|2007||Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table|
|1993||WebElements: The Periodic Table on The Web|
|2012||94 Elements: The Stuff of Everything|
|2012||Abundance: Earth's Crust|
|2007||Abundance: Solar System|
|2008||American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database Periodic Table|
|2001||Analytical Chemist's Periodic Table|
|2015||Anomalous Electronic Structures|
|2006||Astronomer's Periodic Table|
|2004||Atomic Emission Spectra Periodic Table|
|2005||Atomic Radii Periodic Table|
|2013||Averaged Ionisation Potential Periodic Table|
|1870||Baker's Electronegativity Table|
|1836||Berzelius' Electronegativity Table|
|2010||Bing Periodic Table|
|2004||Biologist's Periodic Table|
|2010||Cartogram Periodic Tables|
|2011||Chem 13 News Periodic Table Project|
|2003||Chemical & Engineering News Periodic Table|
|2010||Chemical Elements as a Collection of Images|
|2004||Chemical Thesaurus Periodic Table|
|2005||Chemical Thesaurus Reaction Chemistry Database Periodic Table|
|1907||Chronology of Splitting The Rare Earths: "Ceria" & "Yttria"|
|2016||Collective Work of Chemists|
|2010||Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements|
|2014||Correspondences Between The Classical Thomson Problem and The Periodic Table of The Elements|
|2013||County of Discovery Periodic Table|
|2012||Dates of Element Discovery|
|1831||Daubeny's Teaching Display Board of Atomic Weight|
|2009||Download Excel, Word & PDF Periodic Tables for Printing, etc.|
|2010||Dynamic Periodic Table|
|2003||Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of The Elements and Their Ions|
|2008||Electron Slell Periodic Table|
|2013||Electronegativity Chart (Leach)|
|2003||Electronegativity Periodic Table|
|2013||Electronic Configuration Periodic Table|
|2006||Element Collection Periodic Table|
|2004||Element Material Type Periodic Table|
|2004||Elemental Hydride Types Periodic Table|
|2004||Elemental Oxidation States|
|1970||Elements According to Relative Abundance|
|2011||Elements in Bottles Periodic Table|
|2006||Elements in Fireworks|
|2015||Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts|
|1987||Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements|
|2016||Emission Spectra of the Elements Poster|
|2005||Extraction from Ore to Pure Element|
|2018||First Ionisation Energy to the Standard Form Periodic Table|
|2005||Geologist's Periodic Table|
|2006||Group Numbering Systems|
|1919||Hackh's Periodic Chain|
|2004||Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table|
|2002||Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table|
|2008||Instruments, Periodic Table of|
|2010||Ionic Radii Database Periodic Table|
|2005||Ionic Radii Periodic Table|
|2012||iPhone, Periodic Table of|
|2014||IQS Periodic Tables|
|1969||Island of Stability|
|2012||IUPAC Periodic Table of The Elements|
|2012||IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes|
|2012||JR's Chemistry Set|
|2010||Lewis Octet Periodic Table|
|1963||Life Science Library Periodic Table|
|1995||Live! Periodic Table|
|2004||Mass Anomaly Periodic Table|
|2007||Mechanical Engineer's Periodic Table|
|2014||Medicinal Chemist's Periodic Table|
|2005||Merck Periodic Table of The Elements|
|2000||Metal Crystal Structure|
|2005||Minerals by Chemical Composition|
|2010||NIST Atomic Physical Reference Data|
|1998||NMR Nuclear Spin Periodic Table(s)|
|2010||Nucleosynthesis Periodic Tables|
|2018||Number of Stable Isotopes by Element|
|2009||Orbitron Gallery of Atomic Orbitals|
|2004||Organic Chemist's Periodic Table|
|2008||Organometallic Periodic Table|
|1960||Pauling's Complete Electronegativity Scale|
|2008||Periodic Table X|
|2011||Periodicity Periodic Table|
|2004||Phase State: Solid, Liquid, Gas at 20°C & 700°C|
|2016||Pictures & Words|
|2006||Radioactivity Periodic Table|
|2010||Recipe For A Human Shirt|
|2013||RSC Visual Elements Periodic Table: Alchemy|
|2014||Schaeffer's IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent|
|2012||Schematic Periodic Table of Double-Charged Cations|
|2013||Scientific American Interactive Periodic Table|
|1983||Seawater Periodic Table|
|1960||Sistema Periodico Degli Elementi|
|2013||Spider Chart of The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements|
|2015||STEM Sheets Printable (& Customizable) Periodic Table of Elements|
|2005||Student's Periodic Table|
|2011||Suggested Periodic Table Up To Z r 172, Based on Dirac–Fock Calculations|
|2015||Sweetners: a Periodic Table|
|2017||Technology, Periodic Table of|
|2018||Timelines, of The Periodic Table|
|2010||Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155|
|2014||URENCO Periodic Table|
|2008||Videos, Periodic Table of|
|2004||Visual Elements Periodic Table|
|2016||Where Your Elements Came From Periodic Table|
|1934||White's Periodic Table|
|1998||Wooden Periodic Table Table|
|2010||World's Smallest Periodic Table|
|1996||X-ray Absorption Edges Periodic Table|
Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table
Theodore Gray's Periodic Table.Com is a live version of what is generally regarded as the most beautiful periodic table to be developed so far. It is a treasure trove of pictures, videos and stories. Explore!
