The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
- By Decade
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Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/Left-Step Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity
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Circular, Spiral and Helical Periodic Table formulations, by date:
Béguyer de Chancourtois' Vis Tellurique
The French geologist , Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make use of atomic weights to produce a classification of periodicity. He drew the elements as a continuous spiral around a metal cylinder divided into 16 parts. The atomic weight of oxygen was taken as 16 and was used as the standard against which all the other elements were compared. Tellurium was situated at the centre, prompting vis tellurique, or telluric screw.
Many thanks to Peter Wothers – and courtesy of the Master and Fellows of St Catharine's College, Cambridge – comes a high quality image of the original 1862 formulation. Click here, or on the image to enlarge:
Watch Peter Wothers 'unravel' and show Prof. Martyn Poliakoff this first periodic table at 17min 50sec into the YouTube video below:
Some more information:
Chancourtois' original formulation includes elements in their correct places, selected compounds and some elements in more than one place. The helix was an important advance in that it introduced the concept of periodicity, but it was flawed.
It has been suggested that Chancourtois called his formulation a telluric helix because tellurium is found in the middle. However, most elements are found as there their 'earths' – tellus, telluris – or oxides, which for a mineralogist would have been highly significant.
The formulation was rediscovered in the 1889 (P. J. Hartog, "A First Foreshadowing of the Periodic Law" Nature 41, 186-8 (1889)), and since then it has appeared most often in a simplified form that emphasizes the virtues and eliminates its flaws. [Thanks to CG for this info.]
- Dutch Wikipedia
- Science & Society Picture Library
- Roy Alexander's All Periodic Tables site
A three dimensional models of the telluric helix:
There are representations of the 1862 formulation at the School of Mines at ParisTech:
Hinrichs' Programme of Atomechanics
Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs' spiral "Programme of Atomechanics". Programm der Atomechanik oder die Chemie eine Mechanik de Pantome, Augustus Hageboek, Iowa City, IA (1867).
Hinrichs' system is based on the relationship of what he called: "pantogens, with its atoms called panatoms, which explains the numerical relations of atomic weights and gives a simple classification of the elements."
This classification system culminated in 1867 in his spiral periodic table, which better clarified the groupings of elements. Hinrichs' classification, while distinctly different from the other periodic tables of this period, "seems to capture many of the primary periodicity relationships seen in the modern periodic table... it is not cluttered by attempts to show secondary kinship relationships." (Scerri)
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Meyer's Spiral System
Meyer's Spiral System of 1872 (from van Spronsen):
Concentric Ring Arrangement of Wiik
Thanks to René for the tip!
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Shepard's Natural Classification
Shepard's Natural Classification of the Elements, a spiral formulation with instructions for turning it into a three-dimensional table. From: Elements of Inorganic Chemistry, Descriptive and Qualitative (pp221), by J. H. Shepard, (1886), Boston MA, pub. D. C. Heath
René Vernon writes:
Note the instructions along the side, to turn the table into a tube (spiral form) and the 19 spaces from La to eka-Ce. Here, Yb needs to be moved back one column into group II, so as to leave room for Lu under La. Then eka-Ce becomes Hf. This results in La + 15 lanthanoids.
The accompanying text says:
"Elements of most distinct basic character are found towards the left; non-metals predominate in the upper and middle parts of Groups V., VI., and VII. ; while the lower part of the table is marked by the more indifferent elements.
"A double spiral will be traced beyond Si (beginning with P and V respectively) and distinguished by heavy-face and light-face type.
"The harmony of nature here exhibited is most impressive. Is it possible that the so-called elements are really compounds? Did the various 'elements' of the earth and sun once exist as hydrogen, when our solar system was a nebula? And will modern chemists ever revive the famed problem of the alchemists, and seek to turn the base metals into gold? Far more precious than gold is the search for truth; and the more we learn of science, the broader becomes our conception of what we know in part, and the deeper should be our reverence for the infinite thought of the Creator."
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Johnstone Stoney's Spiral, taken from A. E. Garrett's The Periodic Law (page 167, 1909 pub. D. Appleton And Company). The reference is given – page 167 – is: Phil. Mag. , 4, pp 411 et seq.; Proc. Roy. Soc., 1888, p115.
Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip!
Stoney's Spiral Periodic Table
In the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Containing Papers of a Mathematical and Physical Character, Volume 85, Issue 580, Aug 1911, p. 472, there is an article On Dr. Johnstone Stoney's Logarithmic Law of Atomic Weights, by Lord Rayleigh (who co-discovered argon in 1894), who writes :
"In the year 1888, Dr. G. Johnstone Stoney communicated to the Society a memoir with title nearly as above, which, however, was not published in full. At the request of the author, who attaches great importance to the memoir, I have recently, by permission of the Council, consulted the original manuscript in the archives of the Society, and I propose to give some extracts, accompanied by a few remarks. The author commenced by plotting the atomic weights of the elements taken as ordinates against a series of natural numbers as abscissæ. But a curve traced through the points thus determined was found to be 'one which has not been studied by mathematicians.
"This sudden transition may have some connection with the fact that no elements have been found on sesqui-radius 16, although the investigation in § 3 shows that the values of m corresponding to the stations on sesqui-radius 16 cannot be dispensed with.
"The vacant places here pointed out are now occupied by the since discovered inert gases. The anticipation is certainly a remarkable one, and it goes far to justify the high claims made for the diagram, as representing in a telling form many of the leading facts of chemistry."
Comment from Mark Leach:
"Notice how the electronegative elements are positioned top right & bottom right and the electropositive elements top left & bottom right."
René Vernon writes:
"Stoney has another article in the September 1902 edition of the The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, called Law of Atomic Weights, pp. 411–415. At the back of the journal is an updated fold-out version of Stoney’s table, image attached.
- Ar, Kr and Xe fit on the spiral, and on spoke 16.
- Neon fits on the spiral but is instead on spoke 8.
- Helium is on spoke 18 but is not on the spiral.
- The circle in the middle represents H (p. 414).
"On the page after the updated spiral, there looks to be some printed content, but it is hidden by what looks to be a folded over page."
Thanks to René for the tip!
Erdmann's Spiral Table
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Gooch & Walker Periodic Table
Mazurs' reproduction (p. 82) of a periodic table formulation by Frank Austin Gooch and Claude Frederic Walker, from Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry, Macmillan, London and New York, p. 8/9, 1905 (ref Mazurs p.188):
Thanks to Laurie Palmer for the tip, and to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details.
Gooch & Walker's Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Series of Elements
This three dimensional formulation – clearly developed from the Crookes' vis generatrix model – is given a 1905 textbook by Gooch & Walker: Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry (see the Google Books scanned version pp273).
"The arrangement of the elements in three series of eight groups each may be represented by a model in which large and small wooden balls, on a spiral wire, represent the common and rare elements respectively; those balls falling in the same vertical column representing elements in the same groups":
Soddy's Three-Dimensional System
Soddy's three-dimensional system of 1911 (from van Spronsen):
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf:
Another version of Emerson's Helix from "100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements, Nauka 1969, p. 74:
Thanks to Larry T for the tip!
Hackh's Spiral Periodic Table
Ingo Hackh's spiral periodic table of 1914, from Das Synthetisches System der Atome, Hamburg, Hephaestos.
Philip Stewart says:
"I believe that Hackh's 1914 spiral is of special interest it is the first spiral to take account of Mosley's atomic numbers, and the first to show successively larger pairs of coils. It is also interesting because H stands alone in the centre. I have only seen Mazurs' redrawn (as usual!) version, but Mazurs gives SciAm Supplement 1919 as one reference."
