There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
Periodic Table formulations from the years 1900 - 1949, by date:
Europium, atomic number 63, has a mass of 151.964 au.
Europium was first observed or predicted in 1896 by E.-A. Demarçay and first isolated in 1901 by E.-A. Demarçay. It took about 80 years to split the rare earths metal ores, the ceria & yttria, into the pure metals. See the timeline here. It took about 80 years to split the rare earths metal ores, the ceria & yttria, into the pure metals. See the timeline here.
This formulation was prepared to go with Mendeleev's article predicting that the ether (aether) would be found at the head of group zero in period zero. Also that dashes are left for six elements between H and He.
The predicted elements eka-boron (scandium), eka-aluminium (gallium) & eka-silicon (germanium) are present but the radioactive eka-manganese (technetium) is not. Also, the noble gas elements are on the left hand side of the formulation:
A remarkably modern looking formulation in that it separates not only the transition metals but also the rare earths into separate blocks to give what we would now call a "long-form 32 column table". Except Werner guessed wrong as to how many rare earths exist, with the result that he shows 33 groups.
This formulation is also interesting for showing an element between H and He and two elements before H.
Werner computed the average gaps between atomic weights for the second through the fifth periods as 1.85, 2.4, 2.47 and 2.5, respectively.
From this he extrapolated the gap for the first period as 1.5, which coincidentally was also half the difference between the atomic weights of H and He. Werner thus predicted a new element with atomic weight 2.5.
Moseley's work of 1913 showed there were no elements before H and none between H and He.
Mazurs' reproduction (p. 82) of a periodic table formulation by Frank Austin Gooch and Claude Frederic Walker, from Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry, Macmillan, London and New York, p. 8/9, 1905 (ref Mazurs p.188):
Thanks to Laurie Palmer for the tip, and to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details.
From a 1905 textbook by Gooch & Walker: Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry (see the Google Books scanned version pp247) comes an early 'right-step' periodic table. The formulation was repoduced in a 1917 textbook (lower image).
Chronology of Splitting The Rare Earths: "Ceria" & "Yttria"
Chronology of chemically the splitting of "ceria" (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:
Chronology of chemically the splitting of "yttria" (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:
From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)
From Wikipedia: Antonius Johannes van den Broek (1870–1926) was a Dutch amateur physicist notable for being the first who realized that the number of an element in the periodic table (now called atomic number) corresponds to the charge of its atomic nucleus.
This hypothesis was published in 1911 and inspired the experimental work of Henry Moseley, who found good experimental evidence for it by 1913.
Henry Moseley (1887-1915) subjected
known elements to x-rays and was able to derive a relationship between x-ray
frequency and number of protons.
From Scientific American:
"It was the clever young English physicist, Moseley, who discovered that the atomic number for each element was the
number of external electrons in the atom.
"With this discovery came a law concerning the X-ray lines of any element in an X-ray target.
"Moseley's law states that the wavelength of these lines is inversely proportional to the square of the atomic number of the element. Therefore, if we know the atomic number of the element we are looking for, we can predict the wavelength of· certain lines in its X-ray spectrum.
"If we set up our X-ray spectrograph so as to catch these lines where we expect them to fall, then, if the element is present in the target which we have chosen to use in our X-ray tube, we should know it.
This provides one good way to identify difficult elements, but it is well to have another to use as a check. One of the best of these, and one which is almost as sensi- tive as the X-ray method, is that of positive.ray analysis."
From his paper, The High Frequency Spectra of The Elements, H. G. J. Moseley, M. A.
Phil. Mag. (1913), p. 1024, available here:
Hackh's spiral periodic table of 1914, from Das Synthetisches System
der Atome, Hamburg, Hephaestos.
Philip Stewart says:
"I believe that Hackh's 1914 spiral is of special interest it is the first spiral to take account of Mosley's atomic numbers, and the first to show successively larger pairs of coils. It is also interesting because H stands alone in the centre. I have only seen Mazurs' redrawn (as usual!) version, but Mazurs gives SciAm Supplement 1919 as one reference."