Theo is an enthusiast and a collector, and he uses the power of Mathematica (he is a co-founder of Wolfram Research) to drive his astonishing website. It is Theo's aim to be the number one periodic table resource on the web. Personally, I find Theo's website and approach to be complementary to the more academic WebElements.
WebElements: The Periodic Table on The Web
As of Dec. 2012, there are 118 chemical elements, according to the excellent webelements periodic table web site:
The number of known elements does change.
The chemogenesis web book uses the WebElements periodic table as its master data source, and it does not attempt to duplicate it. These are the data fields associated with Web Elements Scholar Edition:
elements (Earth's crust)
94 Elements: The Stuff of Everything
There are 94 naturally occuring elements, from hydrogen to plutonium. Together they make up everything in the world.
94 Elements is a global filmmaking project, exploring our lives through the lens of the elements. Everything that surrounds us is made from these 94 building blocks, each with its own properties and personality. Our own bodies are mostly made from just 6 of them.
The stories of the elements are the stories of our own lives. They reveal the patterns of our economies and the state of our relationships with our natural resources. The project is in part a celebration of the art of documentary film and some of the best filmmakers working today are making new films for the project. There'll also be opportunities for talented new and emerging filmmakers and animators to pitch their own films, with the winners chosen by you - the project community.
Abundance: Solar System
From Wikipedia, a chart of Solar System Abundances:
Supplier & Element Industrial Information: American Elements
American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database Periodic Table
A periodic table front end to the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database.
Clicking on an element gives access to the database searches. Conveniently, sets of elements can be selected or excluded:
Analytical Chemist's Periodic Table
This PT gives information about storage and analysis of the elements.
Anomalous Electronic Structures
Eric Scerri has supplied two periodic tables showing "anomalous configurations for gas phase atoms, highlighted in yellow, and for condensed phase atoms, purple." (The f-block anomalies for condensed phase are yet to be calculated.)
Read more in Eric's short article for the RSC.
Astronomer's Periodic Table
Highly amusing for chemists is the astronomer's periodic table because astronomers consider there to be three types of element:
Yup, cosmologists and other professional star gazers consider all elements, atomic number three and up, to be metals.
Atomic Emission Spectra Periodic Table
Department of Physics had a dynamic periodic table, here, which showed the atomic spectra of all the elements... but the link seems to be broken:
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
Atomic Radii Periodic Table
By Leland Allen, a representation of the periodic table with the third dimension of energy derived from the averaged ionisation potentials of the s and p electrons. (Allen suggested that this was a direct measure of electronegativity). From J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 9004:
Baker's Electronegativity Table
Baker's electronegativity table of 1870 differs from Berzelius' listing of 1836 only by the addition of the newly discovered elements. Page 280 and ref. 5 from Bill Jensen's: Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part II: Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments, J. Chem. Educ., 80, 279-287 (2003):
Berzelius' Electronegativity Table
Berzelius' electronegativity table of 1836.
The most electronegative element (oxygen or Sauerstoff) is listed at the top left and the least electronegative (potassium or Kalium) lower right. The line between hydrogen (Wasserstoff) and gold seperates the predomently electronegative elements from the electropositive elements. Page 17 and ref. 32 from Bill Jensen's Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept, J. Chem. Educ., 73, 11-20 (1996):
Bing Periodic Table
Biologist's Periodic Tables
A periodic table showing where biologically essential (green), essential trace (purple), toxic (red), radioactive (yellow) and of low but not zero biological impact (gray) elements are found. Only highly toxic elements are shown in red. Li (as Li+) is biologically active and is used as an antidepressant.
And a periodic table for biologists from Science Videos:
Cartogram Periodic Tables
Webelements have produced a poster with various atomic & elemental properties represented in cartographic form.
From the Webelements shop: "Periodic table cartograms are periodic table grids distorted using a computer algorithm so that the areas of the element squares are in proportion to a periodic table property. This is the first poster to show periodic properties plotted in this way".
Chem 13 News Periodic Table Project
The Chem 13 News Periodic Table Project celebrates the International Year of Chemistry in 2011.
This collaborative periodic table is designed by chemistry students from all Canadian provinces and territories, 20 US states and 14 different countries. Chem 13 News readers registered their chemistry students to artistically interpret one element. Combined these tiles form one innovative and unique periodic table. A poster of the table and a traveling display are currently being constructed.
