The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
- By Decade
- By Type
Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/Left-Step Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 1906 1905 1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 1895 1894 1893 1892 1891 1890 1889 1888 1887 1886 1885 1884 1883 1882 1881 1880 1879 1878 1877 1876 1875 1874 1873 1872 1871 1870 1869 1868 1867 1866 1865 1864 1863 1862 1861 1860 1859 1858 1857 1856 1855 1854 1853 1852 1851 1850 1844 1843 1842 1838 1836 1831 1830 1829 1825 1824 1817 1814 1813 1811 1808 1807 1804 1803 1802 1801 1800 1798 1794 1791 1789 1787 1783 1782 1781 1778 1775 1774 1772 1771 1766 1753 1751 1748 1735 1718 1700 1690 1687 1682 1671 1669 1624 1617 1520 1000 -300 -450 -800 -1000 -2000 -3500 -3750 -5000 -6000 -7000 -9000
Crustal Abundance vs. Electronegativity
A chart by René Vernon of Elemental Abundance (g/kg log10) vs. Electronegativity, H to Bi.
Below is a remarkable XY chart where x = electronegativity and y = crustal abundance (log10). It stops at the end of the s-process, at Bi. The abundance figures are from the CRC Hanbook of Physics and Chemistry (2016-2017).
I say remarkable as I had little idea what the chart would end up looking like when I started plotting the values.
As well as its coloured regions, I've marked out track lines for six of the main groups and one for group 3.
The rose-coloured arc on the left encompasses the pre-transition metals i.e. the alkali and alkaline earth metals and aluminium, followed by, in the orange rectangle, the rare earth metals. Opposite these regions, along the southern boundary of the green paddock, are the halogens.
In the pale yellow field sheltered by the pre-transition metals and the REM, are the 3d transition metals and, in the white corral, are 4d and 5d base transition metals. Opposite these regions, in the green paddock, are the core nonmetals H, C, N, O, P and S, with Se as an outlier.
Following in the grey blob are the post-transtion or poor metals, immediately adjacent to the bulk of the metalloids or poor nonmetals.
Finally, in the light blue patch, the noble metals are complemented by the noble gases frolicking in the open.
Abundance tends to decrease with increasing Z. Notable exceptions are Li, B, N and Si.
- H and P are almost on top of one another
- The proximity of Be to the post-transition metals, and its relative scarcity in the crust
- The metalloids, with their intermediate values of electronegativity, go down the middle. At the same time they span nearly the full range of abundance.
- B-Ga-Sc-Y-La are in a row
- N falls along the halogen line
- The abundance of O and Si, which we see in the form of silica
- F is more abundant in the crust than 85 percent of metals
- Al is the most abundant metal. Al and Fe are in the same vicinity: "Curiously, the chemistry of aluminium also resembles that of the iron(III) ion... These similarities may be ascribed to the same 3+ charge and near-identical ion radii (and hence charge density)." (Rayner-Canham 2020, p. 191)
- The abundance of Ar compared to the rest of the noble gases. Apparently this is influenced by the radioactive decay of potassium-40 in Earth's core, which is considered one of the main sources of heat powering the geodynamo that generates Earth's magnetic field. It has been suggested that a large amount of Ar may be present in the core, as the compound ArNi with an L11 Laves structure (similar to an intermetallic phase, and related to a cubic close packed lattice). ArNi is stabilised by notable electron transfer from Ni to Ar, changing their electron configurations toward 3d7 and 4s1. (Adeleke et al. 2019)
- Ti, a light yet strong metal, is about 2,500 times as abundant as Sn, a weak heavy metal
- Zn is an outlaw post-transition metal
- The most active 4d-5d transition metals (Zr, Hf) occupy a boundary overlap with the rare earth metals
- Ag, which has a largely main-group chemistry, is located in the PTM region. It is about 20 times as abundant as the noble meals
- Re is an outlaw noble metal
I was intrigued by the article referring to Ni and Ar, and the suggestion of Ar becoming somewhat anionic, albeit in extreme conditions (140 GPa, 1500 K)
- Adeleke AA, Kunz M, Greenberg E, Prakapenka VB, Yao Y, Stavrou R 2019, A high-pressure compound of argon and nickel: Noble gas in the Earth's core?, ACS Earth and Space Chemistry, vol. 3 no. 11, pp. 2517-2544, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.9b00212
- Rayner-Canham G, 2020, The periodic table: Past, present, future, World Scientific, Singapore
I wasn't looking for these but they at least exist as follows:
- Metals with lower EN, i.e. < 1.7, or active nonmetals with higher EN, tend to be concentrated in silicate or oxide phases that are more easily found in the crust due to their lower density, and hence have higher abundances.
