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The INTERNET
Database of Periodic Tables

There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.

pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

The 8 Periodic Tables most recently added to the database:

2018     Murov's Colours of the Elements
1959     Mendoza's Nuevo Sistema Periodico
2018     Stamps Commemorating Yuri Organeson
2018     Acid–Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides
1880     Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff
1925     Sommerfield's Electon Filling Diagram
2012     Atoms, Orbitals & The Periodic Table
1984     Arabic Periodic Tables


2018

Murov's Colours of the Elements

Steven Murov writes :

"The element squares of this periodic table have colors resembling the actual colors of the elements. The table provides insight useful for helping to distinguish metals and non-metals as well as observations on elements of unusual color. The colors were taken from https://www.chemicool.com/ and applied with RGB codes."

The tables are available online at:

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1959

Mendoza's Nuevo Sistema Periodico

Dr. Oswaldo Baca Mendoza's Nuevo Sistema Periodico, presented to the VII Latin American Congress of Chemistry, held in Mexico from March 29 to April 3, 1959. Click image to enlarge:

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2018

Stamps Commemorating Yuri Organeson

Stamps Commemorating Yuri Organeson, Issued by Armenia, Dec 28th, 2017

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2018

Acid–Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides

Acid–Base Behavior of 100 Element Oxides: Visual and Mathematical Representations by Mikhail Kurushkin and Dmitry Kurushkin. J. Chem. Educ.  95, 4, 678-681.

A novel educational chart that represents the acid–base behavior of 100 s-, p-, d-, and f-element oxides depending on the element's electronegativity and oxidation state was designed. An updated periodic table of said oxides was developed. A mathematical criterion based on the chart was derived which allows prediction of the behavior of unfamiliar oxides:

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1880

Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff

A lecture theatre sized periodic table, titled Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff, found at St Andrew's University, published and printed in Austria and dating from about from about 1880.

Two YouTube videos about this PT:



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1925

Sommerfield's Electon Filling Diagram

Arnold Sommerfeld diagram appears in an issue of Memoirs and Proceedings of the manchester Literary and Philosophical Society for 1925-26. volume 70, p. 141-151.

Eric Scerri writes:

"The electron groupings are not exactly the same as what is believed to exist today but it amounts to the same order of filling. For example p orbitals were thought to consist of two groups of 2 and 4 electrons, rather than 2, 2, 2 as believed today. Similarly d orbitals were thought to be formed of two groups of 4 and 6 electrons. With that in mind you will see that Sommerfeld was the first to propose an aufbau filling system: The occupation of 4s before 3d or as represented here the 2 electrons in orbit 11 followed by the 4 and 6 from orbits 3,s and 3,3.

"Sommerfeld does indicate sub-shells. They are just not the same groupings as the current ones. For example 2,1 and 2,2 indicates subshells within the 2nd main shell. Similarly the 3rd shell is presented as 3,2 and 3,3. The totals are of course the same, namely 6 for what we now call p orbitals and 10 for what we call d orbitals. All this came before the discovery of the 4th or spin quantum number. This is in keeping with Bohr's original assignment of shells and sub-shells.

"The discovery of sub-structure to electron shells was not an 'all or nothing' development, but a gradual and almost organic evolution."

Eric has a new book out – A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science – in which the gradual evolution of electronic structure involving Bohr, Sommerfeld, Bury, Main Smith, Pauli and others is traced out.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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2012

Atoms, Orbitals & The Periodic Table

One of several animations and explanations/realisations of quantum physics from Data-Burger, scientific advisor: J. Bobroff, with the support of: Univ. Paris Sud, SFP, Triangle de la Physique, PALM, Sciences à l'Ecole, ICAM-I2CAM.

Mark Leach writes:

"What I particularly like about this video is that it shows the quantum fuzziness of the atoms. This explains/shows how and why induced-dipole/induced-dipole (London force) interactions occur, an important class of van der Waals interaction. At any moment, the electron distribution is not perfectly spherical, which means that there is an instantaneous dipole on the atom. This instantaneous dipole is able to induce a dipole on an adjacent atom, with the effect that the two atoms are attracted when they touch. It is as if atoms are 'sticky' like Velcro.

"This effect explains why the Group 18 noble gas elements are able to form liquids and solids [not He] at low temperatures, and why non-polar molecules, such as P4, S8 and hydrocarbons are able to condense."

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1984

Arabic Periodic Tables

From Arabic introductory text published by the Royal Scientific Society, Amman, Jordan, 1984. Jeries A. Rihani, who provided the two images, writes:

"The first image shows a periodic table similar to that of the Janet left-step periodic table, but in an upside-down flipped format.The second image displays the comparative energy levels of orbitals of atoms of many electrons."

Thanks to Jeries A. Rihani for the tip! 

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pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

Periodic Table, What is it showing?
Binary Compounds

© Mark R. Leach 1999-


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