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The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.

Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:

Text search:       


Periodic Table formulations from the years 1850 - 1899, by date:

1850   Elements Known in the Year 1850
1858   Cannizzaro's Letter
1860   Discovery of Cesium
1860   Karlsruhe Congress
1861   Discovery of Rubidium
1861   Discovery of Thallium
1862   Béguyer de Chancourtois' Vis Tellurique
1862   Meyer's Periodic System
1863   Discovery of Indium
1864   Newlands' Octaves
1864   Odling's Table of Elements
1864   Naquet's Families of Elements
1866   Spectroscope Revelations
1867   Hinrichs' Programme of Atomechanics
1868   Mendeleev's Handwritten Draft Periodic Table
1868   Meyer's "Lost" Table
1869   Mendeleev's Tabelle I
1870   Meyer's Periodic Table
1870   Baumhauer's Spiral
1870   Baker's Electronegativity Table
1871   Mendeleev's Tabelle II
1871   Mendeleev's Predicted Elements
1871   Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013
1872   Mendeléeff's Vertical Table (Q&Q's Spelling)
1872   Meyer's Spiral System
1875   Discovery of Gallium
1875   Gibbes' Synoptical Periodic Table
1875   Concentric Ring Arrangement of Wiik
1878   Discovery of Ytterbium
1878   Waechter's Numerical Regularities
1879   Discovery of Scandium
1879   Discovery of Samarium
1879   Discovery of Holmium
1879   Discovery of Thulium
1880   Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff
1880   Discovery of Gadolinium
1881   Spring's Diagram
1882   Bayley's Periodic System
1882   Brauner's Periodic Table
1882   Bayley's Attempt
1885   Discovery of Praseodymium
1885   Discovery of Neodymium
1885   Carnelley & The Periodic Law
1885   Klieber's Cosmochemical Periodic Table
1885   von Richter's Periodic System of the Elements
1886   Crookes' Periodic Table
1886   Discovery of Fluorine
1886   Discovery of Germanium
1886   Discovery of Dysprosium
1886   Shepard's Natural Classification
1886   Reynolds' Method of Illustrating the Periodic Law
1887   Flavitzky's Arrangement
1888   Stoney's Spiral
1891   Mendeleev's Table In English
1891   Wendt's Generation-Tree of the Elements
1892   Bassett's Vertical Arrangement
1892   Bassett Dumb-Bell Form
1893   Rang's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements
1893   Nechaev's Truncated Cones
1894   Discovery of Argon
1895   Retger's Periodic Table
1895   Thomsen's Systematic Arrangement of the Chemical Elements
1895   Discovery of Helium
1896   Richards' Classification of The Elements
1896   Ramsay's Elements Arranged in the Periodic System
1898   Crookes' vis generatrix
1898   Discovery of Neon
1898   Discovery of Krypton
1898   Discovery of Xenon
1898   Discovery of Polonium
1898   Discovery of Radium
1899   Discovery of Radon


1850

Elements Known in the Year 1850

Elements known in the year 1850, taken from this Wikipedia page:

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1858

Cannizzaro's Letter

Letter of Professor Stanislao Cannizzaro to Professor S. De Luca: Sketch of a Course of Chemical Philosophy given in the Royal University of Genoa, Il Nuovo Cimento, vol. vii. (1858), pp. 321-366.

Read the full letter/paper, in English translation, here.

Many thanks to Carmen Giunta, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Le Moyne College who provided the information about, and link to, Cannizzaro's Letter. See a list of other classic chemistry papers.

Cannizzaro writes:

"I believe that the progress of science made in these last years has confirmed the hypothesis of Avogadro, of Ampère, and of Dumas on the similar constitution of substances in the gaseous state; that is, that equal volumes of these substances, whether simple or compound, contain an equal number of molecules: not however an equal number of atoms, since the molecules of the different substances, or those of the same substance in its different states, may contain a different number of atoms, whether of the same or of diverse nature."

