The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
3-Dimensional Periodic Table formulations, by date:
The French geologist , Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make use of atomic weights to produce a classification of periodicity. He drew the elements as a continuous spiral around a metal cylinder divided into 16 parts. The atomic weight of oxygen was taken as 16 and was used as the standard against which all the other elements were compared. Tellurium was situated at the centre, prompting vis tellurique, or telluric screw.
Chancourtois' original formulation includes elements in their correct places, selected compounds and some elements in more than one place. The helix was an important advance in that it introduced the concept of periodicity, but it was flawed. The formulation was rediscovered in the 1889 (P. J. Hartog, "A First Foreshadowing of the Periodic Law" Nature 41, 186-8 (1889)), and since then it has appeared most often in a simplified form that emphasizes the virtues and eliminates its flaws. [Thanks to CG for this info.]
Meyer's Spiral System
Meyer's Spiral System of 1872 (from van Spronsen):
Crookes' vis generatrix
Model of Crookes’ vis generatrix of 1898, built by his assistant, Gardiner. From: Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 63, 408.
The vertical scale represents the atomic weight of the elements from H = 1 to Ur = 239.
Missing elements are represented by a white circle. Similar elements appear underneath each other:
Gooch & Walker Periodic Table
Mazurs' reproduction (p. 82) of a periodic table formulation by Frank Austin Gooch and Claude Frederic Walker, from Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry, Macmillan, London and New York, p. 8/9, 1905 (ref Mazurs p.188):
Thanks to Laurie Palmer for the tip, and to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details.
Soddy's Three-Dimensional System
Soddy's three-dimensional system of 1911 (from van Spronsen):
Harkins & Hall's Periodic Table
Schaltenbrand's Helical Periodic Table
Kohlweiler's system of 1920 (from van Spronsen):
Friend's Periodic System
Courtines' A Model of the Periodic Table or Periodic Classification
Published in J. Chem. Ed., 2, 2, 107-109 in 1925 by M. Courtines of the Laboratory of Experimental Physics, College of France, Paris.
We do not know the date of the forth image (below), but it looks as if it was prepared a few years later. However, it is a 'top down' view of the 3D formulation.
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Janet's Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System
Janet's Three-Dimensional Spiral-Tube System of 1928 (from van Spronsen):
Click here for large diagram.
Romanoff's System of 1934 (from van Spronsen):
Finke's Spatial System
Finke's spatial system of 1943 (from van Spronsen):
Stedman's Conic System
Stedman's conic system of 1947 (from van Spronsen):
Wringley's Lamina System
Wringley's lamina system of 1949 (from van Spronsen):
Chicago Museum of Science & Industry Periodic Table
Periodic Table of Elements - Ca. 1950's - The ninety-two elements are here arrayed in colorful and orderly fashion. These "building blocks of the universe" stand beneath the great central dome of the Museum.
Unfortunately, this wonderful formulation from a Union Carbide advertisement (1960) does not work; it is not (in this author's opinion) possible to wrap the PT onto a sphere:
Gamow's Wound Ribbon Periodic Table
From George Gamow's 1961 book, The Atom and Its Nucleus:
Alexander Arrangement of Elements
The Alexander Arrangement of Elements is a 3D periodic table concept based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, and, like the first representation of elements in periods by de Chancourtois, connects every element data box in unbroken order.
Roy Alexander, a Brooklyn born science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, has told me in a personal communication: "I came up with the idea (being ignorant of anything but the flat Sargent Welch charts) in 1965. I wasn't able to patent [the downslant in the p-block] until 1971." (U.S.Patent #3,581,409)
At the time Roy had no idea that others had employed a similar technique to build a 3D table – including the very first periodic table developer, de Chancourtois, who is often credited with being the original discoverer of the periodicity of elements and the originator of the three-dimensional method of element arrangement and representation.
These 3D forms attempt to return the Seaborg separated f–block to its proper position in the table rather than remaining exiled. This, and contemporary attitudes about Hydrogen as being in more families than one – is uniquely addressed in Roy's 3D models.