Stefan Meyer (1872–1949) was an Austrian physicist, no relation of Julius Lothar Meyer. He had a special interest in 'rare earth' and radioactive elements. He published several versions of the periodic table. In this definitive version of 1918, note elements 69-72. Tu I is 'thulium I', Ad is Aldeberanium (Yb), Cp is Cassiopeium (Lu) and Tu II is 'thulium II' (Hf).:
H.G. Deming used the long periodic table in his textbook General Chemistry, which appeared in the USA for the first time in 1923 (Wiley), and designated the first two and the last five Main Groups with the notation "A", and the intervening Transition Groups with the notation "B".
The numeration was chosen so that the characteristic oxides of the B groups would correspond to those of the A groups. The iron, cobalt, and nickel groups were designated neither A nor B. The Noble Gas Group was originally attached (by Ueming) to the left side of the periodic table. The group was later switched to the right side and usually labeled as Group VlllA.
This version of the periodic table was distributed for many years by the Sargent-Welch Scientific Company, Skokie, Illinois, USA.:
Ida Noddack studied the periodic table in the first half of the 20th century and was the co-discoverer of the last non-radioactive element to be isolated, rhenium. Later she worked on nuclear fission. In 1925 presented Noddack her formulation:
From Ida Noddack and the Missing Elements by Fathi Habashi, Education in Chemistry (March 2009)
This 1925 table has the Heavy Metals spread out, and the Rare Earth Elements (fifteen, including La and Lu) withdrawn into a box that is divorced from the body of the table. Ce, Gd, Yb form a vertical triad.
Th is assigned to Group IV below Hf.
From Michael Laing's paper: A Revised Periodic Table with the Lanthanides Repositioned, Found. Chem. (2005) 7: 203–233
Andreas von Antropoff periodic table, restored
by Philip Stewart on the basis of the article 'Eine neue
Form des periodischen Systems der Elementen'. Zeitschrift
für angewandte Chemie 39, pp. 722-725, 1926:
formulation has a satisfying balance compared to most other
tables and was the most popular wall-chart in German schools
for many years but quickly disappeared after von Antropoff
was disgraced in 1945 for his Nazi activities: he presided
over the raising of the swastika over Bonn University in
1933. But he put science above politics and was a stout
defender of Einstein's theories.
A recently restored wall version of the von Antropoff formulation from the University of Barcelona, origionally painted in 1934 (thanks to Philip Stewart & Claudi Mans):
it was the disgrace of von Antropoff which led Linus Pauling
to borrow his design, without acknowledgement, for his 1949
book, General Chemistry (and subsequently in later editions
of The Chemical Bond).
The PT below is scanned in from Pauling's The Nature of The Chemical Bond, 3rd ed., 1960:
Janet's Helicoidal Classification, essentially his left-step formulation in its spiral version (ref. Charles Janet, La Classification Hélicoïdale des Éléments Chimiques. Beauvais: Imprimerie Départementale de l'Oise. 1928). Information supplied by Philip Stewart:
There are the three versions of Janet's left step PT. He tried out versions I and II in his April 1928 paper, and rejected them in favour of version III in his paper of November of the same year. Each one was derived from a helix drawn on nested cylinders. Information supplied by Philip Stewart. Click each image for a larger image:
This table is from the book "Practical Inorganic Chemistry" Publisher EH Riesenfeld Labor, Barcelona (1950). It is a reprint of the second edition (1943) which in turn is a translation of a German edition, its seventh edition in 1928. This suggests that Riesenfeld is himself the author of it.
It is a pre-Seaborg table in the sense that the actinides are known throughout the period July. It also does not include the Tc since it was discovered in 1937. These facts support the dating of the table. But the most interesting thing about it is that to make the separation between subgroups and major groups Be cut after the first period and after the Al in the second. Which leaves isolated in group B without any element 2b below it:
Janet produced six papers, in French, which are almost unobtainable as he had them privately printed and didn't distribute them properly. The shell-filling diagram dated from November 1930, six years before Madelung. Note that Janet uses Bohr's radial quantum number, k, which is l+1. In the text he formulates the n+k-1 rule. Information supplied by Philip Stewart.
The shape of the table is presented by Bohr effect of considering the properties of the elements as simple substances and for reactions to occur with the intervention of such substances. But for the study of compounds and reactions that occur between them, the key factor is the electron configurations of atoms in states of valence to them on the given compounds.