From the Science History of Science Institute:

"In 1858 Cannizzaro outlined a course in theoretical chemistry for students at the University of Genoa,where he had to teach without benefit of a laboratory. He used the hypothesis of a fellow Italian, Amedeo Avogadro, who had died just two years earlier, as a pathway out of the confusion rampant among chemists about atomic weights and the fundamental structure of chemical compounds."

Mark Leach writes:

"Before a periodic table of the chemical elements – which orders the elements by atomic weight and then groups them by property – could be developed it was necessary to know the atomic weight values. However, to deduce the atomic weights was a problem as it was necessary to know the ratios of how the elements combined, the stoichiometry.

"Tables of atomic weight data by Dalton (1808), Wollaston (1813) and Daubeny (1831) show progress, but the 1858 Cannizzaro letter was the first where the atomic weight data is more or less both complete and accurate.

"I have extracted the element atomic weight data from the paper, and given the % error with respect to modern atomic weight/mass data. Only titanium is significantly out! It is clear that Cannizzaro knew that hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, chlorine, bromine & iodine existed as diatomic molecules."

Element Symbol Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Hydrogen H 1 1.008 -0.8%
Boron B 11 10.81 1.7%
Carbon C 12 12.011 -0.1%
Nitrogen N 14 14.007 0.0%
Oxygen O 16 15.999 0.0%
Sodium Na 23 22.99 0.0%
Magnesium Mg 24 24.305 -1.3%
Aluminium Al 27 26.982 0.1%
Silicon Si 28 28.085 -0.3%
Sulphur S 32 32.06 -0.2%
Phosphorus P 32 30.974 3.2%
Chlorine Cl 35.5 35.45 0.1%
Potassium K 39 39.098 -0.3%
Calcium Ca 40 40.078 -0.2%
Chromium Cr 53 51.996 1.9%
Manganese Mn 55 54.938 0.1%
Iron Fe 56 55.845 0.3%
Titanium Ti 56 47.867 14.5%
Copper Cu 63 63.546 -0.9%
Zinc Zn 66 65.38 0.9%
Arsenic As 75 74.922 0.1%
Bromine Br 80 79.904 0.1%
Zirconium Zr 89 91.224 -2.5%
Silver Ag 108 107.87 0.1%
Tin Sn 117.6 118.71 -0.9%
Iodine I 127 126.9 0.1%
Platinum Pt 197 195.08 1.0%
Mercury Hg 200 200.59 -0.3%
Lead Pb 207 207.2 -0.1%
Diatomic Molecule Formula Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Hydrogen H2 2 2.016 -0.8%
Oxygen O2 32 31.998 0.0%
Sulphur S2 64 64.12 -0.2%
Chlorine Cl2 71 70.9 0.1%
Bromine Br2 160 159.808 0.1%
Iodine I2 254 253.8 0.1%
Molecule Formula Cannizzaro's Weight Modern Weight/Mass % error
Water H2O 18 18.015 -0.1%
Hydrochloric Acid HCl 36.5 36.458 0.1%
Methane CH4 16 16.043 -0.3%
Hydrogen sulphide H2S 34 34.076 -0.2%
Diethyl ether CH3CH2OCH2CH3 74 74.123 -0.2%
Carbon disulphide CS2 76 76.131 -0.2%
Chloroethane CH3CH2Cl 64.5 64.512 0.0%

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1860

Discovery of Cesium

Cs

Cesium (or caesium), atomic number 55, has a mass of 132.905 au.

Cesium is a Group 1 element, and these are often referred to as the "alkali metals".

Cesium was first observed or predicted in 1860 by R. Bunsen and R. Kirchhoff and first isolated in 1882 by C. Setterberg.

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1860

Karlsruhe Congress

The Karlsruhe Congress of 1860 was called so that European chemists could discuss a number of issues, including atomic weights.

From Wikipedia (lightly edited):

"The Karlsruhe meeting ended with no firm agreement on the vexing problem of atomic and molecular weights. However, on the meeting's last day reprints of Stanislao Cannizzaro's 1858 paper on atomic weights were distributed. Cannizzaro's efforts exerted an almost immediate influence on the delegates.

