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2019 has been designated the International Year of the Periodic Table as it is the 150th Anniversary of the formulation of Mendeleev's Tabelle I

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1808

Dalton's Elements

Two pages from John Dalton's A New System of Chemical Philosophy in which he proposed his version of atomic theory based on scientific experimentation (see the scanned book, page 219):

Name Modern Symbol Dalton's Data Modern Values % error
Hydrog. H 1 1 0%
Azote N 5 14 -180%
Carbone C 5 12 -140%
Oxygen O 7 16 -129%
Phosphorus P 9 31 -244%
Sulphur S 13 32.1 -147%
Magnesia Mg 20 24.3 -22%
Lime Ca 24 40.1 -67%
Soda Na 28 23 18%
Potash K 42 39.1 7%
Strontites Sr 46 87.6 -90%
Barytes Ba 68 137.3 -102%
Iron Fe 50 55.8 -12%
Zinc Zn 56 65.4 -17%
Copper Cu 56 63.5 -13%
Lead Pb 90 200.6 -123%
Silver Ag 190 107.9 43%
Gold Au 190 197 -4%
Platina Pt 190 195.1 -3%
Mercury Hg 167 200.6 -20%
  • Dalton states that he is considering "chemical elements or ultimate particles"
  • Dalton assigns hydrogen as having a relative weight of 1.
  • Note the seemingly huge % errors in the atomic weights, compared with modern values.
  • These errors occurred because while Dalton had deduced that atoms combine in fixed (stoichiometric) ratios in compounds, he not always know what the ratios were. Thus there were two unknowns: the atomic weights (masses) and the stoichiometric ratios.

By Mark Leach

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Periodic Table, What is it showing?
Binary Compounds

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