Home Page
About
Chemogenesis Web Book
Chemical Thesaurus
Tutorials and Drills
Shop
Reviews
Contact
Links
Frequently Asked Questions

pre 1900 formulations
1900 to 1949 formulations
1950 to 1999 formulations
post 2000 formulations
Spiral formulations
3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables
Miscellaneous periodic tables
Books and reviews
non-chemistry periodic tables
All periodic tables

The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables


There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.

pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations post 2000 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

Periodic Table formulations from the years before 1900, by date:

1000BC     Elements Known To The Ancients
450BC     Classical Elements
1000     Elements Known in the Year 1000
1670     Valentinus' Alchemy Table
1682     Kenelm Digby's A Choice Collection of Rare Secrets
1700     Elements Known in the Year 1700
1718     Geoffroy’s Affinity Table
1775     Bergman's Dissertation on Elective Affinities
1778     Diderot's Alchemical Chart of Affinities
1782     de Morveau's Table of Chemically Simple Substances
1789     Lavoisier's Table of Simple Substances
1800     Elements Known in The Year 1800
1803     Dalton's Postulates About The Elements
1808     John Dalton's Elements
1831     Daubeny's Teaching Display Board of Atomic Weight
1836     Berzelius' Electronegativity Table
1843     Gmelin's System
1850     Johann Dobereiner's Triads
1850     Elements Known in the Year 1850
1862     Telluric Helix or Screw
1862     Meyer's Periodic System of 1862
1864     Newlands' Octaves
1864     William Odling's Table of Elements
1864     Naquet's Families of Elements
1866     Spectroscope Revelations
1867     Hinrichs’s Spiral Periodic System
1868     Handwritten draft of the first version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table
1868     Meyer's "Lost" Table
1869     Mendeleev's Tabelle I
1869     Mendeléeff's Vertical Table (Q&Q's Spelling)
1870     Meyer's Periodic Table
1870     Baumhauer's Spiral
1870     Baker's Electronegativity Table
1871     Mendeleev's Tabelle II
1871     Mendeleev's Predicted Elements
1871     Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013
1872     Meyer's Spiral System
1881     Spring's Diagram
1882     Bayley's Periodic System
1882     Brauner's Periodic Table
1886     Crookes' Periodic Table
1887     Flavitzky's Arrangement
1892     Bassett's Vertical Arrangement
1892     Bassett Dumb-Bell Form
1893     Rang's Periodic Table
1895     Retger's Periodic Table
1895     Thomsen's Periodic Table
1896     Theodore Richards Classification of The Elements
1898     Crookes' vis generatrix

1000BC

Elements Known to The Ancients

Elements known to the Ancients, taken from this Wikipedia page:

Top of Page


450BC

Classical Elements

The Greek Classical Elements — Earth, Water, Air, Fire and Aether — date from 450 BC or so, and persisted throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance, deeply influencing European thought and culture.

Plato characterizes the elements from a list created by the Sicilian philosopher Empedocles called these the four "roots." Plato seems to have been the first to use the term element:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_element

Top of Page


1000

Elements Known in the Year 1000

Elements known in the year 1000, taken from this Wikipedia page:

Top of Page


1670

Valentinus' Alchemy Table

A table of alchemical symbols from Basilius Valentinus' (Basil Valentine) The Last Will and Testament, 1670 ce. :

Top of Page


1682

Kenelm Digby's A Choice Collection of Rare Secrets

Top of Page


1700

Elements Known in the Year 1700

Elements known in the year 1700, taken from this Wikipedia page:

Top of Page


1718

Geoffroy’s Affinity Table

From Wikipedia, Étienne François Geoffroy’s 1718 Affinity Table.

At the head of the column is a substance with which all the substances below can combine.