Subsequent study of the Periodic Law and the periodic table's value in education convinced Roy that the basic rationale for developing the Alexander Arrangement of Elements was only one of the many good reasons for producing it for the public to share, so he sought and was granted a U.S. patent on the p-block downslant in order to manufacture and market the AAEs as teaching/learning aids.
Roy Alexander's goal of introducing the AAE into classrooms, laboratories, chemistry textbooks, and reference material remains the same today, but rather than replacing the conventional charts, its niche in education is at the very point that a lesson on arrangement of atoms into a chart begins. Element sequencing (vs. 24 breaks/gaps) credits the chart as well as the Periodic Law, which establishes subsequent confidence in the common flat charts, much as the world globe establishes the reality, and flat printed projections - maps - are vital (and relished) for convenience.
The first commercial production of Alexander Arrangements was in 1995, when Roy pioneered by constructing a website - periodictable.com - for marketing. Three versions were printed: two versions for student entry of element symbols, the larger die-cut for easier assembly.
An even larger model was produced with basic element data printed in the boxes, also die cut. These were printed on white card stock, with black ink.
Another version (below) was produced in conjunction with ATMI's annual report in 2000. This was added to Roy's product offerings, called the DeskTopper, and is still available. They are die cut to form a 7.25" high model with the f-block position attached after La, but can be altered to put La on the f-block. (See AAE Features at the top of this page.)
Besides the hands-on educational application, the DeskTopper can be used as a pen & pencil caddy, and flattened without losing the continuity of the element data. This flattened form has suggested design of a Braille periodic table of the same format, and this is also being pursued.
Marketing the Alexander Arrangements was moved to AllPeriodicTables.com in cooperation with Theodore Gray in 2006, who purchased the PeriodicTable.com domain name and funded the production of Roy's newest model, illustrated with Theo's amazing element photos.
For the first time, the elements beyond those naturally occurring have been omitted from a modern periodic table, simplifying initiation to chemistry. This factor denies the concept of obsolescence, and this version has been called the Forever Periodic Table. Details of this new 3D periodic table model kit have been placed at 3DPeriodicTable.com.
Further AAE information and images may be found at the Alexander Arrangement website.
Giguère's Periodic Table
Paul Giguère's Periodic Table formulation, from here:
Mazurs' other 1967 Formulation
From Edward G. Mazurs' 1974 (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press:
Island of Stability
From Wikipedia: The island of stability in nuclear physics describes a set of as-yet undiscovered isotopes of transuranium elements which are theorized to be much more stable than others. The possibility was proposed by Glenn T. Seaborg in the late 1960s: Prospectd for Further Considerable Extension of the Periodic Table, J.Chem.Educ., 46, 626-633 (1969) and reprinted in Modern Alchemy: Selected Papers of Glenn T. Seaborg (1994).
The hypothesis is that the atomic nucleus is built up in "shells" in a manner similar to the structure of the much larger electron shells in atoms. In both cases, shells are just groups of quantum energy levels that are relatively close to each other.
Octagonal Prismatic Periodic Table
In the Journal of Chemical Education (1972), Tang Wah Kow of New Method College Hong Kong, presents an octagonal prismatic periodic table:
Marzus Wooden Version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table
There is a posting in the The Elements Unearthed blog by David V Black concerning a view of the Marzus archive:
Mazurs' PT Formulation Analysis
In his 1974 book Edward G. Mazurs (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press gives a comprehensive analysis of periodic table formulations.
Mazurs identifies most PT formulations as being:
Gary Katz says: "The Periodic RoundTable is a unique three-dimensional model of the Periodic Table, an elegant spatial arrangement of the chemical elements that is both symmetrical and mathematical. It is the ultimate refinement of Mendeleev's scheme, one that will take us into the twenty-first century and beyond. The Periodic RoundTable possesses such a high degree of order because it is based exclusively on the system of ideal electronic configuration, which in turn is the basis of periodicity among the elements. In the Periodic RoundTable the electron shells are filled in the same order as the elements themselves appear, demonstrating a holistic relationship between the chemistry of the elements and the orbital descriptions of their electrons."
