rendition is referred to as the Elliptical Periodic Chart of the Elements. In the three-dimensional form, the model resembles a Christmas tree in shape with the 7 Periods represented as circular platforms situated at various levels with the elements placed appropriately at the outer edges of each of these platforms as a Period builds up. The elements may be represented as spherical objects or flat discs with radii proportionate to atomic radii (or reasonable approximations). Color schemes accentuate the four different Blocks of elements: the s-Block (green), the p-Block (blue, with the exception that the last Group is red signifying the end of a Period), d-Block (orange), and the f-Block (yellow). The grey section, called the Group-Period Interchange, is where the end of a particular Period connects to the beginning of the next Period, and, at the same time, transitions from Group 18 to Group 1.
The Periodic Table with a new double numerical structure, presented here is attempt to find table form which will in some new way represent the periodicity and symmetry of the Elements, with the Periodic System as base. Also this tetrahedral laminar table structure maybe will became a base for developing a new shell structure of atomic nucleus.
This new rearrangement of the chemical element is based on mathematical formula which result is simple, length of the periods:
A new way of graphical representation of atoms is developed and presented here. Atoms are recognized as functions of two variables A(r,Θ), where r =2,10,18,36,54,86,118 (given arbitrarily r=1,2,3,4,5,6,7) represents period and Θ representing group, is actually the angle between the groups. A mathematical solution is obtained for Θ having three distinct values of (π /9) radians, (π/18) radians and (π/27) radians which define three super groups satisfying the equation 15(π/27) +10(π/18) +8 (π /9) =2π. 15 groups of two Atoms with a transition zone of (π/27) radians is nominally called Grey Super Group (GSG). 10 groups of which 9 have four Atoms and 1 has two Atoms, also including a transition zone of (π/18) radians, is nominally called Blue Super Group (BSG). 8 groups of which 7 have 6 Atoms and one has 7 Atoms, including a transition zone of (π/9) radians is called Yellow Super Group (YSG). The group with 7 atoms is the so called reference group of Atoms 2, 10, 18,36,54,86 and 118. The GSG has 30 Atoms, the BSG has 38 Atoms and the YSG has 49 Atoms. The Atom 1 is at the centre of the Hub and does not belong to any group or period and has coordinates of (0, 0). Atom 1 having no neutrons is unique.
"I would like to submit you an hexagonal periodic table. It's structured in different rings. The elements are ordered on their metallic characters so in the inner rings there are noble gases and nonmetals while in the outer rings there are alkali and alkaline earth metals. I based the order on the typical metallic characteristics: low ionization energy, electron affinity, etc... "
The first periodic table was developed in 1862 by a French geologist called Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois. He plotted the elements on a cylinder with a circumference of 16 units, and noted the resulting helix placed elements with similar properties in line with each other. But his idea - which he called the "Telluric Spiral" (see here), because the element tellurium was near the middle - never caught on, perhaps because it was published in a geology journal unread by chemists, and because de Chancourtois failed to include the diagram and described the helix as a square circle triangle.
Mendeleev got all the glory, and it is his 1869 version (dramatically updated, but still recognizable) that nearly everyone uses today.
This instructable [project] documents my efforts to reimagine a 3D periodic table of the elements, using modern making methods. It's based on the structure of a chiral nanotube, and is made from a 3D printed lattice, laser cut acrylic, a lazy susan bearing, 118 sample vials and a cylindrical lamp.
Mikhail writes in his J.Chem.Educ paper DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.7b00242; J. Chem. Educ. 2017, 94, 976?979
"Addition of another s-block to the left of the left-step periodic table [enables it] to be rolled into a spiral so that the left and right s-blocks are merged together and the number of elements is exactly 118. The resulting periodic table is called the "spiral" periodic table, which is the fundamental representation of periodicity":
"My father, Manouchehr Ziaei, has an interesting design of the periodic table, which I helped him draw using AutoCAD. He is very keen in introducing [this formulation] to potential interested viewers, he was recommended to visit [the Chemogenesis Database of Periodic Tables] website."
Philip Stewart writes (this is the same text that accompanies the 2018 B/W version):
The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.
My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).
The Telluric Remix is topologically the same as my 'Janet Rajeuni' and 'Chemosphere': it maintains the continuous sequence of atomic numbers with the help of arrows, which cascade down, displaying graphically the Janet [Madelung] rule for the order of subshell filling.
I have placed the s block in the centre to emphasise its pivotal nature and so that there is no question of whether it belongs on the left or on the right. Every shell (Arabic numeral) and every period (Roman numeral) ends with ns2, but the ns electrons combine with f, d or p electrons of elements in the succeeding period to make their valence shells, until ns2+np6, which forms a noble gas. Helium, He, is also noble with a complete n=1 shell and no 1p6.
Noble gases are marked G.
Groups are numbered sequentially within each block, and in general the xth member of the series has x electrons in the subshell. Exceptions are shown by a small d (or two) in the corner, signifying that a d electron replaces an s electron in the d block or an f electron in the f block (note also p in Lr). This makes it easy to determine the electronic structure of each element.
Grainger's Elemental Periodicity with "Concentric Spheres Intersecting Orthogonal Planes" Formulation
From Tony Grainger, an Elemental Periodicity formulation with concentric spheres intersecting orthogonal planes.
"I hand sketched this periodic table about a decade ago and placed it on my cubicle window at UTAS, with minimal comments from work mates. It bears some similarity to other formulations in the database, especially when cut along the left axis and laid flat. The concept of all elements of a period being aligned along orthogonal planes cutting a sphere was inherent in the original sketch. When I began using SVG about five years ago I realised I could draw this as a real projection of the 3D model. It was on the back burner, until I found the original sketch during a tidy up."
There are two images of this 3D formulation:
an "inside_corner_below/outside_corner_above" (top image) and
an "outside_corner_below/inside_corner_above" lower image.
The "inside corner below" is like looking at the junction of a floor and two walls in the corner of a room.
The "outside corner above" is like looking up at the underside of an overhanging corner of a building.
The "outside corner below" is like looking down on the corner of a large box.
The "inside corner above" is like looking at the junction of walls and a ceiling in a room.
"Commissioned to match George Schaltenbrand's 1920 design for a helical gathering of the elements – albeit extended to all 118 current elements – and signed by Yuri Oganessian, it is almost certainly the most expensive periodic table in the world."