"Lothar Meyer later wrote that on reading Cannizzaro's paper: 'The scales seemed to fall from my eyes.'

"An important long-term result of the Karlsruhe Congress was the adoption of the now-familiar atomic weights. Prior to the Karlsruhe meeting, and going back to Dalton's work in 1803, several systems of atomic weights were in use.

"Following the Karlsruhe meeting, values of about 1 for hydrogen, 12 for carbon, 16 for oxygen, and so forth were adopted. This was based on a recognition that certain common gaseous elements, such as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine were composed of diatomic molecules and not individual atoms: H2, N2, O2, Cl2, etc."

Once enough elements had been discovered, and their atomic weights correctly deduced, the time was ripe to develop versions of the periodic table systems. These came 'thick & fast' after the Karlsruhe Congress.

Many thanks to Carmen Giunta, Professor of Chemistry Emeritus, Le Moyne College who provided the information about the important Karlsruhe Congress.

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1861

Discovery of Rubidium

Rb

Rubidium, atomic number 37, has a mass of 85.468 au.

Rubidium is a Group 1 element, and these are often referred to as the "alkali metals".

Rubidium was first observed, but not isolated in pure form, in 1861 by R. Bunsen and G. R. Kirchhoff.

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1861

Discovery of Thallium

Tl

Thallium, atomic number 81, has a mass of 204.384 au.

Thallium was first observed or predicted in 1861 by W. Crookes and first isolated in 1862 by C.-A. Lamy.

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1862

Béguyer de Chancourtois' Vis Tellurique

The French geologist , Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois was the first person to make use of atomic weights to produce a classification of periodicity. He drew the elements as a continuous spiral around a metal cylinder divided into 16 parts. The atomic weight of oxygen was taken as 16 and was used as the standard against which all the other elements were compared. Tellurium was situated at the centre, prompting vis tellurique, or telluric screw.

Many thanks to Peter Wothers – and courtesy of the Master and Fellows of St Catharine's College, Cambridge – comes a high quality image of the original 1862 formulation. Click here, or on the image to enlarge:

Watch Peter Wothers 'unravel' and show Prof. Martyn Poliakoff this first periodic table at 17min 50sec into the YouTube video below:

Some more information:

Chancourtois' original formulation includes elements in their correct places, selected compounds and some elements in more than one place. The helix was an important advance in that it introduced the concept of periodicity, but it was flawed.

It has been suggested that Chancourtois called his formulation a telluric helix because tellurium is found in the middle. However, most elements are found as there their 'earths' – tellus, telluris – or oxides, which for a mineralogist would have been highly significant.

The formulation was rediscovered in the 1889 (P. J. Hartog, "A First Foreshadowing of the Periodic Law" Nature 41, 186-8 (1889)), and since then it has appeared most often in a simplified form that emphasizes the virtues and eliminates its flaws. [Thanks to CG for this info.]

See also:

A three dimensional models of the telluric helix:

There are representations of the 1862 formulation at the School of Mines at ParisTech:

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1862

Meyer's Periodic System

In his book, The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction, Eric Scerri writes how Lothar Meyer devised a partial periodic tables consisting of 28 elements arranged in order of increasing atomic weight in which the elements were grouped into vertical columns according to their chemical valences:

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1863

Discovery of Indium

In

Indium, atomic number 49, has a mass of 114.818 au.

Indium was first observed or predicted in 1863 by F. Reich and T. Richter and first isolated in 1867 by T. Richter.

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1864

Newlands' Octaves

One of the first attempts at a periodic table that arranged the known elements by atomic weight and chemical property, was by John Newlands and is known as "Newlands Octaves".

Newland noticed that if he broke up his list of elements into groups of seven – starting a new row with the eighth element – the first element in each of those groups had similar chemistry.

Note: In the tables below, Newlands Octaves go downwards: H to O, F to S, Cl to Fe, etc.