This is the Mazurs version:
Harkins & Hall's Periodic Table
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Hackh's Periodic Spiral
From a Scientific American in March 1919, an article by Ingo W. D. Hackh discussing the classification of the elements.
Included is a periodic spiral, developed from Hackh's 1914 version:
Nodder's Periodic Table
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Partington's Periodic Arrangement of the Elements
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Schaltenbrand's Helical Periodic Table
G. Schaltenbrand, Darstellung des periodischen Systems der Elemente durch eine räumliche Spirale, Z. anorg. allgem. Chem., 112, 221-4 (Sept. 1920)
"The elements are arranged in order of atomic weights on an eccentric spiral. The four sets of curves include positions of similar elements. The first small turn carries H and He; the remainder of the inert elements and the halogens are on successive small turns in analogous positions.
"On the next larger turn are found the alkali, alkaline-earth, and aluminum family elements.
"The long periods require larger turns and the period containing the rare-earth elements requires the longest turn of all. Elements of the same group are found in the same plane passing through the axis of the spiral."
Commissioned in 2019 to match George Schaltenbrand's 1920 design for a helical gathering of the elements – albeit extended to all 118 current elements – and signed by Yuri Oganessian, it is almost certainly the most expensive periodic table in the world."
Courtines' Model of the Periodic Table or Periodic Classification
Published in J. Chem. Ed., 2, 2, 107-109 in 1925 by M. Courtines of the Laboratory of Experimental Physics, College of France, Paris.
"The unfolded tower arrangement appears much like a modernised Chauvierre chart cut on a line between Ni and Cu, Cu, with the right part fitted to the left in order of increasing atomic numbers. The rare-earth elements, however, are placed on a novel accordion-like folded strip with ends made secure just below Xt and between Ba and Hf. The author describes in detail the method of folding the chart into a tower-like cylindrical model. H is folded back to show its lack of relationship other groups of elements. In the space for each symbol, electron arrangements and isotopes are also enumerated."
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
And, in what appears to be a 'top down' view of the above 3D formulation, Courtine M 1926, Oùen est la physique, Gauthier-Villars et Cie, Paris:
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip & René Vernon's additions!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Monroe & Turner's Spiral
Monroe and Turner's spiral, in which they correctly place the actinides. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.
Ref. is C J Monroe and W D Turner A new Periodic Table of the Elements, J Chem Ed, 3, 1058-65, 1926
Walter Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 2
Walter Russell's Periodic Chart of The Elements 2. View other formulations and an interview here:
Janet's Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System
Janet's Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System of 1928 (from van Spronsen):
Click here for large diagram.
Janet's "Lemniscate" Formulation
From in The Helicoidal Classification of the Elements, Chemical News vol. 138, 21 June 1929, Fig. XI, p. 392:
Philip Stewart points out that this formulation is an 'end on' view of the Janet Cylinder or Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System formulation, and the term "lemniscate" comes from Mazurs.
Janet's Helicoidal Classification
Janet's Helicoidal Classification, essentially his left-step formulation in its spiral version (ref. Charles Janet, La Classification Hélicoïdale des Éléments Chimiques. Beauvais: Imprimerie Départementale de l'Oise. 1928). Information supplied by Philip Stewart:
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Janet's Shell Filling Diagram
Janet produced six papers, in French, which are almost unobtainable as he had them privately printed and didn't distribute them properly. The shell-filling diagram dated from November 1930, six years before Madelung. Note that Janet uses Bohr's radial quantum number, k, which is l+1. In the text he formulates the n+k-1 rule. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.
Clark's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements
Origionally developed in 1933:
Dr. Erik Strub writes:
"The article's Fig. 1 is the first [formulation] (to my knowledge) which contains a "classical" representation of the periodic system in which an Actinoide series is placed beneath the Lanthanoides and not beneath the d block elements:
Romanoff's System of 1934 (from van Spronsen):
Libedinski's Periodic Classification of The Elements
Simón Libedinski: PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS, from his book: Dialectical Materialism, in Nature, in Society and in Medicine, Ediciones Ercilla, Santiago de Chile, 1938, pp 56-57:
"Mendeleev's Table, like that of Werner and others, are not, however, more than flat projections of the actual ordering of the elements. There is as much difference between Mendeleev's Table and the real group as there is between the planisphere and a rotating globe. A rational representation, starting from the simplest element – the negative electron –, would be a spiral line that, surrounding said central point, first gave a small turn, touching only two bodies: hydrogen and helium. From here it would jump to a much larger orbit, in which it would touch eight bodies and then another equal, also of eight. From here, another jump to a much larger orbit, comprising eighteen bodies, and then another equal; from this point one jumps to another orbit, again augmented, comprising thirty-two bodies (including rare earths); and when this round is over, the last one begins, to vanish a short distance.
"In the dialectical grouping of the elements, which I have the satisfaction of exposing, the classic arrangement of the same is respected. Only the arrangement changes, which instead of being rectilinear, is spiral. So I managed to suppress the anomaly of the double columns, and comfortably incorporate the important group of rare earths. I can not give my graphic the name of Tabla, because it is just the opposite: it aims to give the idea of ??space, and of movement in space. The double columns of the Classic Table can be found here as well, but only if you look through the whole, considered as a planetary system of conical shape, with the electron at the vertex. Effectively: column 1 coincides, through space, with column 1a; column 4 with column 4 bis, etc. The dialectical grouping also allows us to easily appreciate the remarkable dialectical character of the properties of matter: these properties are repeated periodically. These are the "returns" to qualities or previous properties, but not exactly equal to those, but only similar: and this resemblance, only to a certain extent. The difference is that that quality, those properties or some characteristic, are exalted to each dialectical return."
Contributed by Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, Cusco, Peru, March 2018 (using Google Translation)
Pozzi Spiral Periodic Table
A spiral periodic table formulation constructed by E.C. Pozzi in 1937, from here.
Note the "Strong Positive, Strong Negative, Weak Positive and Weak Negative" corners:
Irwin's Periodic Table
From his paper, Periodicity Patterns of The Elements in J. Chem. Educ., 1939, 16 (7), p 335, K. Gordon Irwin presents a Periodic Chart of the Elements in Spiral Form. The paper is used to justify this formulation in terms of periodicity:
Kipp (& Mazurs') Periodic Table in Style of Spiral and Plane Lemniscate
Kipp, Friedrich, and Edward G. Mazurs. "Periodic Table in Style of Spiral and Plane Lemniscate". Glass, circa 1942–1957. Edward G. Mazurs Collection of Periodic Systems Images, Box 1. Science History Institute, Philadelphia. https://digital.sciencehistory.org/works/nz806022g
Periodic table in style of spiral and plane lemniscate 1942 (Original design) circa 1957 (Date attributed to slide).
This table was originated by Friedrich Kipp in 1942 and classified by chemist Edward G. Mazurs as Type IIB2-2 in his seminal work Types of Graphic Representation of the Periodic System of Chemical Elements (1957).A version of this table appears as Figure 49 on page 122 of Mazurs' 1957 publication.
Thanks to Dhr. J.G. van Gils for the tip!
Stedman's Conic System
D. F. Stedman, A Periodic Arrangement of the Elements, Canadian Journal of Research, 1947, 25b(3): 199-210, https://doi.org/10.1139/cjr47b-023
Stedman's conic system from van Spronsen:
In his article Stedman says:
- The planar arrangement differs from the plan of his solid model, 'only as necessary to clarify the presentation'
- One the major features is that only two groups, at Si and Y, are considered to be 'truly' branched and that the latter 'is not usually considered in this manner'
- The smaller symbols, such as V under P, aren't necessary but are 'merely offered for consideration'
- Si shows a greater resemblance to Ge than it does to the closer Ti, while Y similarly shows greater resemblance to Lu than to La
- Stedman first drew his first version of this table sixteen years ago (= 1931)
Thanks to René for the tip!