Chemical & Engineering News Periodic Table
A periodic table from C&EN with links to fascinating stories about the chemical elements:
Chemical Elements as a Collection of Images
Using Google Translate (German -> English):
"The periodic table of chemical elements as a collection of images [click to zoom in]. A collection of images of materials constitute the basic components of the whole universe. This is a periodic table of chemical elements (also called short PSE) with a difference! Visible in pure form, as it really looks like. Not only naked dry boring data. There are the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, boron group, carbon group, nitrogen group, chalcogens, halogens, noble gases, hard metals, ferrous metals, precious metals, lanthanides..." from the website, here:
Chemical Thesaurus Periodic Table
Search for chemical reagents, atomic and molecular ions, minerals, isotopes, elemental data, etc., using the periodic table built into The Chemical Thesaurus reaction chemistry database:
Chemical Thesaurus Reaction Chemistry Database Periodic Table
A periodic table front end to the Chemical Thesaurus Reaction Chemistry Database Periodic Table. Clicking on an element gives access to database searches of chemical species and their interactions.
A quote neatly sums up what the ChemThes reaction chemistry database project is trying to achieve:
"The Chemical Thesaurus is a reaction chemistry information system that extends traditional references by providing hyperlinks between related information. The program goes a long way toward meeting its ambitious goal of creating a nonlinear reference for reaction information. With its built-in connections, organizing themes, and multiple ways to sort and view data, The Chemical Thesaurus is much greater than the sum of the data in its database.
"The program does an excellent job of removing the artificial barriers between different subdisciplinary areas of chemistry by presenting a unified vision of inorganic and organic reaction chemistry."
Chronology of Splitting The Rare Earths: "Ceria" & "Yttria"
Chronology of chemically the splitting of "ceria" (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:
Chronology of chemically the splitting of "yttria" (mixed oxides) into the pure rare-earth metals:
From: CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0)
Collective Work of Chemists
From an article on LinkedIn:
Twelve elements were known from the Ancient Times, and were described by Romans and Greeks. The remaining 106 elements have been discovered by scientists of 15 different countries during the last 4 centuries. In addition, 19 elements of those 106 (18%) have been co-discovered by researchers of two countries.
Although some of them (like Bromine or Thallium) were isolated separately at the same time by chemists of different nationalities within the race to discover new elements in 18th-21st centuries, most of them have been obtained since then through collaborative research, like the recently discovered Ununpentium, Ununseptium and Ununoctium.
Another example is the isolation of Radium and Polonium by the Polish Maria Skłodowska-Curie and her French husband, Pierre Curie.
Thus, Periodic Table is the result of a collective and long-term work of hundreds of scientists.
It is noteworthy to see that Russia and United States have discovered mainly artificial elements.
Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements
Documented variations in the isotopic compositions of some chemical elements are responsible for expanded uncertainties in the standard atomic weights published by the Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry.
This report summarizes reported variations in the isotopic compositions of 20 elements that are due to physical and chemical fractionation processes (not due to radioactive decay) and their effects on the standard atomic weight uncertainties. For 11 of those elements (hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, copper, and selenium), standard atomic weight uncertainties have been assigned values that are substantially larger than analytical uncertainties because of common isotope abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin. For 2 elements (chromium and thallium), recently reported isotope abundance variations potentially are large enough to result in future expansion of their atomic weight uncertainties. For 7 elements (magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium), documented isotope-abundance variations in materials of natural terrestrial origin are too small to have a significant effect on their standard atomic weight uncertainties.
Compilation of Minimum and Maximum Isotope Ratios of Selected Elements in Naturally Occurring Terrestrial Materials and Reagents
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water Resources Investigation Report 01-4222
Correspondences Between The Classical Thomson Problem and The Periodic Table of The Elements
By Tim (TJ) LaFave, a very detailed pdf discussing the correspondences between the classical Thomson Problem and the Periodic Table of the Elements. You will need to click thru and zoom in:
Jamie Gallagher – scientist, engineer, science communicator, salsa teacher and part time comic – has produced a periodic table showing the county of origin of the discoverer:
Two pages from John Dalton's 1808 book A New System of Chemical Philosophy in which he proposed his version of atomic theory based on scientific experimentation (see the scanned book, page 219):
|Dalton's Elements (1808)|
Note the seemingly huge errors in the atomic weights, compared with modern values. These errors occured because while Dalton had deduced that atoms combine in fixed (stoichiometric) ratios in compounds, he not always know what the ratios were. Thus there were two unknowns: the atomic weights (masses) and the stoichiometric ratios.
Dates of Element Discovered
The Elements and their dates of discovery, taken from this Wikipedia page:
Daubeny's Teaching Display Board of Atomic Weights
The Museum of the History of Science, Oxford, has a display of Charles Daubeny's teaching materials from 1831, including a black painted wooden board with "SYMBOLS OF SIMPLE BODIES": symbols, atomic weights and names of elements in two columns, and a small pile of cubes with element symbol.