Kabbalistic

H 1
F 8
Cl 15
Co & Ni 22
Br 29
Pd 36
I 42
Pt & Ir 50
Li 2
Na 9
K 16
Cu 23
Rb 30
Ag 37
Cs 44
Os 51
G 3
Mg 10
Ca 17
Zn 24
Sr 31
Cd 38
Ba & V 45
Hg 52
Bo 4
Al 11
Cr 19
Y 25
Ce & La 33
U 40
Ta 46
Tl 53
C 5
Si 12
Ti 18
In 26
Zr 32
Sn 39
W 47
Pb 54
N 6
P 13
Mn 20
As 27
Di & Mo 34
Sb 41
Nb 48
Bi 55
O 7
S 14
Fe 21
Se 28
Ro & Ru 35
Te 43
Au 49
Th 56

          A   B   C   D   E   F   G   A

Philip Stewart's musical representation:

Read more about Newland's Octaves, including a commentary on the original papers in Carmen Giunta's Elements and Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry.

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1864

Odling's Table of Elements

William Odling's table from: Q. J. Sci., 1864, 1, 642:

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1864

Naquet's Families of Elements

According to Naquet’s 1864 textbook, Principes de Chimie, F. Savy, Paris, (updated by Eric Scerri):

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1866

Spectroscope Revelations

From Scientific American in 1866, an article by Henry Draper concerning "The Spectroscope and Its Revelations".

At the time there was no understanding how the spectra were generated but it was recognised that every element produced a unique spectrum. Over 35,000 stars are catalogued/identified by their "HD" [Henry Draper] numbers:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Also, thanks to Prof. Emeritus Robert J. Lancashire of The University of the West Indies for corrections & additional information.

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1867

Hinrichs' Programme of Atomechanics

Gustavus Detlef Hinrichs' spiral "Programme of Atomechanics". Programm der Atomechanik oder die Chemie eine Mechanik de Pantome, Augustus Hageboek, Iowa City, IA (1867).

Hinrichs' system is based on the relationship of what he called: "pantogens, with its atoms called panatoms, which explains the numerical relations of atomic weights and gives a simple classification of the elements."

This classification system culminated in 1867 in his spiral periodic table, which better clarified the groupings of elements. Hinrichs' classification, while distinctly different from the other periodic tables of this period, "seems to capture many of the primary periodicity relationships seen in the modern periodic table... it is not cluttered by attempts to show secondary kinship relationships." (Scerri)

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1868

Handwritten draft of the first version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

From of Bill Jensen, Curator of the Oesper Collection at the University of Cincinnati:

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1868

Meyer's "Lost" Table of 1868

In his book, The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction, Eric Scerri writes how Lothar Meyer produced an expanded periodic system for his1868 textbook which contained 53 elements. Unfortunately, the table was misplaced by the publisher and was not appear until after his death in 1895:

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1869

Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Mendeleev [also spelled Mendeleyev in English] recounted in his diary:

"I saw in a dream a table where all the elements fell into place as required. Awakening, I immediately wrote it down on a piece of paper."

Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Mendeleev as an old man

Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!

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1870

Meyer's Periodic Table. This is rather similar to the Mendeleev attempt at the same time.

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1870

Baumhauer's Spiral

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1870

Baker's Electronegativity Table

Baker's electronegativity table of 1870 differs from Berzelius' listing of 1836 only by the addition of the newly discovered elements. Page 280 and ref. 5 from Bill Jensen's: Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part II: Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments, J. Chem. Educ., 80, 279-287 (2003):

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1871

Mendeleev's Tabelle II

Some versions of Mendeleev's Tabelle II of 1871.

From the second volume of Mendeleev's textbook (click to enlarge):

Notice that on the right hand side, there is an additional formulation:

The two formulations above are discussed by Peter Wothers from the University of Cambridge with Sir Martyn Poliakoff, of the University of Nottingham, at 2:30 into the video below:

Mendeleev's Tabelle II can be shown in semi-modern form with the 'missing' group 18 rare gases and the f-block elements:

 

An alternative version of Mendeleev's Tabelle II:

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1871

Mendeleev's Predicted Elements

In large part, the success of the Mendeleev's analysis can be attributed to the gaps which he predicted would contain undiscovered elements with predictable properties. Mendeleev named these unknown elements using the terms eka, dvi & tri (1, 2 & 3 from the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit).

