|1925||Sommerfield's Electon Filling Diagram|
|2012||Atoms, Orbitals & The Periodic Table|
|1984||Arabic Periodic Tables|
|2018||Timelines, of The Periodic Table|
|1954||Sabo & Lakatosh's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table|
|1949||Riggli's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table|
|2018||Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table|
Sommerfield's Electon Filling Diagram
Arnold Sommerfeld diagram appears in an issue of Memoirs and Proceedings of the manchester Literary and Philosophical Society for 1925-26. volume 70, p. 141-151.
Eric Scerri writes:
"The electron groupings are not exactly the same as what is believed to exist today but it amounts to the same order of filling. For example p orbitals were thought to consist of two groups of 2 and 4 electrons, rather than 2, 2, 2 as believed today. Similarly d orbitals were thought to be formed of two groups of 4 and 6 electrons. With that in mind you will see that Sommerfeld was the first to propose an aufbau filling system: The occupation of 4s before 3d or as represented here the 2 electrons in orbit 11 followed by the 4 and 6 from orbits 3,s and 3,3.
"Sommerfeld does indicate sub-shells. They are just not the same groupings as the current ones. For example 2,1 and 2,2 indicates subshells within the 2nd main shell. Similarly the 3rd shell is presented as 3,2 and 3,3. The totals are of course the same, namely 6 for what we now call p orbitals and 10 for what we call d orbitals. All this came before the discovery of the 4th or spin quantum number. This is in keeping with Bohr's original assignment of shells and sub-shells.
"The discovery of sub-structure to electron shells was not an 'all or nothing' development, but a gradual and almost organic evolution."
Eric has a new book out – A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science – in which the gradual evolution of electronic structure involving Bohr, Sommerfeld, Bury, Main Smith, Pauli and others is traced out.
Atoms, Orbitals & The Periodic Table
One of several animations and explanations/realisations of quantum physics from Data-Burger, scientific advisor: J. Bobroff, with the support of: Univ. Paris Sud, SFP, Triangle de la Physique, PALM, Sciences à l'Ecole, ICAM-I2CAM.
Mark Leach writes:
"What I particularly like about this video is that it shows the quantum fuzziness of the atoms. This explains/shows how and why induced-dipole/induced-dipole (London force) interactions occur, an important class of van der Waals interaction. At any moment, the electron distribution is not perfectly spherical, which means that there is an instantaneous dipole on the atom. This instantaneous dipole is able to induce a dipole on an adjacent atom, with the effect that the two atoms are attracted when they touch. It is as if atoms are 'sticky' like Velcro.
"This effect explains why the Group 18 noble gas elements are able to form liquids and solids [not He] at low temperatures, and why non-polar molecules, such as P4, S8 and hydrocarbons are able to condense."
Arabic Periodic Tables
From Arabic introductory text published by the Royal Scientific Society, Amman, Jordan, 1984. Jeries A. Rihani, who provided the two images, writes:
"The first image shows a periodic table similar to that of the Janet left-step periodic table, but in an upside-down flipped format.The second image displays the comparative energy levels of orbitals of atoms of many electrons."
Thanks to Jeries A. Rihani for the tip!
Timelines, of The Periodic Table
By Steven Murov, a chronology of the events that have resulted in our present periodic table of the elements and a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev (birthday, 02/08/1834) periodic table (1869).
Sabo & Lakatosh's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table
From the Russian Book: 100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements, Nauka 1969, p.87.
The caption says: "Volumetric Model of 18-period Long System of D.I.Mendeleev." after Sabo and Lakatosh (1954).
Thanks to Larry T for the tip!
Riggli's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table
From the Russian Book "100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements", Nauka 1969, p.87.
The caption says: "Volumetric Model of 18-period Long System of D.I.Mendeleev." after Riggli (1949).
Thanks to Larry T for the tip!
Philip Stewart writes:
The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.
My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).
The printable version is available (click here for the full size version) to make your own:
I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. email@example.com
Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table
Since 1969, the international chemistry community has only held conferences on the topic of the Periodic Table three times, and the 2012 conference in Cusco, Peru was the first in almost a decade. The conference was highly interdisciplinary, featuring papers on geology, physics, mathematical and theoretical chemistry, the history and philosophy of chemistry, and chemical education, from the most reputable Periodic Table scholars across the world. Eric Scerri and Guillermo Restrepo have collected fifteen of the strongest papers presented at this conference, from the most notable Periodic Table scholars. The collected volume will contain pieces on chemistry, philosophy of science, applied mathematics, and science education.
Eric Scerri is a leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of chemistry and especially the periodic table. He is the author of numerous OUP books including A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science (2016) and The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction (2012). Scerri has been a full-time lecturer at UCLA for the past eighteen years where he regularly teaches classes in history and philosophy of science.
Guillermo Restrepo is a chemist specializing in mathematical and philosophy of chemistry with more than sixty scientific papers and book chapters on these and related areas. Restrepo was a professor of chemistry at the Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia) between 2004 and 2017, and since 2014 has been in Germany as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at Leipzig University and more recently as researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences.
1. Heavy, Superheavy...Quo Vadis?
2. Nuclear Lattice Model and the Electronic Configuration of the Chemical Elements
3. Amateurs and Professionals in Chemistry: The Case of the Periodic System
4. The Periodic System: A Mathematical Approach
5. The "Chemical Mechanics" of the Periodic Table
6. The Grand Periodic Function
7. What Elements Belong in Group 3 of the Periodic Table?
8. The Periodic Table Retrieved from Density Functional Theory Based Concepts: The Electron Density, the Shape Function and the Linear Response Function
9. Resemioticization of Periodicity: A Social Semiotic Perspective
10. Organizing the Transition Metals
11. The Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions: A New Periodic Table Founded on Non-Traditional Concepts
12. The Origin of Mendeleev's Discovery of the Periodic System
13. Richard Abegg and the Periodic Table
14. The Chemist as Philosopher: D. I. Mendeleev's "The Unit" and "Worldview"
15. The Philosophical Importance of the Periodic Table
|Periodic Table, What is it showing?||
© Mark R. Leach 1999-
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