Clark's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements
Origionally developed in 1933, the colour version of Clark's arrangement was used the the May 1949 edition of Life Magazine, part of a 16 page feature on the atom.
This periodic table formulation was the model for Longman's 1951 Festival of Britain mural. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.
Scheele's system of 1950 (from van Spronsen):
Clark's Updated Periodic Table
John D Clark's 1950 chart. It looks as though the experience of producing the 1949 version for Life Magazine caused him to have a radical rethink. John D. Clark, A modern periodic chart of chemical elements. Science,111, 661-663 (1950). Information supplied by Philip Stewart.
Longman's Mural from Festival of Britain
Edgar Longman's mural from the 1951 Festival of Britain Science Exhibition, restored by Philip Stewart:
Circular Periodic Chart of The Elements
Chris R. Hagness writes:
"I own a wall chart that doesn't seem to be in your database of periodic tables. It's a circular 'periodic chart of the elements' published by Dickinson Brothers, Inc. in USA, distributed by American Seating, copyrighted 1961 by H. Edmund Matthews, Jr.
"I have never been able to find any information on this on the internet. Not on Edmund Matthews, no old catalogs from American Seating, no reference to this particular circular periodic table. I've never seen another of these anywhere, and I've been looking on and off for 10 years. I can't imagine this would have been a popular selling item. If you have any info, that would be appreciated!"
Royal Military College of Science Three-dimensional Spiral
From a Science Museum blog, Rajay Shah writes:
"Supported by poles and twisting around itself in a snake-like manner, this object is one of many weird and interesting forms of the periodic table. It was built at the Royal Military College of Science in 1963. The Science Museum asked for this model to be made for them to display in their new chemistry gallery after the original model was seen at an exhibition held by the Physical Society.":
Benfey's Spiral Periodic Table or Periodic Snail
Spiral Periodic Table by Otto Theodor Benfey:
"One of the Benfey's publications in Chemistry was a model of an extended periodic table, sometimes referred to as the periodic snail. First published in 1964, it explicitly showed the location of lanthanides and actinides. The elements form a two-dimensional spiral, starting from hydrogen, and folding their way around two peninsulars, the transition metals, and lanthanides and actinides. A superactinide island is already slotted in."
Read more here in an article by OTB: Bull. Hist. Chem., VOLUME 34, Number 2 (2009)
Samuel Ruben Periodic Table
An interesting periodic table from 1964, found at an estate sale. The text says that the elements are: "arranged according to the atomic number Z and column relation to the rare gases", and is by Samuel Ruben (wikipedia).
Click here to see the full size version.
Thanks to Rachel Helling for the tip!
Giguère's Periodic Table
Paul Giguère's Periodic Table formulation, "The 'new look' for the periodic system". Chemistry in Canada vol. 18 (12): 36–39 (see p. 37):
Alexander Arrangement of Elements
The Alexander Arrangement of Elements is a 3D periodic table concept based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, and, like the first representation of elements in periods by de Chancourtois, connects every element data box in unbroken order.
Roy Alexander, a Brooklyn born science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, has told me in a personal communication: "I came up with the idea (being ignorant of anything but the flat Sargent Welch charts) in 1965. I wasn't able to patent [the downslant in the p-block] until 1971." (U.S.Patent #3,581,409)
At the time Roy had no idea that others had employed a similar technique to build a 3D table - including the very first periodic table developer, de Chancourtois, who is often credited with being the original discoverer of the periodicity of elements and the originator of the three-dimensional method of element arrangement and representation.
These 3D forms attempt to return the Seaborg separated f-block to its proper position in the table rather than remaining exiled. This, and contemporary attitudes about Hydrogen as being in more families than one - is uniquely addressed in Roy's 3D models.
Subsequent study of the Periodic Law and the periodic table's value in education convinced Roy that the basic rationale for developing the Alexander Arrangement of Elements was only one of the many good reasons for producing it for the public to share, so he sought and was granted a U.S. patent on the p-block downslant in order to manufacture and market the AAEs as teaching/learning aids.
Roy Alexander's goal of introducing the AAE into classrooms, laboratories, chemistry textbooks, and reference material remains the same today, but rather than replacing the conventional charts, its niche in education is at the very point that a lesson on arrangement of atoms into a chart begins. Element sequencing (vs. 24 breaks/gaps) credits the chart as well as the Periodic Law, which establishes subsequent confidence in the common flat charts, much as the world globe establishes the reality, and flat printed projections - maps - are vital (and relished) for convenience.
The first commercial production of Alexander Arrangements was in 1995, when Roy pioneered by constructing a website - periodictable.com - for marketing. Three versions were printed: two versions for student entry of element symbols, the larger die-cut for easier assembly.
An even larger model was produced with basic element data printed in the boxes, also die cut. These were printed on white card stock, with black ink.
Another version (below) was produced in conjunction with ATMI's annual report in 2000. This was added to Roy's product offerings, called the DeskTopper, and is still available. They are die cut to form a 7.25" high model with the f-block position attached after La, but can be altered to put La on the f-block. (See AAE Features at the top of this page.)
Besides the hands-on educational application, the DeskTopper can be used as a pen & pencil caddy, and flattened without losing the continuity of the element data. This flattened form has suggested design of a Braille periodic table of the same format, and this is also being pursued.
Marketing the Alexander Arrangements was moved to AllPeriodicTables.com in cooperation with Theodore Gray in 2006, who purchased the PeriodicTable.com domain name and funded the production of Roy's newest model, illustrated with Theo's amazing element photos.
For the first time, the elements beyond those naturally occurring have been omitted from a modern periodic table, simplifying initiation to chemistry. This factor denies the concept of obsolescence, and this version has been called the Forever Periodic Table. Details of this new 3D periodic table model kit have been placed at 3DPeriodicTable.com.
Further AAE information and images may be found at the Alexander Arrangement website.
Mazurs' other 1967 Formulation
From Edward G. Mazurs' 1974 (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press:
Thanks to Philip Stewart for the tip!
Monument to the Periodic Table
Monument to the periodic table, in front of the Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia. The monument honors Dmitri Mendeleev, and is by the artist Karol Lacko, academic sculptor born in 1938 in Spiská Noá Ves, and who died in 2007. (Many thanks to Fathi Habashi for finding this information.)
Mazurs Version of Janet's "Lemniscate" Formulation
Janet's lemniscate formulation periodic table as modified by E.G. Mazur in his Graphic Representations of the Periodic System during One Hundred Years (1974), cited in Punyashloke Mishra's The Role of Abstraction in Scientific Illustration: Implications for Pedagogy (1999) republished in Carolyn Handa's Visual Rhetoric in a Digital World: A Critical Sourcebook", from the Island94 blog, here:
Mazurs' Redrawing of Stedman's Formulation
An spiral formulation by Mazurs, cited as being after Janet (1928). However, it is actually, it is after Stedman (1947).
