The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
Periodic Table formulations from the years 2000 - 2009, by date:
Chemical Elements Pyramidal Diagram
A Chemical Elements Pyramidal Diagram by Thomas Zerkov.
"The present work introduces a new arrangement of the chemical elements. Unlike the most popular existing arrangements, which are two-dimensional, this new arrangement is three-dimensional. It organizes the elements in a pyramidal structure of four levels, giving a clear spatial expression of different relations between the chemical elements. Since the three-dimensional structures are harder to perceive than the two-dimensional ones, the present work also suggests a two-dimensional table representation of the three-dimensional pyramidal diagram, where the four levels are all placed in a single plane, instead of one above the other."
Elements Known in the Year 2000
Elements known in the year 2000, taken from this Wikipedia page:
Discovery of Livermorium
Livermorium, atomic number 116, has a mass of 293 au.
Synthetic radioactive element.
Livermorium was first observed in 2000 by Y. Oganessian et al.
The Mayan Periodic Table
The Mayan Periodic Table of Elements, named for its similarity to the ancient Mesoamerican calendar, is based on electron shells. The shells are shown as concentric circles. Each row in the tabular form is shown as a ring.
Vertical Periodic Table
A vertical periodic table from apsidium.com:
Muradjan's Universal Periodic System
ElemenTouch Periodic Table
Yoshiteru MAENO writes:
System Québécium Periodic Table
Using Google Translate of this page:
Tetrahedral Twist: Chemistry Puzzle and Teaching Device
A twisting three dimensional puzzle apparatus for the study of chemistry and its history and based upon the Zmaczynski equilateral triangular model of the periodic table of the chemical elements. Each face of the pyramid has a series of equilateral shaped portions bearing portions of the periodic table of elements. The different segments can be rotated around in order to scramble the puzzle. Such portions can be constructed using same or similar technology that was used to design the Meffert PYRAMINX PUZZLE that is similar to the RUBIK'S CUBE design.
From a US Patent.
Discovery of Oganesson
Oganesson, atomic number 118, has a mass of 294 au.
Synthetic radioactive element.
Oganesson was first observed in 2002 by Y. Oganessian et al.
Philip Stewart's Chemical Galaxy II
Philip Stewart's Chemical Galaxy II periodic table formulation, from here:
A simplified 'chemical galaxy':
John Denker's Cylinder With Bulges
Elephant Periodic Table
The periodic table does not map to an elephant very well:
Click on the poster below to go to a large version:
Elements by Orbital
From elsewhere in Mark Leach's Chemogenesis webbook:
Madelung's Rule tells us that the orbitals fill in the order n + l (lowest first). This gives the sequence:
Electronic structure can be illustrated adding electrons to boxes (to represent orbitals). This representation shows the Pauli exclusion principle, the aufbau principle and Hund's rule in action.
There are some subtle effects with the d block elements chromium, Cr, and copper, Cu. Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity lowers the energy of the 3d orbital below that of the the 4s orbital, due to the stabilisation achieved with a complete and spherically symmetric set of five 3d orbitals containing five or ten electrons. Thus,
Electronegativity Periodic Table
"This image distorts the conventional periodic table of the elements so that the greater the electronegativity of an atom, the higher its position in the table", here:
Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic Table
The Proper Place for Hydrogen in the Periodic Table, a paper by Marshall W. Cronyn of the Department of Chemistry, Reed College, Portlland.
Cronin writes in the Journal of Chemical Education Vol. 80, 94 -951: "After more than 130 years of construction, the place of hydrogen in the periodic table is still the subject of doubt, con- fusion, and inadequate explanation that appears to be little more than numerology..." and comes to the conclusion that hydrogen should be positioned above carbon:
Ukrainian Periodic Table
A Periodic Table from the Ukraine:
Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form
Hinsdale Bernard's Periodic Table of The Elements in Three Dimensional Form, US Patent 7,297,000:
Roy Alexender, of the Desk Topper arrangement, has photoshopped a blurry photograph sent by Bernard along with a product mockup:
Bird of Prey Periodic Table
Eight-Group Periodic Table
From Number Patterns in Nature by Jan C.A. Boeyens, Crystal Engineering 6 (2003) 167–185.
The Eight-Group Periodic Table of the 81 stable elements, in spiral form. Available sites on the prime-number cross, starting from zero, number 102.,
Discovery of Nihonium
Nihonium, atomic number 113, has a mass of 284 au.
Synthetic radioactive element.
Nihonium was first observed in 2003 by Y. Oganessian et al. and K. Morita et al.
Discovery of Moscovium
Moscovium, atomic number 115, has a mass of 288 au.
Synthetic radioactive element.
Moscovium was first observed in 2003 by Y. Oganessian et al.