Click here for large image.
Click here for large image.
Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table
The Physicist's Periodic Table by Timothy Stowe is a well know formulation for those interested in such things, but for a long time its origin was been lost. Eric Scerri has rediscovered the original formulation: a 1989 publication by the company Instruments Research and Industry (I2R) Inc:
Dufour's Periodic Tree
The Dufour Periodictree periodic table formulation, from here:
Helical Periodic Table
Tarquin Publications sell a make-your-own three dimensional, helical periodic table.
Good Periodic Table of The Elements
From the Good Periodic Table website:
Chemical Elements Pyramidal Diagram
A Chemical Elements Pyramidal Diagram by Thomas Zerkov.
"The present work introduces a new arrangement of the chemical elements. Unlike the most popular existing arrangements, which are two-dimensional, this new arrangement is three-dimensional. It organizes the elements in a pyramidal structure of four levels, giving a clear spatial expression of different relations between the chemical elements. Since the three-dimensional structures are harder to perceive than the two-dimensional ones, the present work also suggests a two-dimensional table representation of the three-dimensional pyramidal diagram, where the four levels are all placed in a single plane, instead of one above the other."
ElemenTouch Periodic Table
Yoshiteru MAENO writes:
System Québécium Periodic Table
Using Google Translate of this page:
John Denker's Cylinder With Bulges
Elephant Periodic Table
The periodic table does not map to an elephant very well:
Click on the poster below to go to a large version:
Electronegativity Periodic Table
"This image distorts the conventional periodic table of the elements so that the greater the electronegativity of an atom, the higher its position in the table", here:
Ukrainian Periodic Table
A Periodic Table from the Ukraine:
Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form
Hinsdale Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form, US Patent 7,297,000:
Roy Alexender, of the Desk Topper arrangement, has photoshopped a blurry photograph sent by Bernard along with a product mockup:
Rafael Poza Periodic Table (Click to Enlarge)
Pyramid Format Periodic Table
Bent's PlN and Ple (Front Step) Periodic Tables
In his book, New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law, here, Henry Bent introduces the PlN and Ple (Front Step) Periodic Tables, Figs 50 & 52:
Gyroscopic Periodic Table
From the Garuda Biodynamics web site: "The Gyroscopic Periodic Table has been a natural progression developed from a study of Soil Science, Dr Steiner's Agriculture and Medical Courses, Astronomy and Astrology."
Second Life Periodic Table
From the Useful Chemistry blog: "Further adding to the set of chemistry tools in Second Life, Hiro Sheridan has created a 3D periodic table with rotating atoms. Although not directly proportional, the relative sizes of the spheres are in the correct order. Clicking on them provides basic information about the corresponding element. The 3D periodic table is available on the Chemistry Corner on Drexel Island."
Rafael Poza's Elements and the Magnetosphere
Valery Tsimmerman has developed various periodic table formulations, available at perfect perioidic table.com.
Tomás A. Carroll's Spherical & Russian Doll Formulations
Tomás A. Carroll has devised a spherical formulation of the Periodic Table, and from this a nested Russian Doll formulation.
Tomás writes: "I accept your veiled challenge that it is not possible to formulate a spherical periodic table and propose two solutions for your consideration. The EXCEL spreadsheet shows exactly how I transformed the quantum numbers from the standard 4D Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates in 3D, using two different centers. I included cylindrical coordinates too, just for fun."
Periodic Stack of Particles
Quantum Vectors and Atomic Stack Symmetry© (This page only renders properly in Explorer.)
The Janet Periodic Table of Elements (1929) may be re-arranged as a series of square matrices. The matrices are of different sizes and each matrix organizes the atomic orbitals into square concentric rings. Each cell may be assigned an atomic number which also identifies a “most significant electron”. The matrices may be stacked vertically to form “The Periodic Stack of Elements” as shown below.