In an article Bull. Hist. Chem., VOLUME 34, Number 2 (2009) O.T. Benfey writes:
"After we had developed our own [Periodic Snail] spiral design, we found that E. G. Mazurs had published a spiral with a separate protrusion for the lanthanides which, under the image, he misleadingly ascribed to Charles Janet in 1928, the same year that Janet had published a simple circular form also shown by Mazurs. The Mazurs diagram with the lanthanide protrusion was reprinted in [the journal] Chemistry. However, [Philip] Stewart informed me that the Mazurs figure bears no resemblance to the Janet diagram he indicated nor to any other of his designs. Detailed references given a few pages later by Mazurs suggested correctly that the spiral derives from Stedman and is so identified and depicted by van Spronsen. The Mazurs diagram is a mirror image of the Stedman spiral, updated to include elements discovered since 1947." [For references, see the article.]"
Mazurs (p. 77) writes:
"Subtype IIIA3–1a Helix on a modified cone. The transition and inner transition elements have special revolutions in the form of loops. This table, originated by Stedman in 1947 is not a successful one."
Thanks to René for the tip and information!
Mazurs' PT Formulation Analysis
In his 1974 book Edward G. Mazurs (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press gives a comprehensive analysis of periodic table formulations.
Mazurs identifies most PT formulations as being:
- Plane lemniscate
- Concentric circles
- Helix on a cylinder
- Helix on a cone
- Space lemniscate
- Space concentric circles
Hyde's Periodic Relationships of The Elements
J. Franklin Hyde was an industrual chemist. His PT formulation is available from the Gelest website:
Hyde's Periodic Relationships of The Elements (updated)
I received an email from Jeremy Sachs saying:
"Gelest don't seem to offer [this periodic table formulation] anymore, and because their version heavily modifies Hyde's original table, I've reproduced the 1975 version of his table with the permission of his surviving relatives."
Click here to see the full size version.
Mann's Spiral Periodic Table
From AT Mann:
"I designed a spiral periodic table which was published first in my book The Divine Plot: Astrology, Reincarnation, Cosmology and History (George Allen & Unwin, London, 1986) which attempts to correlate the PT with astrological understanding of the inherent properties of the signs and planets":
Gary Katz says: "The Periodic RoundTable is a unique three-dimensional model of the Periodic Table, an elegant spatial arrangement of the chemical elements that is both symmetrical and mathematical. It is the ultimate refinement of Mendeleev's scheme, one that will take us into the twenty-first century and beyond. The Periodic RoundTable possesses such a high degree of order because it is based exclusively on the system of ideal electronic configuration, which in turn is the basis of periodicity among the elements. In the Periodic RoundTable the electron shells are filled in the same order as the elements themselves appear, demonstrating a holistic relationship between the chemistry of the elements and the orbital descriptions of their electrons."
Dufour's Periodic Tree
The Dufour Periodictree periodic table formulation, from here:
Pawlowski Circular Periodic Table
On John Pratt's website there is an article that is both an introduction to Helen Pawlowski's model of the atom and to her Circular Periodic Table, as well as a book review of her book The Visualization of the Atom (Riverton, UT: Pawlowski Family Trust, 1990). First Helen and her work are introduced, then the model's strengths and weaknesses are summarized:
Circular Model of the Atom: Opposition in the Elements
The Circular Model of the Atom is a circular periodic table that shows atomic structure in addition to periodicity. Unlike any other periodic table or model, it demonstrates that the atomic structure has an inherent dipole magnet that create positve and negative fields and elemental qualities at the atomic level.
The Circular Model of the Atom was created by Helen A. Pawlowski in the 1980s, and published in her work, Visualization of the Atom.
Her brother, Paul A. Williams extended many of Helen's ideas with his examination of the standard model using Helen's Circular Atom Model. This website contains some of Helen's ideas and Paul's writings.
Helical Periodic Table
Tarquin Publications sell a make-your-own three dimensional, helical periodic table.
Melinda Green's Periodic Fractal of The Elements
Melinda Green writes: "This is an alternative version of the standard chemistry Periodic Table of the Elements that I developed. In high school I learned the basic concept of element families and how they were arranged into columns to show the periodicity in their electrical properties. I was fascinated with the idea, but immediately wondered whether there might be better ways of graphically showing those relationships." read lots more here
ChemEasy Table of Periodic Properties of the Elements & more...
From Facebook, the ChemEasy Table of Periodic Properties of the Elements & more:
Thanks to Roy Alexander fo the tip!
Homage to The Elements
Eulalia Bosch writes:
"Eugènia Balcells included the mural Homage to The Elements in her exhibition FREQUENCIES at the Santa Monica Art Center in Barcelona in 2009. The exhibit incorporates the spectrum of light that identifies each element. The result is not just another presentation of the periodic table, but a tribute to the set of elements that, in their intertwining, make up the material world and to those spectra that, as Eugènia Balcells like to say are: 'the voice of matter'.
"Over the last few years, the mural Homage to The Elements has also been incorporated at the Pascual Vila Research and Development Center of the CSIC in Barcelona, at the Science Museum, CosmoCaixa, in Barcelona and we are finishing the formalities for its installation in the Universities of Tarragona and Girona. It has also been acquired by the Technische Universität Berlin, and by the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, both in Germany. In the city of NY, where Eugènia lived for more than thirty years, the mural has found its place at the Maxine Greene High School for Imaginative Inquiry, located at the Martin Luther King Educational Campus in New York, in front of the Lincoln Center, the great ally artistic ally of the School.
"The Eugènia Balcells Foundation wants to actively collaborate in the celebration proposed by the United Nations offering to the educational world the mural Homage to The Elements, this sign that represents universal unity, and records the human knowledge acquired to this day."
Wheel of Motion Periodic Table
The Wheel of Motion (WoM) representation of the periodic table of elements shows the periodic nature of the elements, as developed in the Reciprocal System of Physical Theory (RST).
It was originally developed by Douglas Bundy in 1998, a member of the International Society of Unified Science (ISUS).
Moran's Spiral Periodic Table
Jeoff Moran's spiral periodic table can be found at periodicspiral.com.
See an article in the New York Times:
ElemenTouch Periodic Table
Yoshiteru MAENO writes:
"I am a Physics Prof. at Kyoto University, Japan. My field of study is experimental superconductivity. I recently found the work by Schaltenbrand in 1920 on your website. One might say that Elementouch is a re-invention of Schaltenbrand's, but by arranging the element names helically on three cylinders, its usefulness has been improved":
System Québécium Periodic Table
Using Google Translate of this page:
"To establish a new classification system components, Pierre Demers was assumed that the electronic structure of the atom contains one of my all others according to the equation Z = 117 to Z = 1. It is taking my electrons and removing them from my material that can reproduce all the elements and thus repeat the structure of your table. That is why this new organization is called the System Québécium":
Philip Stewart's Chemical Galaxy II
Philip Stewart's Chemical Galaxy II periodic table formulation, from here:
Click here for a larger version.
A simplified 'chemical galaxy':
Bird of Prey Periodic Table
"I am a self-taught, underground cartoonist - around the end of 2005 I began studying ether physics, & mid 2006 orgone biophysics. End of 2008 I was going through old note & sketch books while compiling pieces for a poetry book, & came across a sketch I did in 2003 of the first 20 elements of the periodic table in a spiral. I had just begun studying the ether vortex model of the atom & thought a vortex model of the periodicity might be a fun experiment so I played with it more. I didn't remember what inspired the original concept sketch 5 years later, but my guess was I had stayed up too late watching public television again. It probably had to do with some 4-Dimension ring concepts I was playing with, but by 2008 I was thoroughly involved in 3-D biophysics & wasn't thinking back to earlier thought experiments I had done."