Mendeleev predictions include:

Image from van Spronsen

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1871

Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013

Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013, click here to see full size:

Wooden Periodic Table

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1872

Mendeléeff's Vertical Table (Q&Q's Spelling)

Quam & Quam's review paper states:

"Mendeléeff's first table was a vertical arrangement in which the elements could be read in order of increasing atomic weight from the top down and in successive series from left to right. The fist column consisted of H and Li; the second, of Be to Na; the third started with Mg.

"An improved form of this table, shown below, appeared in 1872: H occupied the first position separately. The vertical series in order were Li to F, Na to Cl, K to Br, etc., causing the halogens to appear in the same bottom series, while H, Li, Na, Cu, Ag, and Au constituted a midway series, and K, Rb, and Cs formed the topmost series."

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1872

Meyer's Spiral System

Meyer's Spiral System of 1872 (from van Spronsen):

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1875

Discovery of Gallium

Ga

Gallium, atomic number 31, has a mass of 69.723 au.

Gallium was first isolated in 1875 by P. E. L. de Boisbaudran.

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1875

Gibbes' Synoptical Periodic Table

From page 127 of The Development of the Periodic Law by Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934), Easton, Pa. Chemical Pub. Co (1896). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org.

Venable writes:


Thanks to René for the tip!

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1875

Concentric Ring Arrangement of Wiik

From page 133 of The Development of the Periodic Law by Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934), Easton, Pa. Chemical Pub. Co (1896). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org.

Venable writes:


Thanks to René for the tip!

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1878

Discovery of Ytterbium

Yb

Ytterbium, atomic number 70, has a mass of 173.054 au.

Ytterbium was first observed or predicted in 1878 by J.C.G. de Marignac and first isolated in 1906 by C. A. von Welsbach.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of yttria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1878

Waechter's Numerical Regularities

From page 136 of The Development of the Periodic Law by Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934), Easton, Pa. Chemical Pub. Co (1896). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org.

Venable writes:


Thanks to René for the tip!

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1879

Discovery of Scandium

Sc

Scandium, atomic number 21, has a mass of 44.956 au.

Scandium was first isolated in 1879 by F. Nilson.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of yttria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1879

Discovery of Samarium

Sm

Samarium, atomic number 62, has a mass of 150.36 au.

Samarium was first isolated in 1879 by P.E.L. de Boisbaudran.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of ceria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1879

Discovery of Holmium

Ho

Holmium, atomic number 67, has a mass of 164.93 au.

Holmium was first observed or predicted in 1878 by J.-L. Soret and first isolated in 1879 by T. Cleve.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of yttria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1879

Discovery of Thulium

Tm

Thulium, atomic number 69, has a mass of 168.934 au.

Thulium was first isolated in 1879 by T. Cleve.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of yttria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1880

Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff

A lecture theatre sized periodic table, titled Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff, found at St Andrew's University, published and printed in Austria and dating from about from about 1880. Read more about this in The Guardian.

Two YouTube videos about this PT:



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1880

Discovery of Gadolinium

Gd

Gadolinium, atomic number 64, has a mass of 157.25 au.

Gadolinium was first observed or predicted in 1880 by J. C. G. de Marignac and first isolated in 1886 by P.E.L. de Boisbaudran.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of ceria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

Chronology of chemically the splitting of yttria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1881

Spring's Diagram

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1882

Bayley's Periodic System

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1882

Brauner's Periodic Table

Brauner's periodic table of 1882 with a homologous accommodation of the rare-earth elements, from Chemische Berichte, 15, 1882, p. 15-121:

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1882

Bayley's Attempt

From page 158 of The Development of the Periodic Law by Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934), Easton, Pa. Chemical Pub. Co (1896). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org.

Venable writes about Bayley:


Thanks to René for the tip!