Note that some of the numbers seem very strange to our eyes: carbon is given as 6 (rather than 12) and oxygen 8 (not 16), while others correspond with modern values remarkably well, chlorine is given as 36 rather than 35.5.
Daubeny's weights (along with the modern mass) are given:
|Daubeny's SYMBOLS OF SIMPLE BODIES (1831)|
Download Excel, Word & PDF Periodic Tables for Printing, etc.
A periodic table in Excel spreadsheet format by Jeff Bigler of Waltham HS:
Dynamic Periodic Table
Michael Dayah's Dynamic Periodic Table, in development since 1997, is a traditional data presentation periodic table with a beautiful, flexible & fast user interface.
For example, when selecting "MP", "BP", "Discovery", etc. a slider appears and the PT changes in colour dynamically to reflect the change. PDF and PNG versions can be downloaded:
Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of The Elements and Their Ions by Bruce Railsback, here
In chemistry and atomic physics, the electron affinity of an atom is defined as the energy change when an electron is added to a neutral atom to form a negative ion:
M + e– —> M– + energy:
Electron Slell Periodic Table
A Wikipedia Periodic Tables of the Elements showing the Electron Shells:
Electronegativity Chart (Leach)
Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.
When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:
Electronegativity Periodic Table
A periodic table showing electronegativity, "The ability of an atom to attract electron density from a covalent bond" (Linus Pauling). Blue elements are electronegative, red elements are electropositive, and purple elements are intermediate. Notice how hydrogen is intermediate in electronegativity between carbon and boron and is positioned above and between these elements:
From the Encyclopedia of Metalloproteins, page 1407 published by Springer, 2013 (ISBN: 978-1-4614-1532-9) a periodic table of electronic configurations:
Element Collection Periodic Table
It is possible to buy sets of elements presented as a periodic table from RGB Research Ltd.
Element Material Type Periodic Table
All of the the main group elements are common laboratory reagents or chemical in bottles. They appear as metals, metalloid (semi-metals) and non-metals. Most of the non-metals are molecular materials while most of the metalloids have an extended network-covalent structure.
Elsewhere in the chemogenesis web book, material type is discussed in terms of the Laing Tetrahedron, an analysis that classifies binary materials in terms of four extreme types: metallic, ionic, molecular and network. However, none the chemical elements present as ionic materials, only as metals, molecular (van er Waals) and network materials:
The elements B, C, Si, P, S, Ge, As, Se, Sn, Sb and Te can form allotropes: pure elemental substances that can exist with different crystalline structures from the Wikipedia. Allotropes may be metallic, network or molecular.
Elemental Hydride Types Periodic Table
The main group elemental hydrides are all well known reagent chemicals. The main group hydrides always give the lowest and most common oxidation state, and all chemicals are molecular in the gas phase. The Group I and II hydrides are ionic materials, but they can be vaporised to give the molecular form.
The chemicals present and behave as Lewis acids, Lewis bases or Lewis acid/base complexes, here:
Elemental Oxidation States Periodic Table
The periodic table of fluorides (mainly) shows the range of possible oxidation states. Note that lithium, by way of example, is deemed to have two oxidation states: Li0 (the metal), and Li+ (the lithium ion):
There are a few exceptions and points to note:
Elements According to Relative Abundance
A 1970 periodic table by Prof. Wm. F. Sheehan of the University of Santa Clara that claims to show the elements according to relative abundance at the Earth's surface.
Click here to see the full size version with a little more text:
However, this author disputes the relative areas given to the various elements; there is almost no helium at the Earth's surface, for example.
Below is a conventional PT representation of the relative abundance of the elements in the Earth's crust taken from Mark Winter's WebElements website:
Elements in Bottles Periodic Table
A nice web site with a physical periodic table of elements:
Elements in Fireworks
Fireworks rely on the chemical characteristics of the elements that are used to make them. This special periodic table highlights the elements that have significance to fireworks and pyrotechnics:
Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts
A series of BBC World Service Radio Programs, available as MP3 Podcasts, talking about the chemical elements with a strong business/technology bias, rather than the more usual chemical or historical approach:
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements
Prepared by P. Lof is Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements.
This educational wall chart features the periodic table of the elements supported by a wealth of chemical, physical, thermodynamical, geochemical and radiochemical data laid down in numerous colourful graphs, plots, figures and tables. The most important chemical and physical properties of the elements can be found - without turning a page.
All properties are presented in the form of tables or graphs. More than 40 properties are given, ranging from melting point and heat capacity to atomic radius, nuclear spin, electrical resistivity and abundance in the solar system. Sixteen of the most important properties are colour coded, so that they may be followed through the periodic system at a glance. Twelve properties have been selected to illustrate periodicity, while separate plots illustrate the relation between properties. In addition, there are special sections dealing with units, fundamental constants and particles, radioisotopes, the Aufbau principle, etc. All data on the chart are fully referenced, and S.I. units are used throughout.