"The compositions are largely artistic, naturalistic, & most are like steps on a story board, showing transformation of the table, distorting from from rectangular to spiral, then splitting between metals & noble gases like the wings of a bird, flapping, then joining again to make the spiral (then the spiral inflates to make a flower, wilts into a spider's web) - there are many transitions I have in mind, but I my work is not limited to the periodic table.":
Eight-Group Periodic Table
From Number Patterns in Nature by Jan C.A. Boeyens, Crystal Engineering 6 (2003) 167–185.
The Eight-Group Periodic Table of the 81 stable elements, in spiral form. Available sites on the prime-number cross, starting from zero, number 102.,
Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form
Hinsdale Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form, US Patent 7,297,000:
Roy Alexender, of the Desk Topper arrangement, has photoshopped a blurry photograph sent by Bernard along with a product mockup:
Rafael Poza Periodic Table (Click to Enlarge)
Cyclical Continuum of Elemental Properties by Robert R. Northup
The Cyclical Continuum of Elemental Properties Periodic Table by Robert R. Northup
"The Cyclical Continuum of Elemental Properties is a user-friendly teaching tool that is intended to accompany the Periodic Table of Elements. Hydrogen is shown at the center, atomic numbers and symbols form an unbroken spiral, and element groups 1 through 18 (noble gases, alkali metals, halogens, etc.) are displayed by colored arcs. Beginning chemistry students can visually see the continuity of atomic numbers in the Cyclical Continuum as a way to introduce and orient them to the Periodic Table. Advanced chemistry students can test their understanding of the Periodic Table's organization by applying that knowledge to interpretation of the Cyclical Continuum."
Read more and buy the poster at the Cyclical Continuum web site.
Pyramid Format Periodic Table
Painting of The Elements
- The tiniest ball in the center is hydrogen, the next helium, lithium, etc.
- Colors indicate the chemical group.
On the Wikipedia there is another circular form of periodic table:
Harmonic Circle & Spiral of the Chemical Elements
Brian David Andersen of Tri-Vortex Technology (Researcher/Inventor/Scientist), Subtle Energy Products trivortex.com:
Demers' Système du Québécium
"First, I present the Periodic Table of Elements, and I proceed to improve it. By an arithmetic and geometrical analysis, I make appear important symmetries of order four which exist in the arrangement of the atoms between them. I confirm these results with an original discussion of irregular atoms. I will try, in a work that will follow, to interpret the symmetries of the classification by the symmetries of the atom which are associated with the precession cones of the kinetic moments and orbitals."
Read [much] more on this page of links:
Thanks to Conal for the tip!
Wikipedia Circular Periodic Table of The Elements
Wikipedia circular periodic table of the elements here:
Gyroscopic Periodic Table
From the Garuda Biodynamics web site: "The Gyroscopic Periodic Table has been a natural progression developed from a study of Soil Science, Dr Steiner's Agriculture and Medical Courses, Astronomy and Astrology."
Bent & Weinhold's 2D/3D Periodic Tables
"The periodic table epitomizes chemistry, and evolving representations of chemical periodicity should reflect the ongoing advances in chemical understanding. In this respect, the traditional Mendeleev-style table appears sub-optimal for describing a variety of important higher-order periodicity patterns that have become apparent in the post-Mendeleevian quantal era. In this paper we analyze the rigorous mathematical origins of chemical periodicity in terms of the quantal nodal features of atomic valence orbitals, and we propose a variety of alternative 2D/3D display symbols, tables, and models.":
Thanks to René for the tip!
Rafael Poza's Elements and the Magnetosphere
Tomás A. Carroll's Spherical & Russian Doll Formulations
Tomás A. Carroll has devised a spherical formulation of the Periodic Table, and from this a nested Russian Doll formulation.
Tomás writes: "I accept your veiled challenge that it is not possible to formulate a spherical periodic table and propose two solutions for your consideration. The EXCEL spreadsheet shows exactly how I transformed the quantum numbers from the standard 4D Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates in 3D, using two different centers. I included cylindrical coordinates too, just for fun."
Angular Form of the Periodic Table by Kamal Akhtar
"The complete periodic table is consists of two circles, principal circle and auxiliary circle. The principal circle is consist of seven tracks (periods) and eighteen sectors (groups). The auxiliary circle is consist of only two tracks, inner track and outer track. There is no division of sectors in auxiliary circle." Read more in a word.doc. View the full size PT.
INSTITUTE OF NICE TEACHING EDUCATION AND LEARNING
1, RAJ COLONY, BEHIND J.V. JAIN INTER COLLEGE
OLD KALSIA ROAD, SAHARANPUR-247001 (U.P.), INDIA
Jan Scholten's Periodic table (Spiral Format)
A spiral format periodic table by Jan Scholten:
Spiral Periodic Table
Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez
The Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez is inspired by the telluric helix Chancortois (1864) with the difference that the sequence of the elements are rolled into a cone shape rather than a cylinder:
Steve Jensen's "In-Finite Form"
"I'm a figurative sculptor, living in Minneapolis MN. A few years ago, while looking at a two dimensional version of the periodic table, I too wondered if it would be possible to create a Periodic Table without any visual breaks in its numerical sequence. Although I had never seen anything other than the rectangular flat table, I thought I might be able to solve this spatial continuity problem three dimensionally. I also wanted to limit myself to using a 3-D "line" that had no sudden changes in direction. After coming up with what I thought was a new and unique sculptural resolution, I put the project aside. Only recently (after re-building my paper model out of a translucent material) did I do some research on the web, and immediately recognized the strong likeness between my version and the Alexander Arrangement. Even more surprising was my models' visual similarity to Crookes' figure eight design from some 111 years ago.
"Although there are obviously many inventive and well thought out responses to this design challenge, I believe that my solution is a unique one, and an improvement over some of the previous three dimensional forms. The "line" of my model allows for contiguous numerical placement of all the symbols (while maintaining group continuity along its vertical axis), even as the shape of its plan view makes visual reference to the well-known symbol for infinity. What's more, in my version, the Lanthanide & Actinide series do not occupy a separate field but are fully integrated into the continuous linear flow. This piece, which I've entitled "In-Finite Form" speaks to the mystery of the endless flow of space, even as it folds back onto itself within the confines of a finite system."
Graphic Representations of the Periodic System
Mary E. Saecker writes an article in Chemical Education Digital Library, Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations: Graphic Representations of the Periodic System, that reviews some periodic table formunations.
The paper contains a link to this pdf file which gives templates and instructions for several print, cut-out & build periodic table formulations:
Supplement to: Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations by Mary E. Saecker, J. Chem. Educ., 2009, 86, 1151.
Construction Directions A Cut-Out Chart of the Periodic System (Periodic Table Cylinder)
Tai Chi Periodic Table
The two most interesting are are shown below:
Harrison Spiral Periodic Table
This spiral, inspired by Stewart's Chemical Galaxy, is based on the modern periodic table with the elements strictly arranged in the increasing order of their atomic number and in accordance with their electron configurations.
The spiral separates the elements into the eight dominant 'A' groups of normal elements, and the eight corresponding 'B' subgroups of transitional and inner transitional elements, which have been incorporated as the inner spiral. The organisation of the elements closely follows H.G. Deming's 1923 Periodic Table where A B numeration was first utilized to correspond the characteristic oxides of the 'B' groups to those of the 'A' groups. The result of this design places Group VIII, the triads Fe, Co, Ni, etc. as a subgroup of Group 0 (or 18 Helium Group) which conflicts with some modern periodic tables, though broadly agrees with Deming's original proposal (VIIIA and VIIIB).