Rafael Poza Periodic Table (Click to Enlarge)
Piano Periodic Table
A Piano Periodic Table from Claude Bayeh:
Laing's Revised Periodic Table with the Lanthanides Repositioned
Michael Laing's "Revised Periodic Table with the Lanthanides Repositioned", from Foundations of Chemistry 7:203-233.
Philip Stewart's modification of the Laing formulation:
Philip Stewart says (in a personal communication):
"It seems wrong to suggest an analogy between Pr to Sm and Dy to Tm with the V, Cr, Mn, Fe groups. I have pushed them to the right to suggest that those lanthanides are like the old group VIII (including the coinage metals); like them they cannot use all their outer electrons in bonding (with the exception of Ru viii and Os viii. I have treated the actinides differently to take account of Pa v and U vi. It's ability to lose the juxtaposition of Tc and Pm, but it is physical rather than chemical anyway."
Cyclical Continuum of Elemental Properties by Robert R. Northup
The Cyclical Continuum of Elemental Properties Periodic Table by Robert R. Northup
"The Cyclical Continuum of Elemental Properties is a user-friendly teaching tool that is intended to accompany the Periodic Table of Elements. Hydrogen is shown at the center, atomic numbers and symbols form an unbroken spiral, and element groups 1 through 18 (noble gases, alkali metals, halogens, etc.) are displayed by colored arcs. Beginning chemistry students can visually see the continuity of atomic numbers in the Cyclical Continuum as a way to introduce and orient them to the Periodic Table. Advanced chemistry students can test their understanding of the Periodic Table's organization by applying that knowledge to interpretation of the Cyclical Continuum."
AtomFlowers by Boy Boer
A periodic table that gives a representation of the electron orbitals that look like flowers:
Painting of The Elements
Pyramid Format Periodic Table
Górski's Atomic Core Based Periodic System
From Go?rski A., Pol. J. Chem., 79, 1435 (2005), an atomic core based periodic system of the chemical elements. In this version of the Periodic Table, He is placed close to H and simultaneously above Be (and not above Ne):
Where Should Hydrogen Go?
There are four possible positions for hydrogen:
Eric Scerri's Triad Periodic Table
Eric Scerri says, "I have recently developed a new periodic table with some very nice features. I am now shifting my allegiance from the left-step table to this one."
Read the paper on the philosophy of science web site.
Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2006. Read an interview with the author, here, and a review of the book here.
ADOMAH Periodic Table by Valery Tsimmerman
The ADOMAH periodic table is based on the Janet or left-step periodic table. It consists of four blocks (s, p, d & f) corresponding to quantum numbers l = 0,1,2,3. Blocks are separated, shifted and reconnected with each other via diagonal lines. This arrangement creates "layers" or "strata" that retain continuity in respect to atomic number Z, in addition to usual columns and rows. Therefore, numbers shown on the right hand side of the table may represent either quantum numbers n (electronic shells) if horizontal rows are followed, or n + l if "layers" or "strata" are followed.
This feature assists in creation of electronic configurations of the elements. Elements H and He are placed in two positions that reflect their dual nature and give proper consideration to atomic structure and chemical properties of those two elements. This feature also preserves triads He, Ne, Ar and H, F, Cl. Also, the elements are placed in rectangular "boxes", so any two of such "boxes" make up a square thus symbolising electron pairs. This also cuts table length in half. Unlike the Janet table, this table is assembled from bottom up in direction of increase of quantum number n, as well as atomic weight and energy. The ADOMAH table has symmetry and, assuming total number of elements 120, can be divided in four parts of 30 elements with center point located among precious metals.
On the Wikipedia there is another circular form of periodic table:
Henry Bent's Exploration into Janet's Left-Step Formulation
Henry Ben't detailed exploration into the Left-Step formulation of the periodic table is available as a book:
Reaction Chemists' Periodic Table
OK, so which Is The Best formulation of The Periodic Table?
Personally as a reaction chemist, my preferred periodic table is the 'long' form shown below, with hydrogen above and between boron and carbon, although clearly other scientists have other ideas.
All periodic tables show the increase in mass and atomic number, Z, but only the long form unambiguously shows the general top-right-to-bottom-left trends in electronegativity, atomic radius, metallic properties and first ionisation energy.
2006 Schemata of the Elements
"The conventional periodic table reflects what is called the aufbau design, which represents a progression of numbers; in this case, that of the atomic number of the elements. The table, however, contradicts the aufbau concept in reality, because there are large gaps within among the primary (representative) elements, as well as in relation to the tertiary elements (transition and inner transition elements). The latter case, the Lanthanoids and the Actinoids, lie completely outside of the main body of the periodic table, thereby effectively breaking down the aufbau design... more..." from here by Charles William Johnson:
The Neutronic Schemata: Specialized Schemata of the Elements
Various Periodic Tables
As discussed on this page of the Chemogenesis webbook, the periodic table is ambiguous as to what it is showing.