Top of Page


1775

Bergman's Dissertation on Elective Affinities

Alchemical symbols in Torbern Bergman's 1775 Dissertation on Elective Affinities, which was translated from Latin to English in 1783 from Google Books:

 

Top of Page


1778

Diderot's Alchemical Chart of Affinities

Top of Page


1782

de Morveau's Table of Chemically Simple Substances

de Morveau's table of chemically simple substances (updated with modern representations by Mazurs):

Top of Page


1789

Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine Lavoisier's produced the first modern list of chemical elements, containing among others, the 23 elements of those known then. He also redefined the term "element". Previously the metals, except mercury, were not considered elements. Wikipedia

A list of 33 simple substances compiled by Lavoisier, from Traite? Ele?mentaire de Chimie, Cuchet, Paris, 1789, p. 192:

From Peter van der Krogt's Elementymology & Elements Multidict web site:

Lavoisier's Table of Simple Substances (1789)
Gases
New names (French) Old names (English translation)
Lumière Light
Calorique Heat
Principle of heat
Igneous fluid
Fire
Matter of fire and of heat
Oxygène Dephlogisticated air
Empyreal air
Vital air
Base of vital air
Azote Phlogisticated gas
Mephitis
Base of mephitis
Hydrogène Inflammable air or gas
Base of inflammable air
Metals
New names (French) Old names (English translation)
Antimoine Antimony
Argent Silver
Arsenic Arsenic
Bismuth Bismuth
Cobolt Cobalt
Cuivre Copper
Étain Tin
Fer Iron
Manganèse Manganese
Mercure Mercury
Molybdène Molybdena
Nickel Nickel
Or Gold
Platine Platina
Plomb Lead
Tungstène Tungsten
Zinc Zinc
Nonmetals
New names (French) Old names (English translation)
Soufre Sulphur
Phosphore Phosphorus
Carbone Pure charcoal
Radical muriatique Unknown
Radical fluorique Unknown
Radical boracique Unknown
Earths
New names (French) Old names (English translation)
Chaux Chalk, calcareous earth
Magnésie Magnesia, base of Epsom salt
Baryte Barote, or heavy earth
Alumine Clay, earth of alum, base of alum
Silice Siliceous earth, vitrifiable earth

Top of Page


1800

Elements Known in the Year 1800

Elements known in the year 1800, taken from this Wikipedia page:

Top of Page


1803

Dalton's Postulates About The Elements

Around the year 1803 in Manchester, John Dalton gave a series of lectures in which he presented his postulates:

  • Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.
  • The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element, and the atoms of different elements can be distinguished from one another by their respective relative atomic weigh/mass.
  • All atoms of a given element are identical.
  • Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form chemical compounds, and a given compound always has the same relative numbers of types of atoms.
  • Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles, nor destroyed in the chemical process, and a chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together.

From a very early notebook from around this time:

Top of Page


1808

John Dalton's Elements

A fuller list of Dalton's elements and symbols:

From from Peter van der Krogt's Elementymology & Elements Multidict web site and here.

Top of Page


1831

Daubeny's Teaching Display Board of Atomic Weights

The Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, has a display of Charles Daubeny's teaching materials from 1831, including a black painted wooden board with "SYMBOLS OF SIMPLE BODIES": symbols, atomic weights and names of elements in two columns, and a small pile of cubes with element symbol.

Note that some of the numbers seem very strange to our eyes: carbon is given as 6 (rather than 12) and oxygen 8 (not 16), while others correspond with modern values remarkably well, chlorine is given as 36 rather than 35.5.

Daubeny's weights (along with the modern mass) are given:

Daubeny's SYMBOLS OF SIMPLE BODIES (1831)
O 8 (16.0) Oxygen K 40 (39.1) Potassium
Cl 36 (35.5) Chlorine Na 24 (23.0) Sodium
Fl 19 (19.0) Fluorine Ca 20 (40.1) Calcium
B 80 (79.9) Bromine Mg 12 (24.3) Magnesium
I 124 (127) Iodine Si 8 (28.1) Silicon
H 1 (1.01) Hydrogen Al 10 (27.0) Aluminium
N 14 (14.0) Nitrogen Fe 28 (55.8) Iron
C 6 (12.0) Carbon Cu 64 (63.5) Copper
S 16 (32.1) Sulphur Pb 104 (207) Lead
P 16 (31.0) Phosphorus Hg 200 (200.6) Mercury

Check out the virtual tour of the museum, here. The display of Daubeny's teaching materials can be found in the basement, here.

Top of Page


1836

Berzelius' Electronegativity Table

Berzelius' electronegativity table of 1836.