Hydrogen, which generally cannot be considered as part of any group, has been placed with the Fluorine group VII which appears its natural place in the spiral. Common names have been used where practicable to make the table more educational and reader-friendly. Element symbols have been included in the expanded poster of this table.
Look at a larger PDF.
Spiral of Atoms and Their Periodic Table
This information clarifies the options published in the editions of my book The Axiomatics of Nature (2007-2009). Mark Adelman Samuilovich (Mark S. Eidelman)
Circular Periodic Table of Elements
Michael Paukner's circular periodic table is one alternative to the standard periodic table of the elements:
Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure
From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure :
Bayeh's Theoretical Periodic Table of Elements
"The modern periodic table is based on quantum numbers and blocks, many problems faced the scientists and researchers when arranging the elements in the traditional and modern periodic tables as placing some elements in the incorrect place as (He) Helium, (La) Lanthanide and many others elements..." read the full pdf article here:
Bayeh's Theoretical 3D Periodic Tables
- Crocodile Periodic Table
- Ship Periodic Table
- Snake Periodic Table
- Spiral Periodic Table
- Spiral rectangular Periodic Table
- Spiral triangular Periodic Table
Piazzalunga's Circular Periodic Table
"My name is Marco Piazzalunga, I'm from Bergamo, Italy and i'm 12 years old. I am very interested about chemistry and about your website dedicated to the periodic tables of elements. I've made one graphic version of the periodic table based on a "round" model and i would like to know your opinion about it. I'm sending you the file attached. I hope you enjoy it":
Makeyev's Periodic Table
By Alexander Makeyev – integrated interdisciplinary researcher, inventor, poet – a long pdf document (1093 pages in Russian, here) that contains a new formulation:
Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1-270 AMUs
From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1-270 AMUs:
Alexander Arrangement of Elements, 3D Illustrated
The design of the 2012 Alexander Arrangement of Elements (AAE) follows the principles of a three-dimensional model developed by Roy Alexander in 1965: a printed representation of element information based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, with every element data box physically and visually contiguous and continuous within the sequence of atomic numbers in generally accepted element property related columns - "...the periodic table the way it's supposed to be".
This is made possible by wrapping, folding, and joining the printed material and employing the patented p-block downslant of the element data boxes to allow the end element of a period to be adjacent to the first element of the next period.
Several unique features separate it from the previous four versions of the AAE
- The visual effect mirrors the look of Theodore Gray's series of posters, books, element cards and periodictable.com website and apps for the Apple iPod and iPad.
- Each element box is dominated by a Theodore Gray element photograph, with the element name, letter symbol, and atomic number relatively large, often overlapping the photo.
- The period numbers (below, right) are printed at the interface of the end/beginning of the periods, folded 90 degrees on the model, and the blocks and columns (old & new numbers), are identified below the data boxes - and in the case of the Actinoids, above.
- The element blocks connect at a central nexus (below, center), with the d- and f-blocks leaving, looping, and returning there, thus allowing the shorter period gaps above to be closed. For best visibility of the element data, these loops pinch together near the intersection. The p-block bends in a half-circle to join the s-block at the corner described above, with a patented 'downslant' where the element boxes gracefully sweep down a full box height (above) within this block to allow elimination of the "carriage return" effect: each period ending on the row above the next.
- The extended Hydrogen data box, a characteristic of all Alexander Arrangements, is more extended in this model, reaching for the multiple positions of the H box that are still under discussion among experts. The extra-extended Hydrogen box, illustrated by a composite image of a hydrogen cloud in space, (above, right) loops over the s- and p-blocks. Starting up from behind the corner of Helium & Lithium, inside the half-helical tube to loop over Helium, attach above Lithium, Beryllium and then Carbon as the loop descends (joining the ascending portion) over the data boxes of the s- & p-blocks, terminating in contact with Fluorine, Neon, and corner-on to Neon.
- The model size is the same as the previous Display Version of the AAE, but has fewer element data boxes, due to there being no photos of the lab created elements and for simplification of the educational application - introduction to property periodicity and organization of element data - the elements with atomic numbers over 94 are not included (see addendum).
- Where the f-block begins and ends, between Barium and Lutetium, the f-block is held perpendicular to the only flat segment of the element display by a pair of triangular braces, which also create the flat area, aligning the s-block with the 'pinch' of the d-block. This is particularly apparent from the bottom, when the model is supported from above. (see below)
Designed by Roy Alexander, a science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, the Adobe Illustrator art for the model was started by Ann Grafelman, and continued by Roy from mid 2011 through November of 2012.
Photos were provided by Theodore Gray, and Element Collection funded the printing and die cutting performed by Strine Printing in York, Pennsylvania. The model kit was first offered at Theo's PeriodicTable.com, then at Roy's AllPeriodicTables.com and the new 3dPeriodicTable.com, which site is dedicated to the 3D Forever Periodic Table only, with add-ons, application suggestions, and descriptions and commentary of all sorts.
Assembly instructions and step photos, as well as a number or completed model color photographs are included with the kit. These were developed with prototype models, and while functional, have been upgraded and accompanied by an assembly video at AlexanderArrangementOfElements.com/3D
Text relating to the abbreviation of the ever increasing number of elements is explained at two places on the 3D AAE illustrated periodic table model kit. One will remain with the model and one is removed at the time of assembly.
That which remains runs under the Actinoids and the d-block elements, where the lab created elements might ordinarily be expected to be found, says:
The lab created elements ordinarily found in this part of a periodic table are not to be found in nature, there can be no photographs of them, so nothing needs to be added to this element photo periodic table - ever - so it will never be obsolete, a Forever Periodic Table.
That which is removed says:
Naturally-occurring elements have been numbered variously, generally between 80 and 96, all for cogent scientific reasons.
For easier teaching and learning, we have included on this periodic table only the 92 elements actually currently existing on Earth and in the remainder of the Universe, and adding Technetium and Promethium, which, although they may have no stable forms, serve to fill what would otherwise be gaps in the sequence.
Not added for practical and educational reasons are 'elements' consisting only of pages and pages of computer data from smashing atoms in particle accelerators. Another reason is that there can be no photographs of them to show, and as a result, your arrangement is complete and never be obsolete - your Forever Periodic Table.
Included with the art of the periodic table on the die cut substrate that makes up the model is some background information about the the history of three dimensional periodic tables.
The first of these is about the discoverer of the concept of arranging the elements in periods suggested by the properties of the elements, de Chancourtois.
The second 3D periodic table information piece (on the rear of the de Chancourtois removable card) are sketches of a number of the 3D periodic tables found on the Chemogenesis website.
Vortic Periodic Table in Marquetry
From Dr David Robson:
"My vortic periodic table created in marquetry may be of interest. I have always thought of vortic energies and with retirement time, I used my Marquetry Hobby to so create. Despite the inevitable Black Hole centre I have included the Higgs Boson there as a tribute to its discovery and potential as a window to elsewhere."
Wheelshaped Table of Elements
From Facebook, a Wheelshaped table of elements.
Please note the symmetry of this representation.
As a result, it is possible that element 118 is the very last one in the periodic table. We have the sequence:
2 x 14 (blue)
4 x 10 (brown)
6 x 6 (violet)
8 x 2 (green)
and, logically, neither first nor last factor can be 0 or -2 (they differ in two columns above respectively by 2 and 4). On the other hand, the coherence of the structure requires the existence of two additional elements at the beginning!
Ato Circular Periodic Table by Ramanpreet Singh Jandu
Ramanpreet Singh Jandu writes:
"The present invention relates to a device for the understanding of the periodic table and the structure of the atom together in a better way.