Does the PT show the element as the abstract 'basic substance', or gas phase atoms or the material substance?
Bent's PlN and Ple (Front Step) Periodic Tables
In his book, New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law, here, Henry Bent introduces the PlN and Ple (Front Step) Periodic Tables, Figs 50 & 52:
Harmonic Circle & Spiral of the Chemical Elements
Brian David Andersen of Tri-Vortex Technology (Researcher/Inventor/Scientist), Subtle Energy Products trivortex.com:
A new periodic table formulation by James Rota here.
Jelliss' Periodic Table
Jelliss' Periodic Table, more information here:
Wikipedia Circular Periodic Table of The Elements
Wikipedia circular periodic table of the elements here:
Gyroscopic Periodic Table
From the Garuda Biodynamics web site: "The Gyroscopic Periodic Table has been a natural progression developed from a study of Soil Science, Dr Steiner's Agriculture and Medical Courses, Astronomy and Astrology."
Second Life Periodic Table
From the Useful Chemistry blog: "Further adding to the set of chemistry tools in Second Life, Hiro Sheridan has created a 3D periodic table with rotating atoms. Although not directly proportional, the relative sizes of the spheres are in the correct order. Clicking on them provides basic information about the corresponding element. The 3D periodic table is available on the Chemistry Corner on Drexel Island."
University of Jaén (Spain) Wall Mural Periodic Table
From November of 2007 a large Periodic Table placed on the main facade of Sciences Building in the University of Jaén (Spain) welcome everybody.
The table was made in honor of Mendeleev on the 100 aniversary of his death and on the occasion of the Spanish Year of Science according to the concept and design of the Spanish Chemist Antonio Marchal Ingrain, who was inspired in a postage stamp launched that year in Spain.
The artistic mural is composed of 117 tiles of 20 x 30 cm, one for each of the elements known to date, reaching a final dimensions of 2.8 x 3.6 meters. Apart from the traditional information with which students are familiar, such as the atomic number, atomic mass and the chemical symbol of the element, each of the ceramics incorporate information concerning the meaning of its name in Latin or Greek, the year and the name of the person or group of people who discovered it or isolated.
Dr. Antonio Marchal, UNIVERSITY OF JAÉN, SPAIN
Mechanical Engineer's Periodic Table
Avallone EA, Baumeister T & Sadegh AM (eds) 2007, Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 6-6. Click here for a larger version.
This mech eng PT has a couple of odd features: hydrogen is in Group 17 above fluorine and the lanthanides are split:
Rafael Poza's Elements and the Magnetosphere
Valery Tsimmerman has developed various periodic table formulations, available at perfect perioidic table.com.
Bydgoszcz's Periodic Table
Bydgoszcz's Periodic Table, web site:
Tomás A. Carroll's Spherical & Russian Doll Formulations
Tomás A. Carroll has devised a spherical formulation of the Periodic Table, and from this a nested Russian Doll formulation.
Tomás writes: "I accept your veiled challenge that it is not possible to formulate a spherical periodic table and propose two solutions for your consideration. The EXCEL spreadsheet shows exactly how I transformed the quantum numbers from the standard 4D Cartesian coordinates to spherical coordinates in 3D, using two different centers. I included cylindrical coordinates too, just for fun."
Periodic Stack of Particles
Quantum Vectors and Atomic Stack Symmetry© (This page only renders properly in Explorer.)
The Janet Periodic Table of Elements (1929) may be re-arranged as a series of square matrices. The matrices are of different sizes and each matrix organizes the atomic orbitals into square concentric rings. Each cell may be assigned an atomic number which also identifies a “most significant electron”. The matrices may be stacked vertically to form “The Periodic Stack of Elements” as shown below.
The sub-atomic particles may also be arranged as square matrices. These matrices may be stacked to form “The Periodic Stack of Particles”.
Please send your comments to: email@example.com Last Revision 21 April 2008.
Angular Form of the Periodic Table by Kamal Akhtar
"The complete periodic table is consists of two circles, principal circle and auxiliary circle. The principal circle is consist of seven tracks (periods) and eighteen sectors (groups). The auxiliary circle is consist of only two tracks, inner track and outer track. There is no division of sectors in auxiliary circle." Read more in a word.doc. View the full size PT.
Jan Scholten's Periodic table (Spiral Format)
A spiral format periodic table by Jan Scholten:
Spiral Periodic Table
Trinity College Dublin Periodic Table
A periodic table from the Trinity College Dublin physics dept. website:
Bernard Schaeffer's Quantum Mechanics Consistent Periodic Table
My graphic representation of the orbitals needed for the periodic table is without brilliant colors, but much simpler. It shows the nodes of vibration of the spherical resonator (a spherical musical instrument) also called spherical harmonics appearing in the spherical solution of the Schrödinger equation. It may be noticed that the atom is also a spherical resonator, not of sound but of the de Broglie waves.