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1885

Discovery of Praseodymium

Pr

Praseodymium, atomic number 59, has a mass of 140.908 au.

Praseodymium was first isolated in 1885 by Carl Auer von Welsbach.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of ceria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1885

Discovery of Neodymium

Nd

Neodymium, atomic number 60, has a mass of 144.242 au.

Neodymium was first isolated in 1885 by Carl Auer von Welsbach.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of ceria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1885

Carnelley & The Periodic Law

From page 172 of The Development of the Periodic Law by Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934), Easton, Pa. Chemical Pub. Co (1896). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org.

Venable writes:



Thanks to René for the tip!

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1885

Klieber's Cosmochemical Periodic Table

Klieber's qualitative synthesis of the general composition of celestial objects in the form of a plane periodic system following atomic numbers. His diagram is probably one of the earliest versions of a "cosmochemical periodic table". (The diagram below is clearly redrawn as it has a very modern style.)

I.A. Kleiber, Zh. Russ. Fiziko-Khim. Obshch (St. Petersburg) 1885, 17, 147-171.


Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1885

von Richter's Periodic System of the Elements

From page 244 of A Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry by Victor von Richter, Published by Blakiston (US ed. in English, 1885). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org. The first edition was published in 1874 in German. von Richter was was from the Baltic region, in the the Russian empire at the time.

von Richter's work is almost certainly the first chemistry textbook based on the periodic system. Many (indeed most) modern Inorganic Chemistry texts follow this format, but NOT the Chemogenesis web book!

von Richter, writes:





Thanks to René for the tip!

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1886

Crookes' Periodic Table

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1886

Discovery of Fluorine

F

Fluorine, atomic number 9, has a mass of 18.998 au.

Fluorine exists as a pale yellow diatomic molecular gas, F2. It is the most electronegative and reactive of all elements: it which reacts with practically all organic and inorganic substances.

Fluorine was first observed or predicted in 1810 by A.-M. Ampére and first isolated in 1886 by H. Moissan.

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1886

Discovery of Germanium

Ge

Germanium, atomic number 32, has a mass of 72.63 au.

Germanium was first isolated in 1886 by C. A. Winkler.

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1886

Discovery of Dysprosium

Dy

Dysprosium, atomic number 66, has a mass of 162.5 au.

Dysprosium was first isolated in 1886 by P.E.L. de Boisbaudran.

Chronology of chemically the splitting of yttria (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:

From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis
by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)

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1886

Shepard's Natural Classification

Shepard's Natural Classification of the Elements, a spiral formulation with instructions for turning it into a three-dimensional table.

From: Elements of Inorganic Chemistry, Descriptive and Qualitative (pp221), by J. H. Shepard, (1886), Boston MA, pub. D. C. Heath

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1886

Reynolds' Method of Illustrating the Periodic Law

Reynolds, J. E. (1886). Note on a method of illustrating the periodic law. Chemical News, 54, 1–4

Ann E. Robinson comments:

"Reynolds published a zig-zag version he created, noting it had been 'used in my lecture-room for some years in order to illustrate the periodic character of the relation between the atomic weights and properties of the chemical elements.'

>"Rather than a tabular form, Reynolds's form was a curve, best visualised as a string with seven knots tied in it at regular intervals, providing a 'vibrating system'. Although Reynolds's diagram is presented only as a two-dimensional picture, in a note he remarks that a friend suggested that the installation of 'a vibrating metallic chain, suspended from the ceiling and attached to the floor, would afford a more complete picture.'":

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1887

Flavitzky's Arrangement

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1888

Stoney's Spiral

Johnstone Stoney's Spiral, taken from A. E. Garrett's The Periodic Law (page 167, 1909 pub. D. Appleton And Company). The reference is given – page 167 – is: Phil. Mag. [6], 4, pp 411 et seq.; Proc. Roy. Soc., 1888, p115.

very short introduction

Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip!

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1891

Mendeleev's Table In English

A table, from Wikipedia, showing the periodicity of the properties of many chemical elements, from the first English edition of Dmitrii Mendeleev's Principles of Chemistry (1891, translated from the Russian fifth edition).