The device consists of seven concentric circular disks rotatable about their centre, wherein the size of the disks increases from the centre to the end like that in the structure of the atom.
Each disk is marked so as to form the sub-blocks and each disk in itself represents the periods of the periodic table.
The disks are divided into sub-blocks and labeled with elements at back side as well.
Thus the Ato Circular Periodic Table, as the name suggests, is the combination of atomic structure of the atom and that of the periodic classification of the elements."
Read more in the pdf file which describes the new formulation in detail.
3D Left Step Periodic Table
By Masahiko Suenaga, Kyushu University, Japan a 3D Left Step Periodic Table.
"Inspired by the work of Dr. Tsimmerman and Dr. Samanez, I have created a new 3D Left Step Periodic Table, which resembles to Mt. Fuji, recently registered as a World Heritage site. For more information, please visit my website":
Bernard Periodic Spiral
The Bernard Periodic Spiral of the Elements (BPSE), depicts a novel rendition of the Periodic Table that replaces the flat rectangular format with a continuous unidirectional spiral that maintains all the properties of Group and Period formation.
Comparisons may be made with similar models spanning the last three decades of the 20th century (Alexander, 1971; Mazurs, 1974; & Kaufman, 1999).
In the chart form, this new rendition is referred to as the Elliptical Periodic Chart of the Elements. In the three-dimensional form, the model resembles a Christmas tree in shape with the 7 Periods represented as circular platforms situated at various levels with the elements placed appropriately at the outer edges of each of these platforms as a Period builds up. The elements may be represented as spherical objects or flat discs with radii proportionate to atomic radii (or reasonable approximations). Color schemes accentuate the four different Blocks of elements: the s-Block (green), the p-Block (blue, with the exception that the last Group is red signifying the end of a Period), d-Block (orange), and the f-Block (yellow). The grey section, called the Group-Period Interchange, is where the end of a particular Period connects to the beginning of the next Period, and, at the same time, transitions from Group 18 to Group 1.
Watch the video here:
Muradjan's Mathematical Structure of The Periodic Table
From the website periodictablemathstructure:
The Periodic Table with a new double numerical structure, presented here is attempt to find table form which will in some new way represent the periodicity and symmetry of the Elements, with the Periodic System as base. Also this tetrahedral laminar table structure maybe will became a base for developing a new shell structure of atomic nucleus. This new rearrangement of the chemical element is based on mathematical formula which result is simple, length of the periods:
The Periodic Pyramid by Jennifer N. Hennigan and W. Tandy Grubbs, J. Chem. Educ. 2013, 90, 8, 1003-1008, https://doi.org/10.1021/ed3007567.
"The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy the shells identified by the principle quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.
The numbers 2, 8, 18, and 32 are shown in this work to be related to the triangular numbers from mathematical number theory. The relationship to the triangular numbers, in turn, suggests an alternate method for arranging elements in terms of periodicity. The resulting three-dimensional 'periodic pyramid' is highly symmetric in shape. Just as is true in the modern periodic table, each layer of the periodic pyramid can be separated into shell and subshell contributions. Examining the pyramid's structure is arguably a pedagogically useful activity for college-level introductory or physical chemistry students, as it provides an opportunity to further ponder the shell model of the atom and the origins of periodicity. The connections to number theory are used to show that the outermost subshell of a given shell contains (2n – 1) orbitals."
Chandra's Polar Plot Periodic Table
MONOGRAPH ON ATOMS, BY Dr. N. Naveen Chandra, 543 Bellamy Road North Scarborough, On, M1H1G5, 416 439 6630, firstname.lastname@example.org >© N.Naveen Chandra, 2014.
A new way of graphical representation of atoms is developed and presented here. Atoms are recognized as functions of two variables A(r,Θ), where r =2,10,18,36,54,86,118 (given arbitrarily r=1,2,3,4,5,6,7) represents period and Θ representing group, is actually the angle between the groups. A mathematical solution is obtained for Θ having three distinct values of (π /9) radians, (π/18) radians and (π/27) radians which define three super groups satisfying the equation 15(π/27) +10(π/18) +8 (π /9) =2π. 15 groups of two Atoms with a transition zone of (π/27) radians is nominally called Grey Super Group (GSG). 10 groups of which 9 have four Atoms and 1 has two Atoms, also including a transition zone of (π/18) radians, is nominally called Blue Super Group (BSG). 8 groups of which 7 have 6 Atoms and one has 7 Atoms, including a transition zone of (π/9) radians is called Yellow Super Group (YSG). The group with 7 atoms is the so called reference group of Atoms 2, 10, 18,36,54,86 and 118. The GSG has 30 Atoms, the BSG has 38 Atoms and the YSG has 49 Atoms. The Atom 1 is at the centre of the Hub and does not belong to any group or period and has coordinates of (0, 0). Atom 1 having no neutrons is unique.
Metallic Character Table
"I would like to submit you an hexagonal periodic table. It's structured in different rings. The elements are ordered on their metallic characters so in the inner rings there are noble gases and nonmetals while in the outer rings there are alkali and alkaline earth metals. I based the order on the typical metallic characteristics: low ionization energy, electron affinity, etc... "
Marco Piazzalunga <email@example.com>
UVS Periodic Tables
From the Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) website, two related formunations from the nucleosynthesis in the universe section, one showing a "manifold dual-core 3-sphere hypersphere topology", and the other showing a "dual-core Möbius strip topology":
Clock Periodic Table
Prof. Martyn Poliakoff of the University of Nottingham, and star of the Periodic Videos YouTube Channel, explains how he was given a periodic table clock by a Japanese School teacher... which he likes very much:
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Clock Face Periodic Table
The designer of the clock, Nagayasu (a Japannese school teacher), has now provided a fuller periodic table based on the same design:
Instructables 3D Periodic Table
From Makendo on the Instructables website:
The first periodic table was developed in 1862 by a French geologist called Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois. He plotted the elements on a cylinder with a circumference of 16 units, and noted the resulting helix placed elements with similar properties in line with each other. But his idea - which he called the "Telluric Spiral" (see here), because the element tellurium was near the middle - never caught on, perhaps because it was published in a geology journal unread by chemists, and because de Chancourtois failed to include the diagram and described the helix as a square circle triangle.
Mendeleev got all the glory, and it is his 1869 version (dramatically updated, but still recognizable) that nearly everyone uses today.
This instructable [project] documents my efforts to reimagine a 3D periodic table of the elements, using modern making methods. It's based on the structure of a chiral nanotube, and is made from a 3D printed lattice, laser cut acrylic, a lazy susan bearing, 118 sample vials and a cylindrical lamp.
Kurushkin's Spiral Periodic Table
Mikhail Kurushkin has a way of constructing the standard long form periodic table from the Janet Left-Step formulation.
Mikhail writes in his J.Chem.Educ paper DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.7b00242; J. Chem. Educ. 2017, 94, 976?979
"Addition of another s-block to the left of the left-step periodic table [enables it] to be rolled into a spiral so that the left and right s-blocks are merged together and the number of elements is exactly 118. The resulting periodic table is called the "spiral" periodic table, which is the fundamental representation of periodicity":
Moran's Periodic Spiral (Updated)
Jeff Moran has updated his 1999 Periodic Spiral.
Click here for a larger version.
Jeff says: I offer the attached spiral formulation as a way of expressing the relationships of the f and d blocs to group 3:
- La and Ac are assigned to the Ln and An series, respectively
- The f block series is within, though apart from, the d block
- The group 3-ish relationship of Ln and An to Sc (and, by extension, to Y) is implied
- The group 3 status of Lu and Lr is explicit
Chemical Galaxy III
Updated from Philip Stewart's Chemical Galaxy II, version III shows all the recently discovered elements, including: 117 (Ts) and 118 (Og).