Designed specifically for university and college undergraduates and high school students, "Elsevier's Periodic Table of the Elements" will also be of practical value to professionals in the fields of fundamental and applied physical sciences and technology. The wall chart is ideally suited for self-study and may be used as a complementary reference for textbook study and exam preparation.
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Emission Spectra of the Elements Poster
Tom Field, President, Field Tested Systems, LLC and Contributing Editor, Sky & Telescope Magazine says: "We have complete redesigned our Emission Spectra of the Elements Poster and put it up for sale."
A couple of links:
Extraction from Ore to Pure Element
A periodic table showing how pure elements are extracted:
Highly electropositive elements (Na, K) and electronegative elements (Cl2, F2) can only be obtained by electrolysis.
First Ionisation Energy to the Standard Form Periodic Table
There is debate amongst the cognoscenti about the 'best' representation of the periodic table, and how this 'best' formulation can be explained by [rationalized by] quantum mechanics (QM).
Many feel that the Janet PT formulation, the 'Left Step', is the ideal QM PT, but this formulation does not show periodicity very well, and there are issues with the placement of H, He, Be which spill over into questions about their placement in the standard form PT (the periodic table used in classrooms and textbooks around the world).
However, it is possible to get to the conventional standard form PT directly from the first ionisation energy data, where the 1st ionisation energy is the energy required to convert a gas phase atom (M) into its gas phase positive ion plus electron.
M(g) → M+(g) + e–
The process involves:
Note that a similar logic can be applied to atomic radius and electronegativity data.
However, there are issues about the measurement of atomic radius, because atoms are 'soft at their edges', and gas phase atomic radius is not precisely defined. And, electronegativity is a derived parameter.
Atmophile Elements - noble gases and covalently bonded gaseous molecules. The atoms and molecules are attracted by weak van der Waals forces and so these elements remain gaseous at room temperature.
Lithophile Elements - Those elements which form ionic bonds generally have filled outer electron shells. They typically bond to oxygen in silicates and oxides.
Siderophile Elements - The metals near iron in the periodic table that exhibit metallic bonding, have a weak affinity for oxygen and sulfur and are readily soluble in molten iron. Examples include iron, nickel, cobalt, platinum, gold, tin, and tantalum. These elements are depleted in the earth crust because they have partitioned into the earth's iron core.
Chalcophile Elements - The elements that bond to S, Se, Te, Sb, and As. These bonds are predominantly covalent in character.
As discussed in more detail here.
Group Numbering Systems
Phase State: Solid, Liquid, Gas at 20°C & 700°C
Hackh's Periodic Chain
From a Scientific American in March 1919, an article by Ingo W. D. Hackh discussing the classification of the elements.
Included is a periodic chain showing the redox states of the elements:
Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table
Every element has a specialist, somewhere, for whom it is the most important element.
Inorganic Chemist's Periodic Table
The major links in the Periodic Table are those of the Groups and Periods. There are other patterns:
Instruments, Periodic Table of
Download, zoom in & explore the interesting pdf file:
Ionic Radii Database Periodic Table
By the Atomistic Simulation Group in the Materials Department of Imperial College, a database of ionic radii:
Ionic Radii Periodic Table
iPhone, Periodic Table of
An article in Scientific American Digging for Rare Earths: The Mines Where iPhones Are Born.
"About 60 miles southwest of Las Vegas, in a mine some 500 feet deep, the beginnings of an iPhone come to life. But the sleek, shiny iPhone is far, far removed from the rocks pulled out of this giant hole, which looks like a deep crater on the moon. Inside the rocks from this mine are rare-earth minerals, crucial ingredients for iPhones, as well as wind turbines, hybrid cars, and night-vision goggles. Minerals such as neodymium are used in magnets that make speakers vibrate to create sound. Europium is a phosphor that creates a bright red on an iPhone screen. Cerium gets put into a solvent that workers use to polish devices as they move along the assembly line, etc.":
IQS Periodic Tables
By Jordi Cuadros, a set of three pairs of periodic tables in Catalan, English & Spanish pointing out the differences between PT representations of atoms and PT representations of the material substances:
Island of Stability
From Wikipedia: The island of stability in nuclear physics describes a set of as-yet undiscovered isotopes of transuranium elements which are theorized to be much more stable than others. The possibility was proposed by Glenn T. Seaborg in the late 1960s: Prospectd for Further Considerable Extension of the Periodic Table, J.Chem.Educ., 46, 626-633 (1969) and reprinted in Modern Alchemy: Selected Papers of Glenn T. Seaborg (1994).
The hypothesis is that the atomic nucleus is built up in "shells" in a manner similar to the structure of the much larger electron shells in atoms. In both cases, shells are just groups of quantum energy levels that are relatively close to each other.
IUPAC Periodic Table of The Elements
The 2012 IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Periodic Table of The Elements showing the recently named elements: Fl (flerovium, 114) and Lv (livermorium, 116).
This version is dated 1 June 2012. For updates to this table, go here.