It follows that a more complete picture of the periodic table would be when you take into account the peculiarities of atoms in both its neutral state and in all its particular valence states. This is the proposal of Boris Nekrasov, a member of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow.
Nekrasov distinguishes three types of analogies between elements Total analogs are those in which the analogy is shown in all its valence, all analogs compared to the valence valences except for the group corresponding to the number that can be called characteristic and analogous to the valence characteristic .
Thus, in the table shown here distinguish the elements entirely analogous joined by continuous lines, such as Na and K.
Those analogies in all except the characteristic valences joined by dotted lines. This is the case of Na and Cu in both cases if you lose an electron (valence feature) your setup is different. In the first case is 8 (1s2, 2P6) and the second 18 (3s2, 3p6, 3d10).
Lastly presenting exclusively analogies carcetrística valence are connected with dashed lines. This is the case both S and Cr +6 elements have their valence electron configuration similar in the last layer 8 (2s2, 2p6) for the S and 8 (3s2, 3p6) for Cr.
The Crookes PT of 1898, here, has been adapted with the addition of two elements 'Adyarium' and 'Occultium' between hydrogen and helium, as presented to Theosophical Society (see bottom right hand corner).
INTRODUCTION TO THE THIRD EDITION
By C. JINARAJADASA
This work contains a record of clairvoyant investigations into the structure of matter. The observations were carried out at intervals over a period of nearly forty years, the first in August 1895 and the last in October 1933. The two investigators, Annie Besant (18471933) and C. W. Leadbeater (18471934) were trained clairvoyants and well equipped to check and supplement each other's work.
Method of Investigation: The method is unique and difficult to explain. Many have heard of the word "clairvoyance" (clear-seeing), connoting the cognition of sights and sounds not perceived by ordinary people. In India the term Yoga is sometimes related to faculties that are beyond ordinary cognition. It is stated in Indian Yoga that one who has trained himself "can make himself infinitesimally small at will". This does not mean that he undergoes a diminution in bodily size, but only that, relatively, his conception of himself can be so minimized that objects which normally are small appear to him as large. The two investigators had been trained by their Eastern Gurus or Teachers to exercise this unique faculty of Yoga, so that when they observed a chemical atom it appeared to their vision as highly magnified.:
Brazilian Version of The Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms
A Brazilian Version of the American classic Henry Hubbard Periodic Chart Of The Atoms from a lecture theater in Rio, rediscovered by Martyn Poliakoff of PeriodicVideos.com and The University of Nottingham. From the early 1930s:
Ma – Masurium (43) Disputed claim to discovery of technetium.
Cb – Columbium (41) Former name of niobium
Ab – Alabamine (85) Discredited claim to discovery of astatine.
Il – Illinium (61) Discredited also
Sa – Samarium (62) Current symbol is Sm
Sp – Spectrium (70) Suggested name for ytterbium
Cb – Columbium (41) Former name of niobium (also called Pelopium)
The current Sargent
Welch version of the Henry Hubbard Periodic Table:
Students of chemistry are often confused why the orbitals fill with electrons: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6... etc., because the 3d10 seems to be 'out of sequence'.
This 'out of sequence' difficulity is nicely explained if the orbitals are arranged in a slightly different way:
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s shell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an atom or ion form the most stable electron configuration possible.
The order in which these orbitals are filled is given by the n + rule, also known as the Madelung rule (after Erwin Madelung), the Janet rule or the diagonal rule.
Orbitals with a lower n + value are filled before those with higher n + values. In this context, n represents the principal quantum number and ? the azimuthal quantum number. The values = 0, 1, 2, 3 correspond to the s, p, d and f orbital lables.
Julio Gutiérrez Samanez writes:
"I send you the diagram below that reconciles quantum mechanics (diagram for filling the electronic cells) with the Janet table or LSPT. Explaining the duplication of periods with the duplication of the quantum number n, and the introduction of Tao (T) spin of the level or spin of the period, which explains the parity of the symmetric periods."