Click here for the full size .PDF version (which gives more data):
Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System
A spiral periodic table formulation by Nawa, called the Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System.
Click here for a larger version:
Ziaei's Circular Periodic Table
Minoo Ziaei writes:
"My father, Manouchehr Ziaei, has an interesting design of the periodic table, which I helped him draw using AutoCAD. He is very keen in introducing [this formulation] to potential interested viewers, he was recommended to visit [the Chemogenesis Database of Periodic Tables] website."
Click image to enlarge:
Scott Van Note Periodic Table Sculpture
On the Saatchi Art website, a 3D periodic table Sculpture by Scott Van Note.
Sculpture: Metal (Bronze). Ten made for the local ASM international chapter.
Loops and changes of direction show electron shell filling. S,P,D,F with S just a change of direction. Continuous spiral from top to bottom. New loops introduce as the electron shell would. Does not show the out-of-order shell filling.
Keywords: periodic, science, sculpture, functional, nerd
Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip!
Weise's Tetrahedral Periodic Table
A Facebook video by Dmitry Weise showing how the conventional periodic table can be morphed into a tetrahedral formulation via the Janet Left Step:
Telluric Remix in Colour
Philip Stewart writes (this is the same text that accompanies the 2018 B/W version):
The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.
My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).
- The Telluric Remix is topologically the same as my 'Janet Rajeuni' and 'Chemosphere': it maintains the continuous sequence of atomic numbers with the help of arrows, which cascade down, displaying graphically the Janet [Madelung] rule for the order of subshell filling.
- I have placed the s block in the centre to emphasise its pivotal nature and so that there is no question of whether it belongs on the left or on the right. Every shell (Arabic numeral) and every period (Roman numeral) ends with ns2, but the ns electrons combine with f, d or p electrons of elements in the succeeding period to make their valence shells, until ns2+np6, which forms a noble gas. Helium, He, is also noble with a complete n=1 shell and no 1p6.
- Noble gases are marked G. Groups are numbered sequentially within each block, and in general the xth member of the series has x electrons in the subshell. Exceptions are shown by a small d (or two) in the corner, signifying that a d electron replaces an s electron in the d block or an f electron in the f block (note also p in Lr). This makes it easy to determine the electronic structure of each element.
- Click here for a larger version (pdf).
I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. firstname.lastname@example.org
Grainger's Elemental Periodicity with "Concentric Spheres Intersecting Orthogonal Planes" Formulation
From Tony Grainger, an Elemental Periodicity formulation with concentric spheres intersecting orthogonal planes.
"I hand sketched this periodic table about a decade ago and placed it on my cubicle window at UTAS, with minimal comments from work mates. It bears some similarity to other formulations in the database, especially when cut along the left axis and laid flat. The concept of all elements of a period being aligned along orthogonal planes cutting a sphere was inherent in the original sketch. When I began using SVG about five years ago I realised I could draw this as a real projection of the 3D model. It was on the back burner, until I found the original sketch during a tidy up."
There are two images of this 3D formulation: an "inside_corner_below/outside_corner_above" (top image) and an "outside_corner_below/inside_corner_above" lower image.
- The "inside corner below" is like looking at the junction of a floor and two walls in the corner of a room.
- The "outside corner above" is like looking up at the underside of an overhanging corner of a building.
- The "outside corner below" is like looking down on the corner of a large box.
- The "inside corner above" is like looking at the junction of walls and a ceiling in a room.
Schaltenbrand's Helical Gathering of the Elements
From the RSC Website:
"A glistering, shining spiral made of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and a diamond forms the show-stopping apex of the tribute from the University of Cambridge's St Catharine's college to the International Year of the Periodic Table.
"Commissioned to match George Schaltenbrand's 1920 design for a helical gathering of the elements – albeit extended to all 118 current elements – and signed by Yuri Oganessian, it is almost certainly the most expensive periodic table in the world."
Moran's Periodic Spiral (2019)
Jeff Moran has been working on his Periodic Spiral for more than twenty years. Here is the latest iteration, click to enlarge:
NAWA's Version of Moran's Periodic Spiral
Nuclear Periodic Table
"Elements with proton magic-number nuclei are arranged on the right-most column, just like the noble-gas elements in the familiar atomic periodic table.
"The periodic properties of the nuclei, such as their stability and deformation from spherical shape, are illustrated in the table. Interestingly, there is a fortuitous resemblance in the alignments of the elements: a set of the elements with the magic number nuclei 50(Sn), 82(Pb) and Fl(114) also appears as the group 14 elements in the atomic periodic table. Thanks to this coincidence, there are similarities in the alignments beyond 41(Nb) (e.g., Nb-Ta-Db or La-Ac in the same columns) in both the nuclear and atomic periodic tables of the elements.
"Related documents can be found: http://www.ss.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/elementouch/index.html
Gierałtowski's Periodic Rotation Table
Sent by Tomasz Gierałtowski from Poland. There is no information, but Tomasz has provided construction diagrams for each period. Click the links to see these:
- Period 1
- Period 2
- Period 3
- Period 4
- Period 5
- Period 6a
- Period 6b
- Period 7a
- Period 7b
- Periodic Rotation Table
Spiral Electron Spin Periodic Table
The Spiral Electron Spin Periodic Table, By Justine Colburn, who also developed the Genesis formulation.
Lehikoinen's Circular Clock Form
Otto Lehikoinen writes:
"A circular form separating 1s orbital to the center, set it on a wall clock as there are 48 elements of main periods, thus can be used as markers for half hours. Group 4 is centered on noon and group 7 starts the afternoon, to get anions and cations with the same but opposite charge to be beside each other. Thus the noble gases are centered on midnight which is easily remembered by neon (and other noble gas) lights. The minute hand hits the 40 d-block elements giving an accuracy of 1.5 minutes and seconds could be read from lanthanides and actinides."
Nawa's Multi Periodic Table
Nagayasu Nawa - "A Japanese school teacher and periodic table designer" - has developed a "Multi" Periodic Table with three formulations: long-form, upsidedown long-form & circular with era of discovery, electronic structure and abundance data.
Discoid Periodic Table of The Elements
Statement: "The orbital periodicity of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic number." By Muzzammil Qureshi.
"Years before Mendeleev's publications, there was plenty of experimentation with alternative layouts for the elements. Even after the table got its permanent right-angle flip, folks suggested some weird and wonderful twists.
"One of them are Circular in shapes. Discoid means circular in shape, and there is a great reason for choosing such a shape. The term "Periodicity" itself means "To occur in intervals", and if you walk around in a circle, you will find that you will return to the point from where you started at. Similarly, if the elements are also arranged in such way, then we shall experience more periodicity in the elements than before..."
Kudan's Periodic Law (Helix Form)
From Pavel V. Kudan, a specialist in mass-spectrometry and identification of compounds, who suggests a helical variant of the Periodic table. The graphical representation illustrates the Periodic Law and the following features of the Kudan’s periodic system:
- Four element periods (1, 2, 3, 4)
- Two element half periods (-,+)
- Twenty one element subgroups octet rule compatible (1a-8a, 2b-8b, 3c-8c)
- Small energy barriers between S and F, F and D, D and P elements (gray segments)
- Large energy barriers between P and S elements (black segments)
- Large energy barrier between He and Li (black segments)
(See also Kudan’s Left-Step Periodic Table)
|What is the Periodic Table Showing?||Periodicity|
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
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