It is worth noting that this 1981 formulation shows the presence of gallium and germanium that were not his original table.

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1891

Wendt's Generation-Tree of the Elements

From page 244 of The Development of the Periodic Law by Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934), Easton, Pa. Chemical Pub. Co (1896). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org.

Venable writes:


Thanks to René for the tip!

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1892

Bassett's Vertical Arrangement

Bassett's Vertical Arrangement is actually designed to be a three dimensional formulation. Quam & Quam's review paper states:

"This table resembles Mendeléeff's vertical arrangement. The Cs period, however, starts far above the horizontal line of K and Rb, thereby giving space to the known and predicted elements of that period. The alkali metals appear in three horizontal lines. Co and Ni are arranged in order of their atomic weights.

"Bassett suggested cutting out the table and rolling it onto a cylinder of such circumference that similar elements would fall in line in Groups. For instance, Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs would then fall on a line parallel to the axis of the cylinder."

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1892

Bassett Dumb-Bell Form

The Basset 'dumb-bell' formulation, ref. H. Basset, Chem. News, 65 (3-4), 19 (1892).

The image is from Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin, here.

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1893

Rang's Periodic Arrangement of The Elements

P.J.F. Rang's The Periodic Arrangement of the Elements, Chemical News, vol. 67, p. 178 (1893)

Observing that that Rang's table has four 'groups': A, B, C & D, René Vernon writes:

    1. Group A contains the strongest positive elements; group D the strongest negative elements. At such an early date, it's odd to see groups 1 to 3 categorised together.
    2. Group B are the elements with high melting points; "they are all remarkable for their molecular combinations" (presuamably, a reference to multiple oxidation states). At one side of group B are the "anhydro-combinations", probably referring to the simple chemistry of Ti, Zr, [Hf] Nb and Ta being dominated by insoluble oxides. At the other side are the "amin, carbonyl, and cyanogen combination", probably a reference to the group VIII carbonyls, as metal carbonyls had only just been discovered. Ni is shown after Fe, rather than Co.
    3. Group C includes the "heavy metals that have low melting points"; an early reference to frontier or post-transition metals, as a category.
    4. Rang says: ...if groups A and D be split up vertically in respectively three and two parts, the table presents seven vertical groups, and horizontally seven more or less complete series. Each group in each of the series 2 and 3 are represent by one element... The octave appears both horizontally and vertically in the table.
    5. Rang's reference to Di as representing all the triads between Ba and Ta kind of works since Hf would go under Zr, and that would leave 15 Ln or five sets of three. Thus, something like this:

      Gd occupies the central position among the Ln. This arrangement won't fit however unless Rang envisaged all 15 Ln occupying the position under Y.
    6. The location of H over | Ga | In | Tl, appears strange... but the electronegativity of H (2.2) is closer to B (2.04) than it is to C (2.55).

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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1893

Nechaev's Truncated Cones

René Vernon (who found this formulation) writes:

This weird and wonderful table appears in Teleshov & Teleshova (2019, p. 230). It is attributed by them to Nechaev (1893) and is apparently discussed by Ipatiev (1904):

References:

Ipat'ev, V. & Sapozhnikov, A. (1904). Kratkij kurs himii po programme voennyh uchilishh [A concise course in chemistry for military academies]. Sankt-Peterburg: tip. V. Demakova.

Nechaev N. P. (1893). Graficheskoe postroenie periodicheskoj sistemy jelementov Mendeleeva. Sposob Nechaeva [Graphic construction of Mendeleev's periodic system of elements. Nechaev's way]. Moskva: tip. Je. Lissnera i Ju. Romana

Teleshov S, Teleshova E.: The international year of the periodic table: An overview of events before and after the creation of the periodic table. In V Lamanauskas (ed.).: Science and technology Education: Challenges and possible solutions. Proceedings of the 3rd International Baltic Symposium on Science and Technology Education, BalticSTE2019, Šiauliai, 17-20 June, 2019. pp. 227-232, (2019)

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1894

Discovery of Argon

Ar

Argon, atomic number 18, has a mass of 39.948 au.