The spherical harmonics (feminine word in french!) have been discovered by Legendre two centuries ago, see my book. Only the plane nodes of vibration are shown. The nodes of the orbitals are a 3D equivalent of the Chladni figures (also discovered two centuries ago) on a vibrating plate: "Aufbau" with spherical harmonics.
The random electronic exceptions in the subshells don't appear. The spherical nodes of the orbitals are represented only for the s subshells. This is a much simpler representation than the usual 3D representations. It can be used to represent the entire periodic table as I have shown earlier. The elements are in regularly increasing atomic numbers.
Bernard Schaeffer's Quantum Mechanics Consistent periodic table from here:
Nuevo Modelo Mathemático Tabla Periódica
Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez presents his Periodic Table formulation ideas in a 2006 PDF paper (in Spanish):
And a YouTube video:
Mathematical Formulas Describing the Sequences of the Periodic Table
Mathematical formulas describing all of the sequences of the chemical elements are derived from double tetrahedron face-centered cubic lattice model. More here.
J. Garai, Department of Earth Sciences, Florida International University. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Vol 108, 667–670 (2008):
Wheel Structure Periodic Table
From the Science Photo Library, a computer illustration representing the periodic table of the elements as a wheel structure.
Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez
The Teluric Helix from Gutierrez Samanez is inspired by the telluric helix Chancortois (1864) with the difference that the sequence of the elements are rolled into a cone shape rather than a cylinder:
Russian Periodic Table
A modern Russian periodic table using the Mendeleeve formulation:
An older version of the same formulation (date unknown, 1950s?), from here:
Silberstein Periodic Table
The organization of the periodic table that follows is based on the principle that, as the
David Silberstein, August 2009
Janet Based Periodic Table Layout by Ivan Antonowitz
"Every element has its own unique Periodic Table which is a mixture of two Ideal Forms. However, the main point at the moment is what level of complexity would be suitable? I am trying to get the most minimalistic presentation of the essential features. Explaining the logic governing the 'reversals' is quite tricky, if not controversial, and others may have more conventional rationales and so better fill in the details."
Periodic Chart Structured by Valence
A periodic chart structured by valence, developed by Steve Waterman:
Steve Jensen's "In-Finite Form"
"I'm a figurative sculptor, living in Minneapolis MN. A few years ago, while looking at a two dimensional version of the periodic table, I too wondered if it would be possible to create a Periodic Table without any visual breaks in its numerical sequence. Although I had never seen anything other than the rectangular flat table, I thought I might be able to solve this spatial continuity problem three dimensionally. I also wanted to limit myself to using a 3-D "line" that had no sudden changes in direction. After coming up with what I thought was a new and unique sculptural resolution, I put the project aside. Only recently (after re-building my paper model out of a translucent material) did I do some research on the web, and immediately recognized the strong likeness between my version and the Alexander Arrangement. Even more surprising was my models' visual similarity to Crookes' figure eight design from some 111 years ago.
"Although there are obviously many inventive and well thought out responses to this design challenge, I believe that my solution is a unique one, and an improvement over some of the previous three dimensional forms. The "line" of my model allows for contiguous numerical placement of all the symbols (while maintaining group continuity along its vertical axis), even as the shape of its plan view makes visual reference to the well-known symbol for infinity. What's more, in my version, the Lanthanide & Actinide series do not occupy a separate field but are fully integrated into the continuous linear flow. This piece, which I've entitled "In-Finite Form" speaks to the mystery of the endless flow of space, even as it folds back onto itself within the confines of a finite system."
Graphic Representations of the Periodic System
Mary E. Saecker writes an article in Chemical Education Digital Library, Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations: Graphic Representations of the Periodic System, that reviews some periodic table formunations.
The paper contains a link to this pdf file which gives templates and instructions for several print, cut-out & build periodic table formulations:
Nasco’s Periodic Table Toss-Up Ball
Toss some fun around the classroom with this 15" inflatable ball challenging students to name 118 elements from the Periodic Table. Two or more players toss the ball to each other, giving the element name for the number and symbol on which their left thumb lands. Answer sheet and instructions included. Grade 6 to adult.
Acrylic on Canvas Painting by Princess Rashid
A series of acrylic on canvas abstract periodic table paintings by Princess Rashid:
Russian MedFlower Periodic Table
Google Russian to English translation:
From Secology.Narod.RU: "Must also give up the basic heuristic principle of Mendeleev and follow him. Forget about the group, we will not argue with what period begins, but just consistently and continuously to build all the elements in a row in ascending order, and fold this series into a spatial helix, in the corporeal form, allowing the convergence of such chemical elements in the vertical..."
© Mark R. Leach 1999-
Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos...
If you have any:
This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated.
counter started in 2011