IUPAC Periodic Table of the Isotopes
The Periodic Table of the Isotopes, published by International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), is now available from the Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights, which is a commission under the Inorganic Division (Division II) of IUPAC.
The text identifies four types of atom, with respect to isotopes:
JR's Chemistry Set
For the iPhone and iPad, JR's Chemistry Set makes chemistry interesting and fun to learn. Based upon the innovative Rota Period, it is a handy and powerful reference tool for chemistry enthusiasts and practitioners at all ages and all levels.
Lewis Octet Periodic Table
A periodic table showing the outer shell of valence electrons associated with Lewis atoms:
Life Science Library Periodic Table
The PT is arranged vertically instead of having the usual horizontal format. It is also probably the first book to show pictures of nearly every element, arranged by family:
Periodic Table Live!
A good site with lots of infomation, pictures & video clips, here:
Mass Anomaly Periodic Table
Pairs of atoms where atomic mass does not follow atomic number.
Nature's little quirk due to the intricacies of nuclear chemistry and isotopic abundance caused no end of difficulties to the developers of the periodic table in the mid-nineteenth century. Scientists could determine atomic mass, but knew nothing of protons or atomic numbers.
The tellurium-iodine anomaly was a particular problem.
Mechanical Engineer's Periodic Table
Avallone EA, Baumeister T & Sadegh AM (eds) 2007, Marks' Standard Handbook for Mechanical Engineers, 11th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, p. 6-6. Click here for a larger version.
This mech eng PT has a couple of odd features: hydrogen is in Group 17 above fluorine and the lanthanides are split:
Thanks to René for the tip!
Medicinal Chemist's Periodic Table
From In The Pipeline, a blog posting about a [free, full access] review entitled, Exploration of the medical periodic table: towards new targets.
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
Merck Periodic Table of The Elements
The Merck periodic table of the elements, here:
Metal Crystal Structure Periodic Table
Developed from Dr S.J. Heyes' First Year Inorganic Chemistry lecture notes (Oxford University):
Minerals by Chemical Composition
NIST Atomic Physical Reference Data
Access the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) physical reference data:
NMR Nuclear Spin Periodic Table(s)
An nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy periodic table giving information the nuclear spins, etc., of the chemical elements, from the Bruker corporation website:
The range of NMR active nuclei observable on a particular instrument is, in part, a function of the configuration of the spectrometer and the choice of available probes. The periodic tables below identify the nuclei that have resonance frequencies within the detection range of the Lake Forest College Inova and the EFT-60 NMR spectrometers.
The nuclei in red are I=1/2 and yield spectra with narrow, non-overlapping resonances. The nuclei in blue have quadrapolar moments and may give rise to broad or very broad resonances in their spectra.
Nucleosynthesis Periodic Tables
The buildup of heavy elements from lighter ones by nuclear fusion.
From the Encyclopedia of Science:
Today most element-building nucleosynthesis takes place in stars.
Stellar nucleosynthesis converts hydrogen into helium, either by the proton-proton chain or by the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle. As a star evolves, a contracting superdense core of helium is produced from the conversion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei.
Eventually, the temperature and pressure inside the core become high enough for helium to begin fusing into carbon. If the star has more than about twice the Sun's mass, a sequence of nuclear reactions then produces heavier elements such as oxygen, silicon, magnesium, potassium, and iron. Successively heavier elements, as far as iron (in the most massive stars) are built up in later stages of stellar evolution by the triple-alpha process. The heaviest elements of all are produced by explosive nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions, by mechanisms such as the p-process, r-process, and s-process:
Our quest to explain the origin of the elements started in the late 1950's by two famous papers independently - E. M. Burbidge et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 (1957) & A.G.W. Cameron, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 69, 201 (1957) - whose authors claimed that the elements are created in astrophysical environments. This is the well-known periodic table of elements, but where each element is labeled by the environment that is created (e.g Supernova explosion etc.).
In 2017 the LIGO gravitional wave detector identified the merger of two neutron stars, an event which produces large quantities of gold, platinum etc. Thus, an updated periodic table of nucleosyntheis looks like this:
Number of Stable Isotopes by Element
When plotting the number of stable isotopes against element, and against atomic number Z, it is clear that elements with an even atomic number are likely to have more stable isotopes (average 4.9) than elements with an odd atomic number (average 1.3). Click here for the Excel file. There is a Wikipedia page here.
The effect is striking in graphical form:
The Oddo–Harkins rule holds that elements with an even atomic number (such as carbon) are more common than elements with an odd atomic number (such as nitrogen). This effect on the abundance of the chemical elements was first reported by Giuseppe Oddo in 1914 and William Draper Harkins in 1917. See the Wikipedia page:
Orbital Filling With Electrons
Students of chemistry are often confused why the orbitals fill with electrons: 1s2, 2s2, 2p6, 3s2, 3p6, 4s2, 3d10, 4p6... etc., because the 3d10 seems to be 'out of sequence'.