The most electronegative element (oxygen or Sauerstoff) is listed at the top left and the least electronegative (potassium or Kalium) lower right. The line between hydrogen (Wasserstoff) and gold seperates the predomently electronegative elements from the electropositive elements. Page 17 and ref. 32 from Bill Jensen's Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept, J. Chem. Educ., 73, 11-20 (1996):

Top of Page


1843

Gmelin's System

L. Gmelin, Handbuch der anorganischen chemie 4th ed., Heidelberg, 1843, vol. 1, p. 52:

Top of Page


1850

Johann Dobereiner's Triads (1780 - 1849)

Triads are found with sequence of three similar elements, where the middle element has a mass equal to the average of the least and most massive. The diagram below, updated from here, uses mid-nineteenth century atomic mass information rather than modern data. If atomic numbers (Z) are used (a property unknown in 1850), the triads are exact:

Top of Page


1850

Elements Known in the Year 1850

Elements known in the year 1850, taken from this Wikipedia page:

Top of Page


1862

Telluric Helix or Screw

The French geologist , Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make use of atomic weights to produce a classification of periodicity. He drew the elements as a continuous spiral around a metal cylinder divided into 16 parts. The atomic weight of oxygen was taken as 16 and was used as the standard against which all the other elements were compared. Tellurium was situated at the centre, prompting vis tellurique, or telluric screw.

Chancourtois' original formulation includes elements in their correct places, selected compounds and some elements in more than one place. The helix was an important advance in that it introduced the concept of periodicity, but it was flawed. The formulation was rediscovered in the 1889 (P. J. Hartog, "A First Foreshadowing of the Periodic Law" Nature 46, 186-8 (1889)), and since then it has appeared most often in a simplified form that emphasizes the virtues and eliminates its flaws. [Thanks to CG for this info.]

Dutch Wikipedia, ScienceWorld & the Science and Society picture library.

Read more in Roy Alexander's All Periodic Tables site.

Top of Page


1862

Meyer's Periodic System of 1862

In his book, The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction, Eric Scerri writes how Lothar Meyer devised a partial periodic tables consisting of 28 elements arranged in order of increasing atomic weight in which the elements were grouped into vertical columns according to their chemical valences:

Top of Page


1864

Newlands' Octaves

One of the first attempts at a periodic table, known as "Newlands octaves", arranged the known elements by atomic weight. Newland noticed that if he broke up his list of elements into groups of seven – starting a new row with the eighth element – the first element in each of those groups had similar chemistry. More here.

Kabbalistic

H
F
Cl
Co/Ni
Br
Pd
I
Pt/Ir
Li
Na
K
Cu
Rb
Ag
Cs
Tl
Gl
Mg
Ca
Zn
Sr
Cd
Ba/V
Pb
Bo
Al
Cr
Y
Ce/La
U
Ta
Th
C
Si
Ti
In
Zr
Sn
W
Hg
N
P
Mn
As
Di/Mo
Sb
Nb
Bi
O
S
Fe
Se
Ro/Ru
Te
Au
Os

Seeing the word octave applied to this table may lead one to think that Newlands recognised periods of eight elements with repeating properties, as we do with the modern periodic table, for example: Li Be B C N O F Ne.

However, each sequence of Newlands' octaves contain only seven elements. Count the columns! In Newlands' day the group 8 (18) rare gas elements, He, Ne, Ar, Kr & Xe, had not yet been discovered.

To Newlands, Li to Na is an octave of eight elements, the eighth element repeating the properties of the first:

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   A

  • To Newlands, Li to Na is an octave of eight elements.
  • We say Li to Ne is a period of eight elements, and that that Li and Na are in different periods. Indeed, the Li to Na series consists of nine elements.
  • In Newlands' day the group 8 (18) rare gas elements, He, Ne, Ar, Kr & Xe, had not been discovered.

    Read more about Newland's Octaves, including a commentry on the origional papers in Carmen Giunta's Elements and Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry.

Top of Page


1864

William Odling's Table of Elements

Top of Page


1864

Naquet's Families of Elements

According to Naquet’s 1864 textbook, Principes de Chimie, F. Savy, Paris, (updated by Eric Scerri):

Top of Page


1866

Spectroscope Revelations

From The Scientific American in 1866, an article by John Draper concerning "The Spectroscope and Its Revelations".

At the time there was no understanding how the spectra were generated but it was recognised that every element produced a unique spectrum:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Top of Page


1867

Hinrichs’s Spiral Periodic System

G.D. Hinrichs’s spiral periodic system of 1867. Programm der Atomechanik oder die Chemie eine Mechanik de Pantome, Augustus Hageboek, Iowa City, IA, 1867.