- Metals with moderate EN 1.7 to 2.1, say the later transition metals and post-transition metals, tend to form sulfide liquid phases; are less easily found in the crust due to their relatively higher densities; and are less abundant by about two orders of magnitude compared to the metals found in silicate or oxide phases.
- Metals with EN > 2.2, i.e. the noble metals, have an affinity for a metallic liquid phase, and are depleted in the crust since they generally sank to the core and hence have very low abundances. They are about two orders of magnitude less abundant than the sulfide metals.
My references are:
- Cox PA 1997, The elements: Their origin, abundance and distribution;
- Gill R 2014, Chemical fundamentals of geology and environmental geoscience;
- White WA 2020, Geochemistry
Thus the abundance of the metals in the crust tends to fall with increasing EN.
- For the nonmetals, the relative average abundance proportions are about 5: 700: 250: 1 for, respectively, the metalloids; the core nonmetals H, C, N, P, S, and Se; the halogen nonmetals; and the noble gases. Si and O were left out as outliers, in terms of their massive abundances.
- Thus, metalloids aside, the abundance of the nonmetals tends to fall with increasing EN. I don't know what's going on with the metalloids.
- The chart may prompt some further appreciative enquiry:
- In the case of exceptions to the initial three generalisations why do these occur?
- Why is Li so rare, compared to the other alkali metals?
- Why is Si good at forming a planetary crust?
An answer from L. Bruce Railsback, creator of the Earth Scientist's Periodic Table https://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php?PT_id=142:
"I think I can answer one of the questions. 'Why is Si good at forming a planetary crust?' – because it's so bad at staying in the core. Silicon isn't sufficiently metallic to stay in the core. Even in the mantle and crust, it doesn't go into non-metal solids well: in cooling magmas, it's only a lesser member of the early-forming minerals (e.g., Mg2SiO4, forsterite, where it's outnumbered two to one). The mineral only of Si as a cation, SiO2 (quartz), is the LAST mineral to form as a magma cools, in essence the residuum of mineral-forming processes. At least some this thinking is at Bowen's Reaction Series and Igneous Rocks at http://railsback.org/FundamentalsIndex.html#Bowen"
- Why do the metalloids span such a wide range of abundances?
- If H is supposed to make up ca. 74% of the universe why does it have the same abundance in the Earth's crust as P?
- In what form is H found in Earth's crust—water, hydroxides?
- If H is supposed to make up ~ 74% of the universe why does it have the same abundance in the Earth's crust as P?
- Are there any chemical similarities between H and P, given both have some metalloidal character? The have virtually identically electron affinities. H is sometimes positioned above B due to chemical similarities. It then forms a diagonal relationship with C, which in turn has a diagonal relationship with P, which has a diagonal relationship with Se e.g. P reacts with Se to form a large number of compounds characterised by structural analogies derived from the white phosphorus P4 tetrahedron.
- The rare earth metals are relatively rare, having an average abundance of 1% that of the 3d metals. That being so, why is their rareness sometimes questioned? Why does the crustal abundance of the REM plummet by two orders of magnitude towards the end of the lanthanides?
Which Electronegativity Scale?
The wide variety of methods for deriving electronegativities tend to give results similar to one another.
|What is the Periodic Table Showing?||Periodicity|
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos...
If you have any:
Suggestions for links
Bug, typo or grammatical error reports about this page,
please contact Mark R. Leach, the author, using firstname.lastname@example.org
This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated.