Internet Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
Use the buttons below to select from the 1000+ Periodic Tables in the database:
Miscellaneous Periodic Table formulations:
3 Year-Old Sings Tom Lehrer's Elements Song
Rose turned 3 in November. It's been a little over a year since her initial elements video.
She's still interested in elements, but not so much by playing the cards anymore, mostly via this song:
3-D Strange Periodic Table
As Lewis Page of The Register puts it: "Top flight international reverse-alchemy boffins say they have managed to transmute gold into an entirely new form of 'negatively strange' antihypernucleic antimatter...", here.
94 Elements: The Stuff of Everything
There are 94 naturally occuring elements, from hydrogen to plutonium. Together they make up everything in the world.
94 Elements is a global filmmaking project, exploring our lives through the lens of the elements. Everything that surrounds us is made from these 94 building blocks, each with its own properties and personality. Our own bodies are mostly made from just 6 of them.
The stories of the elements are the stories of our own lives. They reveal the patterns of our economies and the state of our relationships with our natural resources. The project is in part a celebration of the art of documentary film and some of the best filmmakers working today are making new films for the project. There'll also be opportunities for talented new and emerging filmmakers and animators to pitch their own films, with the winners chosen by you - the project community.
Alchemical Table of Symbols
Archetypes of Periodic Law
Archetypes of Periodic Law by Dmitry Weise, read more on the website.
One of the creators of quantum mechanics Wolfgang Ernst Pauli wrote in his work The Influence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientific Theories of Kepler (1948):
Art of The Elements
An Exhibition "Periodic Tales: The Art of the Elements", the Compton Verney Gallery, 3 October 2015 to 13 December 2015
The show is reviewed in New Scientist.
Atomic Nuclei Periodic Table
Atoms, Orbitals & The Periodic Table
One of several animations and explanations/realisations of quantum physics from Data-Burger, scientific advisor: J. Bobroff, with the support of: Univ. Paris Sud, SFP, Triangle de la Physique, PALM, Sciences à l'Ecole, ICAM-I2CAM.
Mark Leach writes:
BASF Periodic Table
A BASF advert showing a periodic table of school children:
Better Call Saul - Gale sings The Elements
Biologist's Periodic Tables
A periodic table showing where biologically essential (green), essential trace (purple), toxic (red), radioactive (yellow) and of low but not zero biological impact (gray) elements are found. Only highly toxic elements are shown in red. Li (as Li+) is biologically active and is used as an antidepressant.
And a periodic table for biologists from Science Videos:
Bloomberg Businessweek Special Issue: The Elements
Using state of the art  web graphics, and packed with interesting business stories:
Braille Guidebook Interactive Periodic Table Study Set
Azer's Interactive Periodic Table Study Set is designed to make learning about the Periodic Table of the Elements accessible to students with visual impairments or blindness.
The tangible materials included with this study set complement APH's Periodic Table of the Elements Reference Chart and allow students to enhance their understanding of concepts consistent with the National Science Standards.
Inspired by Samir Azer, a science teacher at the Kentucky School for the Blind, this set can assist in the instruction and demonstration of concepts related to the arrangement of the periodic table, atomic structure, ionic and covalent bonding, and balancing of chemical equations to students who benefit from a hands-on, interactive model.
Special attention was given to make the materials tactually discriminable and visually appealing to the target population, yet appropriate for all students regardless of visual acuity:
Breaking Bad Periodic Table
Breaking Bad Periodic Table
More Breaking Bad PT images:
Brielle, 3 Years Old, Recites The Periodic Table of Elements!
Building Block Elements
From Think Geek, element building blocks... so you can build your own PT Formulation:
Bus Periodic Table
A bus dressed as a Periodic Table used to advertise The Oxford Science Park:
And a Taxi:
Cartoon about The Elements
A cartoon about the elements from xkcd.com:
Celebrate 150 Years Of The Periodic Table By Tying 200,000 Tiny Knots
Jane Stewart decided to Celebrate 150 Years Of The Periodic Table By Tying 200,000 Tiny Knots:
Chemical Slide Rules
The first chemical slide rules are of interest here because they are, in effect, early periodic tables. But the are more than this, as they can be used for performing chemical calculations. Writing in Bull. Hist. Chem. 12 (1992) (and here), William D. Williams of Harding University writes:
Some chemical slide rules mentioned in the text:
Nagayasu Nawa writes and provides an explanation as how Wollaston's chemical equivalents slide rules should be used:
Chemistry Eye Chart
From Cascadia Press, an Eye Chart for Chemists:
Chemistry Imagined: The Periodic Table
From Roald Hoffmann & Vivian Torrence's book, Chemistry Imagined: Reflections of Science, a picture entitled The Periodic Table:
Chemoline an on-line shop, based in Germany with a multilingual site (click the flag), sells various science artifacts that feature the periodic table.
The site also has an on-line chemical element version of Sudoku called chemoDoku, click to play:
Chemoline is an on-line shop, based in Germany with a multilingual site (click the flag).
The shop sells various science artifacts. Several products feature the periodic table, including:
Chinese Character Periodic Tables
Names of the Chemical Elements in Chinese
An interesting Language Log web page that discusses the chemical elements in chinese.
Circlon Model of Nuclear Structure & Periodic Table
The complete nature and description of The Circlon Model of Nuclear Structure is contained in the book The Other Theory of Nuclear Physics available from www.living-universe.com. However, for the purpose of understanding nuclear structure it is only necessary to assume that the components of nuclear structure (protons, mesons, and neutrons) are all composed of hollow, ring-shaped, mechanical particles called Circlons that are held together within the nucleus by their physical shapes.
Within the nucleus, the proton and the meson are always connected in a two piece unit called a Promestone. The proton encircles the ring-shaped body of the meson, and the neutrons fit inside of the meson's hollow body and can only be located at four places within the meson's body called nucleon receptors. A proton is always located at one of a meson's nucleon receptors. One Promestone makes up the nucleus of a hydrogen-1 atom and two Promestones plus two neutrons make up the helium-4 nucleus, also know as an alpha particle. An element's atomic number indicates the number of Promestones in its nucleus and an isotope's atomic weight indicates the total number of Promestones and neutrons in that particular nucleus.
Within the alpha particle that forms the center of each nucleus, a proton and a neutron are located at each junction where the two mesons intersect. However, when two mesons cross in other parts of the nucleus, each intersection can contain only one proton or one neutron (see nitrogen model above).
In the nucleon models displayed in each of the element boxes of the periodic table, the protons are represented by white circles and the neutrons are represented by white stars. The mesons are represented by ovals which take the color of the element that is formed by their addition to the nucleus:
Classical Periodic Table
A periodic table of the classical elements: air, fire, earth, water & aether available as a t-shirt:
Or, just air, fire, earth, water, the 'old school' elements from here:
Clock Periodic Table
Prof. Martyn Poliakoff of the University of Nottingham, and star of the Periodic Videos YouTube Channel, explains how he was given a periodic table clock by a Japanese School teacher... which he likes very much:
Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version
From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a Braille version of the Clock Prism periodic table:
Coat of Arms Periodic Table
Amy Gramour has created a version of the Periodic Table that presents a coat of arms for each element. The attributes of the coats of arms symbolize the electron configuration and other selected features of each element.
This PT is featured at Amy's website, www.amysmind2yourmind.com:
Coffee Table, Periodic Table Table
Cognitive Classroom's Periodic Table of Atoms
From Cognitive Classroom, a Periodic Table of Atoms. Richard Lambrecht writes:
Click image or here to enlarge:
Collective Work of Chemists
From an article on LinkedIn:
Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements
Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic weight uncertainties.
Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements in Naturally Occurring Terrestrial Materials and Reagents
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water Resources Investigation Report 01-4222
Corning Museum of Glass Periodic Table
A periodic table made from glassware at the Corning Museum of Glass:
Correspondences Between The Classical Thomson Problem and The Periodic Table of The Elements
By Tim (TJ) LaFave, a very detailed pdf discussing the correspondences between the classical Thomson Problem and the Periodic Table of the Elements. You will need to click thru and zoom in:
Crab Periodic Table
A crab PT. I know nothing about this, other than this photograph found on a blog:
Cupcakes, Periodic Table
From Kayla N. Green, Assistant Professor of Chemistry (Texas Christian University) comes a periodic table constructed from cupcakes baked for Chemistry Week 2012:
Cutting Board Periodic Table
From Etsy, a Cutting Board periodic table:
Daubeny's Teaching Display Board & Wooden Cubes of Atomic Weights
The Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, has a display of Charles Daubeny's teaching materials, including a black painted wooden board with "SYMBOLS OF SIMPLE BODIES": showing symbols, atomic weights and names of elements in two columns, and a small pile of cubes with element symbols.
From the HSM Database (Inventory no. 17504):
The period from 1810 to 1860 was crucial in the development of the periodic table. Most of the main group and transition elements had been discovered, but their atomic weights and stoichiometries (combining ratios) had not been fully deduced. Oxygen was assumed to have a weight of 6, and consequently carbon is assumed to have a mass of 6.
Daubeny's element symbols and weights – along with the modern mass data – are tabulated:
While quite a number of weights are close to the modern values, many are way out. However, the error is usually a stiotoimetric factor error.
From the HSM Database (Inventory no. 33732): SET OF WOODEN CUBES ILLUSTRATING ATOMIC WEIGHTS
Forty-two wooden cubes numbered 1-42, painted black with symbols for certain elements, compounds or radicals painted in white on the faces, together with the corresponding atomic, molecular or radical weights. The face markings appear in various combinations:
A typical cube (no. 3) may be represented by the following figure. They present something of an enigma as their faces do not form an obvious pattern. The numbers indicate that there were 42 cubes. In style they are similar to the figures on the panel of atomic weights.
The cubes are listed in Daubeny's 1861 catalogue, p. 11 as: "Wooden cubes for illustrating atomic weight". [See D. R. Oldroyd, The Chemical Lectures at Oxford (1822-1854) of Charles Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S. Notes and Records of the Royal Society, vol. 33 (1979), pp. 217-259.]
Death Metal Periodic Table
Don't Trust Atoms...
Dufour's Periodic Tree: Two Short Films
Here are some origional periodic table ideas, including history and electron overjumpings by Oleg Aleksandrov, from here.
Rose, a cute & smart 2 year old girl showing her excellent knowledge of the Periodic Table:
tnx to Boing Boing for the tip
A YouTube video, The Element Hunters.
The text accompanying the video says:
Element Scarcity, Periodic Table of
The European Chemical Society Periodic Table depicting element scarcity was unveiled and discussed at a EuChemS event in the European Parliament on Tuesday 22nd January 2019.
Elements According to Relative Abundance
A 1970 periodic table by Prof. Wm. F. Sheehan of the University of Santa Clara that claims to show the elements according to relative abundance at the Earth's surface.
Click here to see the full size version with a little more text:
However, this author disputes the relative areas given to the various elements; there is almost no helium at the Earth's surface, for example.
Below is a conventional PT representation of the relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust taken from Mark Winter's WebElements website:
Elements by Orbital
From elsewhere in Mark Leach's Chemogenesis webbook:
Madelung's Rule tells us that the orbitals fill in the order n + l (lowest first). This gives the sequence:
Electronic structure can be illustrated adding electrons to boxes (to represent orbitals). This representation shows the Pauli exclusion principle, the aufbau principle and Hund's rule in action.
There are some subtle effects with the d block elements chromium, Cr, and copper, Cu. Hund's rule of maximum multiplicity lowers the energy of the 3d orbital below that of the the 4s orbital, due to the stabilisation achieved with a complete and spherically symmetric set of five 3d orbitals containing five or ten electrons. Thus,
Elements in Bottles Periodic Table
A nice web site with a physical periodic table of elements:
Elements of The Standard Model
The first step towards the Standard Model of particle physics was Glashow's 1960 discovery of a way to combine the electromagnetic and weak interactions. In 1967, Weinberg & Salam incorporated the Higgs mechanism, giving the standard model its modern form of: quarks leptons and bosons.
These diagrams are the periodic tables of elementry particle physics:
Elements Song by Tom Lehrer
The Elements Song by Tom Lehrer recorded live in Copenhagen in 1967:
And, an animated version from 2008 of the 1959 original:
The Elements Song by Tom Lehrer Periodic Table
"An unusual periodic table in which each element represents a rendition of the classic Tom Lehrer song, The Elements, which has to be every chemist's favourite song, really. There are also a few ringers, see if you can spot them. But, more to the point there are major gaps...so what's you're favourite Elements rendition? Let me know via Twitter or Facebook. I'd be particularly interested to see personal recordings and renditions done for your own site, lab or special event. You can find the original lyrics here; the tune is that of G&S's "Major General" from The Pirates of Penzance.":
Elements Song Updated by Helen Arney
Elephant Periodic Table
The periodic table does not map to an elephant very well:
Click on the poster below to go to a large version:
enkana's Periodic Table
A nice periodic table with a simple graphic for each element by enkana:
ericscerri.com is the personal internet domain and website of Eric Scerri: chemist and leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of the periodic table. He is founder and editor-in-chief of the international journal Foundations of Chemistry, which publishes academic papers concerned with the PT, and is the author of the respected book: The Periodic Table and Its Significance (Oxford University Press, 2007).
The website has links to all of Eric's extensive publications, including online video lectures and interviews and external links.
Extending the Periodic Table
The periodic table now extends to element 118, Oganesson, and scientists are attempting to go further. Below is part of a Segre chart, proton number on the y-axis and neutron number of the x-axis, from a report from the Japanese Superheavy Element Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN.
The diagram shows various nuclear reactions, for example: 232Th + 40Ar to make 272Hs.
f--l--A--r--k's Fractal Periodic Table
A fractal periodic table by f--l--A--r--k:
First Ionisation Energy of The Elements
Periodic trend for ionization energy, for example Mg → Mg+ + e–
Each period begins at a minimum for the alkali metals, and ends at a maximum for the noble gases. From Wikipedia:
Based on data from: Martin, W. C.; Wiese, W. L. (1996). Atomic, Molecular, & Optical Physics Handbook. American Institute of Physics. ISBN 156396242X.
Frog Periodic Table
Funny Periodic Table
By Eric J Stone a Funny Periodic Table of chemical reactivity.
Google Image Search Periodic Table
Davebug has made a periodic table using the top Google Image search result for each element. Cool and very www:
Graphic Representations of the Periodic System
Mary E. Saecker writes an article in Chemical Education Digital Library, Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations: Graphic Representations of the Periodic System, that reviews some periodic table formunations.
The paper contains a link to this pdf file which gives templates and instructions for several print, cut-out & build periodic table formulations:
Gray's Wooden Periodic Table Table
Theodore Gray's Wooden Periodic Table Table a wooden table that incorporates a periodic table is a treasure trove, both on the web and in reality (his office).
The web site contains over 12 gig of data and beautiful images. Explore!
Theo's new site is periodictable.com.
Group Numbering Systems
Phase State: Solid, Liquid, Gas at 20°C & 700°C
Haiku Periodic Table
By Mary Soon Lee, a review of the Periodic Table composed of 119 science haiku, one for each element, plus a closing haiku for element 119 (not yet synthesized). The haiku encompass astronomy, biology, chemistry, history, physics, and a bit of whimsical flair. Click here, then hover over an element on the Periodic Table to read the haiku.
Heritage Periodic Table Display
Higgs Boson and Fundamental Particle/Force Periodic Tables
The Higgs boson sits at the heart of the Standard Model of particle physics, and so is at the centre of periodic table type representations of quarks, leptons and forces.
Homage to The Elements
Eulalia Bosch writes:
Homenatge Als Elements
From Eugènia Balcells' blog (and translated using Google Translate):
TRIBUTE TO THE ELEMENTS was born as a counterpoint to the video-installation Eugènia Balcells often, a film without end where the trace elements that each emit light merges with the other and forming a true metaphor for origin of the universe.
Coinciding with the International Year of Chemistry, TRIBUTE TO THE ELEMENTS has been published in two formats: a poster in which each element is represented by its chemical symbol and its own emission spectrum and a version where each element, printed separately, part of a collection that can be stored as such or are available as a mural on a temporary or permanent exhibition space, as presented in the exposure:
I Wear This Shirt Periodically T-Shirt
From Shared.com, a "I Wear This Shirt Periodically" T-Shirt:
Instruments, Periodic Table of
Download, zoom in & explore the interesting pdf file:
International Year of the Periodic Table (in Paris and Moscow)
International Year of the Periodic Table with Eric Scerri
A YouTube video about IUPAC's International Year of the Periodic Table:
Periodic Table of Ions
From Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin, here.
iPhone, Periodic Table of
An article in Scientific American Digging for Rare Earths: The Mines Where iPhones Are Born.
Steve Jensen's "In-Finite Form"
"I'm a figurative sculptor, living in Minneapolis MN. A few years ago, while looking at a two dimensional version of the periodic table, I too wondered if it would be possible to create a Periodic Table without any visual breaks in its numerical sequence. Although I had never seen anything other than the rectangular flat table, I thought I might be able to solve this spatial continuity problem three dimensionally. I also wanted to limit myself to using a 3-D "line" that had no sudden changes in direction. After coming up with what I thought was a new and unique sculptural resolution, I put the project aside. Only recently (after re-building my paper model out of a translucent material) did I do some research on the web, and immediately recognized the strong likeness between my version and the Alexander Arrangement. Even more surprising was my models' visual similarity to Crookes' figure eight design from some 111 years ago.
"Although there are obviously many inventive and well thought out responses to this design challenge, I believe that my solution is a unique one, and an improvement over some of the previous three dimensional forms. The "line" of my model allows for contiguous numerical placement of all the symbols (while maintaining group continuity along its vertical axis), even as the shape of its plan view makes visual reference to the well-known symbol for infinity. What's more, in my version, the Lanthanide & Actinide series do not occupy a separate field but are fully integrated into the continuous linear flow. This piece, which I've entitled "In-Finite Form" speaks to the mystery of the endless flow of space, even as it folds back onto itself within the confines of a finite system."
JR's Chemistry Set
For the iPhone and iPad, JR's Chemistry Set makes chemistry interesting and fun to learn. Based upon the innovative Rota Period, it is a handy and powerful reference tool for chemistry enthusiasts and practitioners at all ages and all levels.
Kabbalistic Periodic Table
A Kabbalistic periodic table from www.inner.org that attempts to link the PT with the Torah version of Genesis:
Kansas Periodic Table
The Kansas periodic table... with warnings... by the reDiscovery Institute.
Click the link, then on the top left hand side of the page go to Chemistry, then Just a Theory:
KAS Periodic Table
The KAS periodic table reproduces and depicts the nuclear properties of chemical elements. This periodic table depicts not only the trends of nuclear properties, but also reproduces their numerical values that remain very close to the experimental values (difference less than 4%).
The Segre Chart is based on the number of protons, Z, and the number of neutrons, N. It is like a library of nuclei and shows the recorded data only. The Segre Chart can not work when the number of neutrons is not given. But KAS Periodic Table works when the number of neutrons is not given.It does not require the number of neutrons to produce the results.This is a simple chart based on the number of protons of chemical element. We identify the following properties of elements:-
Periodic Table of Periodic Tables
Khipu or Quipu Periodic Table
The Khipu or Quipu or Talking Knot Periodic Table, developed by Julio Antonio Gutierrez Samanez.
Kid's Periodic Table
From Cognitive Classroom, a Kid's 'cut-down' Periodic Table:
Knitted Blanket Periodic Table, In Time to Celebrate 150th Anniversary
Trish Bosco thought we might be interested in her periodic table blanket.
Lego® Periodic Table
Welcome to the Lego® Periodic Table of Elements.
Students and faculty at Spring Arbor University (MI), students and faculty at Hardin Valley Academy (TN), and members of the community surrounding Spring Arbor have worked together to construct a periodic table entirely out of Lego® blocks.
On each elemental square has been placed a small Lego® creation that somehow represents the element on which it is positioned.
You can learn a little bit about each element by clicking on its particular square on the table below.
Leningrad Monument To The Periodic Table
Leningrad monument to the periodic table, located near to the main chamber of weights and measures, 1934 (from van Spronsen):
Letters & Words Periodic Table
By Claude Ziad Bayeh:
KU Leuven Periodic Table
Each element can be explored from this page:
Lewis Octet Periodic Table
A periodic table showing the outer shell of valence electrons associated with Lewis atoms:
Möbius-Escher Periodic Table
Müller's Tree System
In 1944 Müller produced a formulation based on Darwin's tree of life (from van Spronsen):
Magnetic Periodic Table
Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law
Mazurs' PT Formulation Analysis
In his 1974 book Edward G. Mazurs (2nd edition) Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press gives a comprehensive analysis of periodic table formulations.
Mazurs identifies most PT formulations as being:
Meet the Elements
Memory Pegs Periodic Table
On John Pratt's website there is a periodic table of Memory Pegs.
"Each picture in this periodic table is designed to remind you of the element's name, atomic number, and abbreviation. Point to the element to see its name and number. Click on the element for more explanation and then Back to return to the table. There is also an explanation of how to use the pictures as memory pegs. You can also see the name and number of the element by pointing to it and reading the address in the status window at the bottom. At least memorize the first twenty! Each of those first 20 also has a unique color which can also be used for memorizing a list of twenty objects by associating a color with each.":
Mendeleev 150 is the 4th International Conference on the Periodic Table. The event welcomed nearly 300 guests from over 30 countries and has become one of the key events of IUPAC's International Year of the Periodic Table.
Mendeleev's Properties of The Chemical Elements
Scanned from the first English edition of Dmitrii Mendeleev's Principles of Chemistry (translated from the Russian fifth edition) a table showing the periodicity of the properties of many chemical elements, taken from the Wikipedia from where a 2116 x 2556 version is available, or here.
Metals in Medicine Periodic Table
From Metal Complexes in Aqueous Solutions by Martell & Hancock, a periodic table of metals in medicine.
Meyer's NYT Graphic
A nice graphic by Alex Eben Meyer in the New York Times accompanying an article about the periodic table and some of Sir Martyn Poliakoff ideas.
MIT Periodic Table Characters
Eric Scerri writes:
Mnemonic Periodic Table Song
By Ballroom Jam, a mnemonic song to help memorise the chemical elements:
Mug Periodic Table
Murov's Colours of the Elements
Steven Murov writes :
The tables are available online at:
Music Notes of Periodic Table
By Claude Bayeh, a Musical Notes formulation:
Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass
Click image to enlarge.
Neutronic Schema of the Elements
The Neutronic Schema of the Elements, with LATIN NOTATION by Families and Groups, by Earth/matriX, Science Today, 11" x 17" laminated, color, shows each element of the periodic table with its notation in Latin letters instead of their historically accidental names and symbols:
Non-Scientist's Periodic Table
By John T Hortenstine Jr. of the R.W. Johnson Pharmaceutical Research Institute, The Non-Scientists Concept of the Periodic Table of the Elements, for example "Zirconium, in Fake Diamonds", etc.
Click here for the big version.
Orbital Filling With Electrons
Students of chemistry are often confused why the orbitals fill with electrons: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6... etc., because the 3d10 seems to be 'out of sequence'.
This 'out of sequence' difficulity is nicely explained if the orbitals are arranged in a slightly different way:
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s shell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an atom or ion form the most stable electron configuration possible.
The order in which these orbitals are filled is given by the n + rule, also known as the Madelung rule (after Erwin Madelung), the Janet rule or the diagonal rule.
Orbitals with a lower n + value are filled before those with higher n + values. In this context, n represents the principal quantum number and ? the azimuthal quantum number. The values = 0, 1, 2, 3 correspond to the s, p, d and f orbital lables.
Julio Gutiérrez Samanez writes:
Orbitron Gallery of Atomic Orbitals
The Orbitron gallery of atomic orbitals is a poster available from Mark Winter's Web Elements:
The orbitron web page is here.
Organic Chemist's Periodic Table (another one)
The Periodic Table as seen by an Organic Chemist... a T-Shirt by REDBUBBLE:
Painting of The Elements
Periodic Arch of The Elements
Cynthia K. Whitney of Galilean Electrodynamics writes: "In his paper Explaining the periodic table, and the role of chemical triad, Eric Scerri mentioned the existence of at least four different candidate places for Hydrogen: Group 1 (alkali metals - Lithium, etc.), Group 17 (halogens - Fluorine, etc.), Group 14 (Carbon, etc.), or off the Periodic Table entirely, because it is so odd! The four-fold multiplicity (and maybe more) of candidate places for Hydrogen triggered in me the following thought: the excessive multiplicity of candidate places may have to do with the rectangular nature of the Periodic Tables under consideration there." Read more in this pdf file.
Periodic Table Song (2018 UPDATE!)
Periodic Table Table
Philatelic Table of The Elements
Larry French writes:
Click here for full size version
Pictures & Words
Pictures, Periodic Table of
By Keith Enevoldsen, a Periodic Table of The Elements in Pictures:
Places of the Periodic Table
An interactive, searchable Google map of places associated with the developers of the periodic table and with the chemical elements with links to further information brought to you by Carmen Giunta and James Marshall, with the encouragement of the ACS Division of the History of Chemistry (HIST), to mark the International Year of the Periodic Table (IYPT). This is an interactive searchable map of places associated with the developers of the periodic table and with the chemical elements with links to further information.
Examples include places where elements were discovered or synthesized, mineral sources of elements, places where discoverers of chemical periodicity worked, and places for which elements were named. Each entry contains links to further information about the person, place, or event described. The type of site is indicated (for example, lab, residence, mineral source, etc.), as well as whether (to the best of our knowledge) the historical site still exists at the location. For more information on the type of site, please consult this key to the map's fields. The map is intended for educational and informational purposes only, and is not meant as a travel guide. If you wish to visit a site on this map, please consult other resources to confirm access, and use common sense. (Read more here.)
Planiverse Periodic Table
The Planiverse is set in a 2-D universe that somehow enters into resonance with ours, enabling a computing professor (which Dewdney is) and his class to follow the adventures and scientific education of the hero Yendred (Dewdney backwards).
Polymer Periodic Table
"The Periodic Table of the elements by Mendeleev was a historic achievement in chemistry and enabled chemists to see the relationship between structure and properties of the basic elements. Polymers also have a strong relationship between structure and properties and this Periodic Table of Polymers is a first attempt to provide a simple codification of the basic polymer types and structures. The diversity of polymer types makes it impossible to include all of the variations in one simple table and this table only includes the most common polymers. At this stage the Table only includes the most common thermoplastics but it will be extended in the future to include thermosets and potentially rubbers and alloys/blends."
Periodic Table Stamp, from Spain
Primo Levi's Elements
Protein Complexes, Periodic Table of
The Periodic Table of Protein Complexes, developed by researchers in the UK and published in the in the journal Science (Dec 11, 2015), offers a new way of looking at the enormous variety of structures that proteins can build in nature. More importantly, it suggests which ones might be discovered next and how entirely novel structures could be engineered. Created by an interdisciplinary team led by researchers at the Wellcome Genome Campus and the University of Cambridge, the Table provides a valuable tool for research into evolution and protein engineering.
Protein Structure Periodic Tables
From a paper by W. R. Taylor, A 'Periodic Table' for Protein Structures, Nature, 2002 Apr 11;416(6881):657-60
This work has been developed by Efrosini Moutevelis and Derek N. Woolfson in their paper A Periodic Table of Coiled-Coil Protein Structures, J. Mol. Biol. (2009) 385, 726–732.
QR Coded Audio Periodic Table of the Elements
The QR coded Audio Periodic Table of the Elements by Vasco D. B. Bonifa?cio, REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculdade de Cie?ncias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal. Email: email@example.com.
From the paper in The Journal of Chemical Education "A quick response coded audio periodic table of the elements (QR-APTE) was developed using free online resources. The potential of QR-APTE was tested using a smart phone and is envisaged to become a truly powerful tool to teach chemistry to blind and visually impaired students under a mobile-learning environment":
Quantum Victoria Periodic Art
In 2019 Quantum Victoria, an Australian specialist STEM education centre for primary and secondary students and teachers, commissioned a series of 51 images illustrating the birth of the Universe through elements of significance from the Periodic Table.
These will be permanently installed at Quantum Victoria and launched in July to celebrate IYPT2019 - the 150th anniversary of the discovery of the Periodic Table in 1869.
All designs are available as limited edition prints in sizes from A3 to one metre across, printed with archival inks on 100% cotton paper.
Click here or on the image below to access the website and larger versions of the illustrations.
Ramsay's Periodic Table
Rap Periodic Table by NOVI NOV
NOVI NOV writes:
Rapping the Elements
Oort Kuiper writes:
Recipe For A Human Shirt
By Sean Fallon and available from Fashionably Geek, A Recipe For Humans Shirt:
Rejected Element Names, Periodic Table of
Rock, Periodic Table of
RSC Visual Elements Periodic Table: Alchemy
From the RSC Website: "Alchemists are often described as the first chemists. They developed an extraordinary language (rather than the chemical symbols we use today) to describe all manner of things, from chemical reactions to philosophical tenets. Click on ‘What is Alchemy?’ to learn about the three aims of the alchemists. Click on each of the alchemical symbols for more information and to see alternative symbols."
Russian Periodic Table
A modern Russian periodic table using the Mendeleeve formulation:
An older version of the same formulation (date unknown, 1950s?), from here:
Schaltenbrand's Helical Gathering of the Elements
From the RSC Website:
Science Museum Lockers
Scott Van Note Periodic Table Sculpture
On the Saatchi Art website, a 3D periodic table Sculpture by Scott Van Note.
Sculpture: Metal (Bronze). Ten made for the local ASM international chapter.
Loops and changes of direction show electron shell filling. S,P,D,F with S just a change of direction. Continuous spiral from top to bottom. New loops introduce as the electron shell would. Does not show the out-of-order shell filling.
Keywords: periodic, science, sculpture, functional, nerd
Segré Chart of Elements & Isotopes
The Segré chart of elements and isotopes arranges atomic nuclei by numbers or protons and numbers of neutrons and is a table of nuclides. There are various ways the axes can be arranged. From elsewhere in this chemogenesis web book:
And from Wikipedia:
Setting The Table
The journal Science gives "a visual brief history" of the periodic table, with some neat graphics showing the PT grew and changed with time. (You will need to visit the webpage to see the cool graphics inaction):
Shapes Periodic Table
Simplest Periodic Table
Each element is represented by a visualization of its electronic structure, rather than by numbers and letters:
The Simpsons Periodic Table
A Periodic Table from the Simpsons... look closely and it is not quite as expected...
Lisa Gets an "A" Season Ten (1998-1999) - 23 Episodes [204-226] Episode 210 Original Airdate on FOX: 22-Nov-1998
A famous Spanish periodic table with puns/jokes on the element names. (Click here for a larger version.)
This is one for Spanish speaking chemists!
Smart Elements, at smart-elements.com, is a company selling physical samples of chemical elements for research, education & collection.
Smart Elements sell numerous examples of all the naturally occuring elements. For example they sell 26 copper, Cu, products including samples in acrylic blocks, vials and bottles:
"Kenneth Snelson's Portrait of an Atom is a multi-media artwork that [attempts to] describe the atom's electronic architecture. If you happen to have a rapid prototype printer this STL file can be downloaded free for creating a desktop model at any preferred size of the Snelson atom."
Spectraphonic Periodic Table
Relax and enjoy the Spectraphonic Periodic Table of the Elements, the first and only periodic table where you may hear the characteristic light signature (spectra) of each element dropped forty octaves into the auditory range. Hear the sounds of the atoms. Experience the building blocks of reality... of the Universe... of You.:
Spider Chart of The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
A Spider Chart linking together various ideas about the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements by Roy Alexander (of Alexander Arrangement fame).
Click here to embiggen the image:
Spiral Periodic Table
Stamps Commemorating Yuri Organeson
Stamps Commemorating Yuri Organeson, Issued by Armenia, Dec 28th, 2017
Stardust Periodic Table of The Elements
Inspired by Carl Sagan, Stardust Elements introduces a display case of the periodic table of the elements with real high purity samples:
Superconductivity of Hydrides Periodic Table
Scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and Skoltech have demonstrated the high-temperature superconductivity of actinium hydrides and discovered a general principle for calculating the superconductivity of hydrides based on the periodic table alone. The results of their study were published in The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters.
Sweater With Periodic Table
A sweater with a periodic table and stitch pattern details, as seen on the This and That blog:
The Table Lab with several Periodic Tables:
Table of Organic Chemicals and Their Smells
A table of organic chemicals and their smells:
Tetris Version of the Periodic Table
Twin Vortex Theory
By consulting engineer Anthony H. Davis comes the Twin Vortex Theory of nuclear structure. Read more in the attached PDF and watch the embedded video below:
Twitter Handle Periodic Table
Here is the periodic table of Twitter, with all the accounts linked:
Periodic Tables in Two Hundred Languages
Periodic Tables of the Elements in Two Hundred Languages:
UCL Lecturers, Periodic Table Of
This table attempts to chart the evolution of the department from its inception in 1826 to the present day through the members of academic staff who have taught here. The names appear in order of appointment. In the interests of clarity, the f-block has been suppressed in its entirety. This move in no way reflects Departmental Policy. UCL Chemistry does not discrimate against particular azimuthal quantum numbers and has no comment to make regarding elements with n > 6.
Click on a name to get details of the time they spent here and perhaps even see a picture of the person. With time we hope to include biographical information, anecdotes, lists of key publications, pictures of mountains they climbed, and other goodies from our archives. An alphabetical list is also available. Disclaimer: Positions in the chart are provisional and no conclusions concerning the moral fibre of any individual should be drawn on the basis of their position in a group or by virtue of a diagonal relationship to anyone else.
Produced by Dr Andrea Sella, with thanks to Ms Tina Simon for the design idea.
Ultimate Periodic Table by Goodfellow
While the 'ultimate' periodic table by Goodfellow may not appear to be very ultimate, it does actually a possess a very rare property: Goodfellow is a materials company that supplies most of the chemical elements for industrial and research use.
By clicking on the element palladium, various facts about, and properties of, Pd are shown. Additionally, Goodfellow can supply:
Underground Map of the Elements
University of Jaén (Spain) Wall Mural Periodic Table
From November of 2007 a large Periodic Table placed on the main facade of Sciences Building in the University of Jaén (Spain) welcome everybody.
The table was made in honor of Mendeleev on the 100 aniversary of his death and on the occasion of the Spanish Year of Science according to the concept and design of the Spanish Chemist Antonio Marchal Ingrain, who was inspired in a postage stamp launched that year in Spain.
The artistic mural is composed of 117 tiles of 20 x 30 cm, one for each of the elements known to date, reaching a final dimensions of 2.8 x 3.6 meters. Apart from the traditional information with which students are familiar, such as the atomic number, atomic mass and the chemical symbol of the element, each of the ceramics incorporate information concerning the meaning of its name in Latin or Greek, the year and the name of the person or group of people who discovered it or isolated.
Dr. Antonio Marchal, UNIVERSITY OF JAÉN, SPAIN
University of Murcia's Oversize Periodic Table
The faculty at the University of Murcia in Spain has a giant periodic table of the elements emblazoned on the facade of the school's chemistry building.
Covering 150 m2, the table displays 118 elements identified by their symbol, atomic number, and atomic mass. "It could be the world's largest permanent periodic table placed on a wall", Pedro Lozano Rodriguez, dean of the department of chemistry at the school, tells Newscripts.
A number of local companies chipped in to place the oversize chart on the side of the building, including the energy firm Repsol, the brewer Estrella de Levante, and personal care products maker Tahe Productos Cosméticos. Lozano says the display will serve as part of an introductory chemistry lesson for incoming freshmen.
Valentine Periodic Table
A Valentine Periodic Table by Claude Bayeh:
Venn Diagram of the Chemical Elements and the United States
A rather nice Venn diagram showing the intersection of the chemical element symbols and the States of the Union (based on an origional found at I Love Charts):
Waterloo Periodic Table Project/Projet Tableau Périodique
To celebrate the International Year of Chemistry (IYC), Chem 13 News magazine together with the University of Waterloo's Department of Chemistry and the Faculty of Science encouraged chemistry educators and enthusiasts worldwide to adopt an element and artistically interpret that element.
The project created a periodic table as a mosaic of science and art. Students from all Canadian provinces and territories, 20 U.S. states and 14 countries researched, created and designed the elemental tiles. We created a poster, wall mural and a mobile app. The app includes the creative process behind each tile along with basic atomic properties of the element. The free app work to truly highlight the artistic expression of the Periodic Table Project. Thank you to all the teachers and students who participated in the collaborative Periodic Table Project.
Winter Olympics Opening Ceremony Periodic Table
From the 2014 Winter Olympics Opening ceremony, a Russian periodic table. See the whole video on RuTube.
Wonderful Life with the Elements
In this super periodic table, every element is a unique character whose properties are represented visually: heavy elements are fat, man-made elements are robots, and noble gases sport impressive afros. Every detail is significant, from the length of an element's beard to the clothes on its back. You'll also learn about each element's discovery, its common uses, and other vital stats like whether it floats - or explodes - in water.
There is also a full review with more images from Wired.
World's Smallest Periodic Table
The World's Smallest Periodic Table:
© Mark R. Leach 1999-
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