Top of Page


1868

Handwritten draft of the first version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

From of Bill Jensen, Curator of the Oesper Collection at the University of Cincinnati:

Top of Page


1868

Meyer's "Lost" Table of 1868

In his book, The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction, Eric Scerri writes how Lothar Meyer produced an expanded periodic system for his1868 textbook which contained 53 elements. Unfortunately, the table was misplaced by the publisher and was not appear until after his death in 1895:

Top of Page


1869

Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Top of Page


1869

Mendeléeff's Vertical Table (Q&Q's Spelling)

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1870

Meyer's Periodic Table. This is rather similar to the Mendeleev attempt at the same time.

Top of Page


1870

Baumhauer's Spiral

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1870

Baker's Electronegativity Table

Baker's electronegativity table of 1870 differs from Berzelius' listing of 1836 only by the addition of the newly discovered elements. Page 280 and ref. 5 from Bill Jensen's: Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part II: Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments, J. Chem. Educ., 80, 279-287 (2003):

Top of Page


1871

Mendeleev's Tabelle II

Mendeleev's Tabelle II can be shown in semi-modern form with the 'missing' group 18 rare gases and the f-block elements:

 

An alternitive version of Mendeleev's Tabelle II:

Top of Page


1871

Mendeleev's Predicted Elements

In large part, the success of the Mendeleev's analysis can be attributed to the gaps which he predicted would contain undiscovered elements with predictable properties. Mendeleev named these unknown elements using the terms eka, dvi & tri (1, 2 & 3 from the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit).

Mendeleev predictions include:

  • Eka-boron (scandium)
  • Eka-aluminium (gallium)
  • Eka-manganese (technetium)
  • Eka-silicon (germanium)

 

Image from van Spronsen

Top of Page


1871

Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013

Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013, click here to see full size:

Wooden Periodic Table

Top of Page


1872

Meyer's Spiral System

Meyer's Spiral System of 1872 (from van Spronsen):

Top of Page


1881

Spring's Diagram

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1882

Bayley's Periodic System

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1882

Brauner's Periodic Table

Brauner's periodic table of 1882 with a homologous accommodation of the rare-earth elements, from Chemische Berichte, 15, 1882, p. 15-121:

Top of Page


1886

Crookes' Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1887

Flavitzky's Arrangement

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1892

Bassett's Vertical Arrangement

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1892

Bassett Dumb-Bell Form

The Basset 'dumb-bell' formulation, ref. H. Basset, Chem. News, 65 (3-4), 19 (1892).

The image is from Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin, here.

Top of Page


1893

Rang's Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

Top of Page


1895

Retger's Periodic Table

Periodic Table of Retgers with an intraperiodic accommodation of the rare earths. Retgers, J.W., 1895. Z. Phys. Chem. 16, 644:

Top of Page


1895

Thomsen's Periodic Table

In 1895 the Danish thermochemist Hans Peter Jørgen Julius Thomsen proposed (Thomsen, J., 1895. Z. Anorg. Chem. 9, 190 ) a pyramidal/ladder representation:

Top of Page


1896

Theodore Richards Classification of The Elements

This is how the periodic table looked in 1896 in an article by Theodore Richards the pioneer of atomic weight measurement.

Notice all those elements at the bottom that could not be classified, explicitly listed including He and Ar :

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Top of Page


1898

Crookes' vis generatrix

Model of Crookes’ vis generatrix of 1898, built by his assistant, Gardiner. From: Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 63, 408.

The vertical scale represents the atomic weight of the elements from H = 1 to Ur = 239.

Missing elements are represented by a white circle. Similar elements appear underneath each other:

Cutting Board

Top of Page


 

 

pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations post 2000 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

 

 


Periodic Table, What is it showing?
Binary Compounds

© Mark R. Leach 1999-


Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos...

If you have any:

Queries
Comments
Suggestions or periodic table representations not shown on this page
Suggestions for links
Bug, typo or grammatical error reports about this page,

please contact Mark R. Leach, the author, using mrl@meta-synthesis.com

This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated.

Online Marketing
OnToplist is optimized by SEO
Add blog to our blog directory.

counter started in 2011