This 'out of sequence' difficulity is nicely explained if the orbitals are arranged in a slightly different way:
The aufbau principle states that in the ground state of an atom or ion, electrons fill atomic orbitals of the lowest available energy levels before occupying higher levels. For example, the 1s shell is filled before the 2s subshell is occupied. In this way, the electrons of an atom or ion form the most stable electron configuration possible.
The order in which these orbitals are filled is given by the n + rule, also known as the Madelung rule (after Erwin Madelung), the Janet rule or the diagonal rule.
Orbitals with a lower n + value are filled before those with higher n + values. In this context, n represents the principal quantum number and ? the azimuthal quantum number. The values = 0, 1, 2, 3 correspond to the s, p, d and f orbital lables.
Julio Gutiérrez Samanez writes:
"I send you the diagram below that reconciles quantum mechanics (diagram for filling the electronic cells) with the Janet table or LSPT. Explaining the duplication of periods with the duplication of the quantum number n, and the introduction of Tao (T) spin of the level or spin of the period, which explains the parity of the symmetric periods."
Orbitron Gallery of Atomic Orbitals
The Orbitron gallery of atomic orbitals is a poster available from Mark Winter's Web Elements:
The orbitron web page is here.
Organic Chemist's Periodic Table
Organic chemistry is dominated by carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Other elements are commonly encountered in the organic lab, others less commonly and some... almost never at all...
A less than useful formulation (!):
followed by a slightly more useful organic chemist's periodic table:
Organometallic Periodic Table
Published by Paneth in 1942 in an article in Nature in which he suggests that newly discovered elements such as Z = 43 should be given names by their discoverers. The other highlighted elements (below) had also not yet been named.
Element 43 had been discovered 9 years earlier but had not been given an official name because there was reluctance to consider synthetic elements on the same footing as naturally occurring ones. This changed as a result of Paneth's article.
For more information see Eric Scerri's, A Tale of Seven Elements, OUP, 2013.
Pauling's Complete Electronegativity Scale
From The Nature of The Chemical Bond, 3rd Ed, pp 93, Pauling gives a periodic table showing the electronegativity of the elements.
Notice how the d block appears between groups 3 and 4 (13 & 14), rather than between groups 2 and 3 (2 & 13):
Periodic Table X
Periodic Table X is a periodic table for the Macintosh.
Periodicity Periodic Table
From Wikipedia, a PT showing the main periodic trends:
A periodic table with a minimalist design ethic, optimized for phones and tablets:
Phase State: Solid, Liquid, Gas at 20°C & 700°C
Pictures & Words
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Ptable is an excellent, data filled, dynamic periodic table with an intuitive and flexible interface, available in 50 languages:
Radioactivity Periodic Table
A periodic table showing the elements that have no stable isotopes, so that all samples are radioactive:
Recipe For A Human Shirt
By Sean Fallon and available from Fashionably Geek, A Recipe For Humans Shirt:
RSC Visual Elements Periodic Table: Alchemy
From the RSC Website: "Alchemists are often described as the first chemists. They developed an extraordinary language (rather than the chemical symbols we use today) to describe all manner of things, from chemical reactions to philosophical tenets. Click on ‘What is Alchemy?’ to learn about the three aims of the alchemists. Click on each of the alchemical symbols for more information and to see alternative symbols."
Schaeffer's IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent
IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent, Bernard Schaeffer, Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 5, No. 3, February 24, 2014
Abstract: Most periodic tables of the chemical elements are between 96% and 100% in accord with quantum mechanics. Three elements only do not fit correctly into the official tables, in disagreement with the spherical harmonics and the Pauli exclusion principle. Helium, belonging to the s-block, should be placed beside hydrogen in the s-block instead of the p-block. Lutetium and lawrencium belonging to the d-block of the transition metals should not be in the f-block of the lanthanides or the actinoids. With these slight modifications, the IUPAC table becomes quantum mechanics consistent.
Schematic Periodic Table of Double-Charged Cations
N. S. Imyanitov / The Periodic Law. Formulations, Equations, Graphic Representations, Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 56 (14), 2183 - 2200, 2011 (In English), DOI: 10.1134/S0036023611140038
Scientific American Interactive Periodic Table
From Scientific American, The Elements Revealed: An Interactive Periodic Table.
Many elements have links with articles on individual elements which first appeared in Nature Chemistry and were not previously available on-line:
Seawater Periodic Table
A periodic table of references to analytical chemistry papers associated with the elements. If you want to know how much gallium in seawater, this would be a good place to start:
Sistema Periodico Degli Elementi
An Italian Periodic Table in Science Museum, Turin (Estimated date 1960).
Note how the noble gases (as Group 0) are shown down the left hand side of the table:
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Smart Elements, at smart-elements.com, is a company selling physical samples of chemical elements for research, education & collection.