Libedinski's Periodic Classification of The Elements
Simón Libedinski: PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS, from his book: Dialectical Materialism, in Nature, in Society and in Medicine, Ediciones Ercilla, Santiago de Chile, 1938, pp 56-57:
"Mendeleev's Table, like that of Werner and others, are not, however, more than flat projections of the actual ordering of the elements. There is as much difference between Mendeleev's Table and the real group as there is between the planisphere and a rotating globe. A rational representation, starting from the simplest element – the negative electron –, would be a spiral line that, surrounding said central point, first gave a small turn, touching only two bodies: hydrogen and helium. From here it would jump to a much larger orbit, in which it would touch eight bodies and then another equal, also of eight. From here, another jump to a much larger orbit, comprising eighteen bodies, and then another equal; from this point one jumps to another orbit, again augmented, comprising thirty-two bodies (including rare earths); and when this round is over, the last one begins, to vanish a short distance.
"In the dialectical grouping of the elements, which I have the satisfaction of exposing, the classic arrangement of the same is respected. Only the arrangement changes, which instead of being rectilinear, is spiral.
So I managed to suppress the anomaly of the double columns, and comfortably incorporate the important group of rare earths. I can not give my graphic the name of Tabla, because it is just the opposite: it aims to give the idea of ??space, and of movement in space.
The double columns of the Classic Table can be found here as well, but only if you look through the whole, considered as a planetary system of conical shape, with the electron at the vertex. Effectively: column 1 coincides, through space, with column 1a; column 4 with column 4 bis, etc.
The dialectical grouping also allows us to easily appreciate the remarkable dialectical character of the properties of matter: these properties are repeated periodically. These are the "returns" to qualities or previous properties, but not exactly equal to those, but only similar: and this resemblance, only to a certain extent. The difference is that that quality, those properties or some characteristic, are exalted to each dialectical return."
Contributed by Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, Cusco, Peru, March 2018 (using Google Translation)
From his paper, Periodicity Patterns of The Elements in J. Chem. Educ., 1939, 16 (7), p 335, K. Gordon Irwin presents a Periodic Chart of the Elements in Spiral Form. The paper is used to justify this formulation in terms of periodicity:
Published by Paneth in 1942 in an article in Nature in which he suggests that newly discovered elements such as Z = 43 should be given names by their discoverers. The other highlighted elements (below) had also not yet been named.
Element 43 had been discovered 9 years earlier but had not been given an official name because there was reluctance to consider synthetic elements on the same footing as naturally occurring ones. This changed as a result of Paneth's article.
The periodic table that appears on the inside of the front cover of:
Barber, H.H., Taylor, T.I. Semimicro Qualitative Analysis, Harper, 1942. Click here for a larger version.
Conal Boyce writes:
"No attribution is given, so one assumes Barber & Taylor concocted [the formulation] themselves. Why do they stagger rows 4, 5, 6? This format suggests to me a 2D PT that wants to be genuinely 3D, as distinct from a 2D PT embedded arbitrarily in 3D space, a type often referred to as 3D which is not quite true. For example, Gamow 1961":
The Segré chart of elements and isotopes arranges atomic nuclei by numbers or protons and numbers of neutrons and is a table of nuclides. There are various ways the axes can be arranged. From elsewhere in this chemogenesis web book:
"Achimov's system took the form of a cross-section of a pyramid. He based his system on the principle that the lengths of the periods and the analogies in properties between the elements of these periods must be clearly demonstrated."
Achimov EI 1946 Zhur. Obshchei Khim., vol. 16, p. 961
George Gamow is well known for his Gamow 1961 ribbon formulation, but this actually first appeared in a 1948 book: One, Two, Three... Infinity.
Conal Boyce writes:
"The 1961 version looks like something Gamow redrew from scratch, adding about a dozen new items as he went (also an extra loop), but also introducing some 4 or 5 goofy errors: the non-existent Fa for Ga, the misplaced Ba where Sr belongs, etc. In comparison, the 1948 version lacks those dozen updates but is free of the goofy typo type errors that crept into the 1961 version. Also, the 1948 version has the distinction of being "it" so to speak, as the moment when the Gamow scheme first appeared on the scene, to be reprinted in a 1953 paperback, which is where I first saw it, in 1953.":