The sub-atomic particles may also be arranged as square matrices. These matrices may be stacked to form “The Periodic Stack of Particles”.
Please send your comments to: email@example.com Last Revision 21 April 2008.
Wheel Structure Periodic Table
From the Science Photo Library, a computer illustration representing the periodic table of the elements as a wheel structure.
Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez
The Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez is inspired by the telluric helix Chancortois (1864) with the difference that the sequence of the elements are rolled into a cone shape rather than a cylinder:
Steve Jensen's "In-Finite Form"
"I'm a figurative sculptor, living in Minneapolis MN. A few years ago, while looking at a two dimensional version of the periodic table, I too wondered if it would be possible to create a Periodic Table without any visual breaks in its numerical sequence. Although I had never seen anything other than the rectangular flat table, I thought I might be able to solve this spatial continuity problem three dimensionally. I also wanted to limit myself to using a 3-D "line" that had no sudden changes in direction. After coming up with what I thought was a new and unique sculptural resolution, I put the project aside. Only recently (after re-building my paper model out of a translucent material) did I do some research on the web, and immediately recognized the strong likeness between my version and the Alexander Arrangement. Even more surprising was my models' visual similarity to Crookes' figure eight design from some 111 years ago.
"Although there are obviously many inventive and well thought out responses to this design challenge, I believe that my solution is a unique one, and an improvement over some of the previous three dimensional forms. The "line" of my model allows for contiguous numerical placement of all the symbols (while maintaining group continuity along its vertical axis), even as the shape of its plan view makes visual reference to the well-known symbol for infinity. What's more, in my version, the Lanthanide & Actinide series do not occupy a separate field but are fully integrated into the continuous linear flow. This piece, which I've entitled "In-Finite Form" speaks to the mystery of the endless flow of space, even as it folds back onto itself within the confines of a finite system."
Graphic Representations of the Periodic System
Mary E. Saecker writes an article in Chemical Education Digital Library, Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations: Graphic Representations of the Periodic System, that reviews some periodic table formunations.
The paper contains a link to this pdf file which gives templates and instructions for several print, cut-out & build periodic table formulations:
Nasco’s Periodic Table Toss-Up Ball
Toss some fun around the classroom with this 15" inflatable ball challenging students to name 118 elements from the Periodic Table. Two or more players toss the ball to each other, giving the element name for the number and symbol on which their left thumb lands. Answer sheet and instructions included. Grade 6 to adult.
Russian MedFlower Periodic Table
Google Russian to English translation:
From Secology.Narod.RU: "Must also give up the basic heuristic principle of Mendeleev and follow him. Forget about the group, we will not argue with what period begins, but just consistently and continuously to build all the elements in a row in ascending order, and fold this series into a spatial helix, in the corporeal form, allowing the convergence of such chemical elements in the vertical..."
3-D Strange Periodic Table
As Lewis Page of The Register puts it: "Top flight international reverse-alchemy boffins say they have managed to transmute gold into an entirely new form of 'negatively strange' antihypernucleic antimatter...", here.
Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure
From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure :
Bayeh's Theoretical Periodic Table of Elements
"The modern periodic table is based on quantum numbers and blocks, many problems faced the scientists and researchers when arranging the elements in the traditional and modern periodic tables as placing some elements in the incorrect place as (He) Helium, (La) Lanthanide and many others elements..." read the full pdf article here:
Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table
Eric Scerri made contact, writing: "Following the discussions on Periodic Table debate on the Chemistry Views website here, and as a result of recent turns, I have developed a new periodic table which I believe combines virtues of the Stowe table and also the Janet left-step table. I propose the name Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table. The explanation is posted on the Chemistry Views debate pages.
Bayeh's Theoretical 3D Periodic Tables
Pacholek's Multipipe 3D Periodic Table
"I've recently invented a new type of periodic table. My table is 3-dimensional and is similar to the ADOMAH Periodic Table, but it's also very different from the ADOMAH Tetrahedron. Its main advantage is being fully geometric in the plane spanned by n, l and n+l quantum numbers."
Alashvili Rotating Spherical Periodikal Tabel
Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1-270 AMUs
From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1-270 AMUs:
3D Illustrated Alexander Arrangement of Elements
The design of the 2012 Alexander Arrangement of Elements (AAE) follows the principles of a three-dimensional model developed by Roy Alexander in 1965: a printed representation of element information based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, with every element data box physically and visually contiguous and continuous within the sequence of atomic numbers in generally accepted element property related columns - "...the periodic table the way it's supposed to be".
This is made possible by wrapping, folding, and joining the printed material and employing the patented p-block downslant of the element data boxes to allow the end element of a period to be adjacent to the first element of the next period.
Several unique features separate it from the previous four versions of the AAE
Designed by Roy Alexander, a science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, the Adobe Illustrator art for the model was started by Ann Grafelman, and continued by Roy from mid 2011 through November of 2012.
Photos were provided by Theodore Gray, and Element Collection funded the printing and die cutting performed by Strine Printing in York, Pennsylvania. The model kit was first offered at Theo's PeriodicTable.com, then at Roy's AllPeriodicTables.com and the new 3dPeriodicTable.com, which site is dedicated to the 3D Forever Periodic Table only, with add-ons, application suggestions, and descriptions and commentary of all sorts.
Assembly instructions and step photos, as well as a number or completed model color photographs are included with the kit. These were developed with prototype models, and while functional, have been upgraded and accompanied by an assembly video at AlexanderArrangementOfElements.com/3D
Text relating to the abbreviation of the ever increasing number of elements is explained at two places on the 3D AAE illustrated periodic table model kit. One will remain with the model and one is removed at the time of assembly.
That which remains runs under the Actinoids and the d-block elements, where the lab created elements might ordinarily be expected to be found, says:
That which is removed says:
Included with the art of the periodic table on the die cut substrate that makes up the model is some background information about the the history of three dimensional periodic tables.
The first of these is about the discoverer of the concept of arranging the elements in periods suggested by the properties of the elements, de Chancourtois.
The second 3D periodic table information piece (on the rear of the de Chancourtois removable card) are sketches of a number of the 3D periodic tables found on the Chemogenesis website.
4D Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table
"I've replaced the standard periodic table in the 7th "Chemistry Pane" of my E8 visualizer with a 2D/3D/4D Stowe-Janet-Scerri version of the Periodic Table."
"Interestingly, it has 120 elements, which is the number of vertices in the 600 Cell or the positive half of the 240 E8 roots. It is integrated into VisibLie_E8 so clicking on an element adds that particular atomic number's E8 group vertex number to the 3rd E8 visualizer pane. The code is a revision and extension of Enrique Zeleny's Wolfram Demonstration":
3D Left Step Periodic Table
By Masahiko Suenaga, Kyushu University, Japan a 3D Left Step Periodic Table.
"Inspired by the work of Dr. Tsimmerman and Dr. Samanez, I have created a new 3D Left Step Periodic Table, which resembles to Mt. Fuji, recently registered as a World Heritage site. For more information, please visit my website":
Bernard Periodic Spiral
The Bernard Periodic Spiral of the Elements (BPSE), depicts a novel rendition of the Periodic Table that replaces the flat rectangular format with a continuous unidirectional spiral that maintains all the properties of Group and Period formation.
Comparisons may be made with similar models spanning the last three decades of the 20th century (Alexander, 1971; Mazurs, 1974; & Kaufman, 1999).
In the chart form, this new rendition is referred to as the Elliptical Periodic Chart of the Elements. In the three-dimensional form, the model resembles a Christmas tree in shape with the 7 Periods represented as circular platforms situated at various levels with the elements placed appropriately at the outer edges of each of these platforms as a Period builds up. The elements may be represented as spherical objects or flat discs with radii proportionate to atomic radii (or reasonable approximations). Color schemes accentuate the four different Blocks of elements: the s-Block (green), the p-Block (blue, with the exception that the last Group is red signifying the end of a Period), d-Block (orange), and the f-Block (yellow). The grey section, called the Group-Period Interchange, is where the end of a particular Period connects to the beginning of the next Period, and, at the same time, transitions from Group 18 to Group 1.
Watch the video here:
Model Wooden Periodic Table
From here, and translated from Spanish:
Atomic Periodic Town
Three related formulations by Baha Tangour (Tangour Bahoueddine), the Atomic Town and two Boomerang periodic tables.
ADOMAH Periodic Table Glass Cube
This amazing object is available for sale from Grand Illusions:
A Note by Philip Stewart firstname.lastname@example.org
The cube represents 120 chemical elements etched into a cube of Optical Crystal glass. The s, p, d, and f blocks of the Janet periodic table form four rectangles, which are slices of a regular tetrahedron, parallel with two of its edges and with two faces of the circumscribed cube. All four quantum numbers are made visible in this arrangement. You can see a 2-D version on the Perfect Periodic Table website, click on the "skyscraper" version on the right to see the tetrahedron, and go to Regular Tetrahedron at foot of page for details.
The regular tetrahedron is the only form in which slices are rectangles of different shape and identical perimeter. When each orbital is represented by a square of unit edge, the rectangles representing the blocks all have the same perimeter, which is twice the length of the edges of the tetrahedron (which are of course √2 times the edges of the cube): 18 units = 2(values of n + values of ml).
Valery Tsimmerman, email@example.com, creator of the design, has written to me as follows:
Adomah is a variant of Adamah, Hebrew for 'dust of the earth', from which Adam was made (Genesis 2:7).
Gutierrez Samanez's Binodic Form of the Periodic Table (Video)
Rogue Elements: What's Wrong with the Periodic Table
An article in New Scientist by Celeste Biever (news editor at Nature), Image by Martin Reznik
UVS Periodic Tables
From the Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) website, two related formunations from the nucleosynthesis in the universe section, one showing a "manifold dual-core 3-sphere hypersphere topology", and the other showing a "dual-core Möbius strip topology":
Arrangement of Elements 7th Order & Element Sequences
An exploration of some mathematics underlying the periodic table, read the PDF here, by Olivier Joseph.
UVS Periodic Table Model of a Klein Bottle Topology
This configuration can topologically suggest the g-block cycle in the 8th period for extended periodic table.
In the Klein bottle topology as illustrated, it is plausible that after the s-block cycle in the 8th periodical cycle, the topological path continues to spiral around the outer f-block cycle to harmonically form 14 elements.
And then subjected to the spiral Möbius strip topological twist, it could resonate to form 4 more elements in the anti-cyclonic path around 17th, 18th, 1st, and 2nd angular phases of the anti-cyclonic core; this would render the 18 elemental positions for the hypothetical g-block cycle in the entire half-integral anti-cyclonic cycle of the Klein bottle topology.
Hypothetically, the topological path then moves into the cyclonic cycle, and harmonically forms its d-block and p-block cycles with 16 elemental positions to complete the 8th periodical cycle with a total of 36 elements.
Pams Quantum Periodic Table
By Dr. N. D. Raju, the Pams Quantum Periodic Table. Read the full paper discussing the logic of the new formulation.
Instructables 3D Periodic Table
From Makendo on the Instructables website:
Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table UPDATED
Stowe's 'A Physicist's Periodic Table' was published in 1989, and is a famous & well respected formulation of the periodic table.
Since 1989 quite a number of elements have been discovered and Jeries A. Rihani has produced an updated and extended version. Click here to see the full size .pdf version:
Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version
From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a Braille version of the Clock Prism periodic table:
© Mark R. Leach 1999-
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