Argon is a noble gas.

Argon was first isolated in 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and W. Ramsay.

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1895

Retger's Periodic Table

Periodic Table of Retgers with an intraperiodic accommodation of the rare earths. Retgers, J.W., 1895. Z. Phys. Chem. 16, 644:

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1895

Thomsen's Systematic Arrangement of the Chemical Elements

In 1895 the Danish thermochemist Hans Peter Jørgen Julius Thomsen proposed (Thomsen, J., 1895. Z. Anorg. Chem. 9, 190 & Chemical News, 72, 89–91, p. 90) a pyramidal/ladder representation.

Notice how this formulation identifies the electropositive & electronegative elements with respect to the periodic table, thirty years before Linus Pauling.

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1895

Discovery of Helium

He

Helium, atomic number 2, has a mass of 4.003 au.

Helium is a noble gas, and is the second most abundant element in the universe after hydrogen.

Helium was first observed or predicted in 1868 by P. Janssen and N. Lockyer from solar spectra, and first isolated in 1895 by W. Ramsay, T. Cleve, and N. Langlet.

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1896

Richards' Classification of The Elements

This is how the periodic table looked in 1896 in an article by Theodore Richards the pioneer of atomic weight measurement.

Notice all those elements at the bottom that could not be classified, explicitly listed including He and Ar :

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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1896

Ramsay's Elements Arranged in the Periodic System

From The Gases of the Atmosphere, The History of Their Discovery by William Ramsay (and from the Gutenberg Project.)

The author writes pp 220-221:

"In 1863 Mr. John Newlands pointed out in a letter to the Chemical News that if the elements be arranged in the order of their atomic weights in a tabular form, they fall naturally into such groups that elements similar to each other in chemical behaviour occur in the same columns. This idea was elaborated farther in 1869 by Professor Mendeléeff of St. Petersburg and by the late Professor Lothar Meyer, and the table may be made to assume the subjoined form (the atomic weights are given with only approximate accuracy):—"

Thanks to René for the tip!

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1898

Crookes' vis generatrix

Model of Crookes’ vis generatrix of 1898, built by his assistant, Gardiner. From: Proc. R. Soc. Lond. 63, 408.

The vertical scale represents the atomic weight of the elements from H = 1 to Ur = 239.

Missing elements are represented by a white circle. Similar elements appear underneath each other:

Cutting Board

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1898

Discovery of Neon

Ne

Neon, atomic number 10, has a mass of 20.18 au.

Neon is a noble gas. It is present in the atmosphere, 1 part in 65000.

Neon was first isolated in 1898 by W. Ramsay and W. Travers.

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1898

Discovery of Krypton

Kr

Krypton, atomic number 36, has a mass of 83.798 au.

Krypton is a noble gas.

Krypton was first isolated in 1898 by W. Ramsay and W. Travers.

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1898

Discovery of Xenon

Xe

Xenon, atomic number 54, has a mass of 131.293 au.

Xenon is a noble gas.

Xenon was first isolated in 1898 by W. Ramsay and W. Travers.

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1898

Discovery of Polonium

Po

Polonium, atomic number 84, has a mass of 209 au.

Radioactive element.

Polonium was first observed or predicted in 1898 by P. and M. Curie and first isolated in 1902 by W. Marckwald.

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1898

Discovery of Radium

Ra

Radium, atomic number 88, has a mass of 226 au.

Radioactive element.

Radium was first observed or predicted in 1898 by P. and M. Curie and first isolated in 1902 by M. Curie.

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1899

Discovery of Radon

Rn

Radon, atomic number 86, has a mass of 222 au.

Radon is a noble gas and it is a radioactive element.

Radon was first observed or predicted in 1899 by E. Rutherford and R. B. Owens and first isolated in 1910 by W. Ramsay and R. Whytlaw-Gray.

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What is the Periodic Table Showing? Periodicity

© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –


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