Smart Elements sell numerous examples of all the naturally occuring elements. For example they sell 26 copper, Cu, products including samples in acrylic blocks, vials and bottles:
Spider Chart of The Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
A Spider Chart linking together various ideas about the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements by Roy Alexander (of Alexander Arrangement fame).
Click here to embiggen the image:
STEM Sheets Printable (& Customizable) Periodic Table of Elements
From STEM Sheets – where "STEM" stands for Science, Technology Engineering & Maths – a customizable and printable periodic table.
Student's Periodic Table
Students are expected to know that in all equations hydrogen is molecular should [nearly always] be written as H2. Likewise, nitrogen is N2, oxygen O2, fluorine F2, chlorine Cl2, bromine Br2 and iodine I2. But somehow students are expected to know that molecular sulfur, S8, should be written as S and molecular phosphorus, P4, should be written as P.
Suggested Periodic Table Up To Z ≤ 172, Based on Dirac–Fock Calculations
A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, based on Dirac–Fock calculations on atoms and ions
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011,13, 161-168
Extended Average Level (EAL) Dirac–Fock calculations on atoms and ions agree with earlier work in that a rough shell-filling order for the elements.
[This new] Periodic Table develops further that of Fricke, Greiner and Waber [Theor. Chim. Acta 1971, 21, 235] by formally assigning the elements 121–164 to (nlj) slots on the basis of the electron configurations of their ions. Simple estimates are made for likely maximum oxidation states, i, of these elements M in their MXi compounds:
A periodic table showing which elements become superconducting at low temperature.
Sweetners: a Periodic Table
A guide to sweeteners By Patterson Clark and Lazaro Gamio, Published: March 2, 2015
Too much sugar can be detrimental to health, rotting teeth, building fat, damaging blood vessels and stressing out the system that regulates blood sugar. Some people turn to artificial sweeteners, but those are under increasing suspicion of creating metabolic problems, such as diabetes and obesity.
Natural alternative sweeteners exist, but even they have pitfalls if consumed in excess.
This sweetners periodic table below, click to enbiggen, charts the wide variety of sweeteners available in the United States, either in bulk amounts or as additives in food.
Not listed are super-sweet-tasting, zero-calorie proteins from several African fruits (monellin, brazzein and thaumatin), which have not been approved for use by the FDA. Also not included: banned or poisonous sweeteners, such as lead acetate, which ancient Romans made by cooking sour wine in lead pots.
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
Technology, Periodic Table of
Go to the website and hover over the element to see how it is used in modern technology:
Timelines, of The Periodic Table
By Steven Murov, a chronology of the events that have resulted in our present periodic table of the elements and a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev (birthday, 02/08/1834) periodic table (1869).
Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155
This book (PDF), by Albert Khazan, represents a result of many-year theoretical research, which manifested hyperbolic law in Mendeleev's Periodic Table.
According to [Khazan's] law, an upper limit (heaviest element) exists in Mendeleev's Table, whose atomic mass is 411.66 and No.155. It is shown that the heaviest element No.155 can be a reference point in nuclear reactions. Due to symmetry of the hyperbolic law, the necessity of the Table of Anti-Elements, consisting of anti-substance, has been predicted. This manifests that the found hyperbolic law is universal, and the Periodic Table is common for elements and anti-elements.
URENCO Periodic Table
A periodic table by URENCO showing which non-radioactive (stable) elements are suitable for isotopic enrichment using gas centrifuge technology:
The chemistry department at the University of Nottingham has produced a series of YouTube video information clips about the chemical elements:
Visual Elements Periodic Table
Visual Elements Periodic Table
Where Your Elements Came From Periodic Table
The featured periodic table, from Astronomy Picture of The Day (APOD) is color coded to indicate humanity's best guess as to the nuclear origin of all known elements. The sites of nuclear creation of some elements, such as copper, are not really well known and are continuing topics of observational and computational research.
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
White's Periodic Table
The periodic table of White shows the normal state electronic configurations, from H.E. White. Introduction to Atomic Spectra. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1934,
p. 85, Table 5.4..
Helium is clearly associated with H, and placed above Be in accord with the s2 electron configuration of the free atom.
Wooden Periodic Table Table
Theodore Gray's Wooden Periodic Table Table a wooden table that incorporates a periodic table is a treasure trove, both on the web and in reality (his office).
The web site contains over 12 gig of data and beautiful images. Explore!
Theo's new site is periodictable.com.
World's Smallest Periodic Table
The World's Smallest Periodic Table:
X-ray Absorption Edges
The periodic table links to tabulations of an elements characteristic x-ray absorption edge energies, and of the anomalous scattering coefficients f' and f" as a function of incident x-ray energy:
|Periodic Table, What is it showing?||
© Mark R. Leach 1999-
Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos...
If you have any:
Suggestions or periodic table representations not shown on this page
Suggestions for links
Bug, typo or grammatical error reports about this page,
please contact Mark R. Leach, the author, using email@example.com
This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated.
counter started in 2011