There are hundreds of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.
Books & Reviews about the Periodic Table of the Elements, by date:
The tangible materials included with this study set complement APH's Periodic Table of the Elements Reference Chart and allow students to enhance their understanding of concepts consistent with the National Science Standards.
Inspired by Samir Azer, a science teacher at the Kentucky School for the Blind, this set can assist in the instruction and demonstration of concepts related to the arrangement of the periodic table, atomic structure, ionic and covalent bonding, and balancing of chemical equations to students who benefit from a hands-on, interactive model.
Special attention was given to make the materials tactually discriminable and visually appealing to the target population, yet appropriate for all students regardless of visual acuity:
Selected Papers on The Periodic Table by Eric Scerri
Edited by Eric Scerri (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
Published by: Imperial College Press in London
The book contains key articles by Eric Scerri, the leading authority on the history and philosophy of the periodic table of the elements. These articles explore a range of topics such as the historical evolution of the periodic system as well as its philosophical status and its relationship to modern quantum physics. In this present volume, many of the more in-depth research papers, which formed the basis for this publication, are presented in their entirety; they have also been published in highly accessible science magazines (such as American Scientist), and journals in history and philosophy of science, as well as quantum chemistry. This must-have publication is completely unique as there is nothing of this form currently available on the market.
Chemistry, Spectroscopy, and the Question of Reduction
Electronic Configuration Model, Quantum Mechanics and Reduction
The Periodic Table and the Electron
How Good is the Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System
Prediction and the Periodic Table
Löwdin's Remarks on the Aufbau Principle and a Philosopher's View of Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry
The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present
The Past and Future of the Periodic Table
The Dual Sense of the Term "Elements", Attempts to Derive the Madelung Rule, and the Optimal Form of the Periodic Table, If Any
Readership: Academic readers: philosophers and science historians, science
educators, chemists and physicists.
Pub. date: Scheduled Fall 2009
"Much anticipated (by me at least), this is the definitive be-all, end-all book of the elements. Like my poster, it contains beautiful photographs of all the chemical elements, shining out from a deep black background. But unlike my poster, it's not limited to just one picture per element. Instead each element gets a whole 2-page spread. At 10" x 20" (25cm x 50cm), each spread is as large as the whole place mat version of my poster! And several of the more popular elements even get two spreads.
There are literally hundreds and hundreds of photos in this book, nearly all of them taken by myself and my co-author Nick Mann of objects in my collection."
The videos feature interviews with Dr. Eric Scerri of UCLA, with added narration, animations, illustrations, photos, captions, etc. by David V. Black as well as publication artwork and notes by Edward G. Mazurs. Part 1 covers the events leading up to Mendeleev’s invention of the periodic table including the work of several precursors such as de Chancourtois, Newlands, Odling, Hinrichs, and Meyer. The second part covers Mendeleev’s working out of his periodic system and the work of his successors, as well as some interesting questions such as whether the periodic table can be entirely deduced from quantum mechanics and the mystery of the Knight’s Move pattern of properties. Part 1 is 17 minutes long and Part 2 is just under 20 minutes.
"The Periodic Table is one of our crowning scientific achievements, but it’s also a treasure trove of passion, adventure, betrayal, and obsession. The fascinating tales in The Disappearing Spoon follow carbon, neon, silicon, gold, and every single element on the table as they play out their parts in human history, finance, mythology, conflict, the arts, medicine, and the lives of the (frequently) mad scientists who discovered them: Why did a little lithium help cure poet Robert Lowell of his madness? And how did Gallium (Ga, 31) become the go-to element for laboratory pranksters?"
"The Disappearing Spoon has the answers, fusing science with the classic lore of invention, investigation, discovery, and alchemy, from the Big Bang through the end of time."
CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0):
Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements by Hugh Aldersey-Williams and published by Viking, ISBN: 9780670918119.
Everything is made of them, from the furthest reaches of the universe to this book that you hold in your hands, including you.
Like you, the elements have lives: personalities and attitudes, talents and shortcomings, stories rich with meaning. You may think of them as the inscrutable letters of the periodic table but you know them much better than you realise.
Welcome to a dazzling tour through history and literature, science and art. Here you'll meet iron that rains from the heavens and noble gases that light the way to vice. You'll learn how lead can tell your future while zinc may one day line your coffin. You'll discover what connects the bones in your body with the Whitehouse in Washington, the glow of a streetlamp with the salt on your dinner table.
From ancient civilisations to contemporary culture, from the oxygen of publicity to the phosphorus in your pee, the elements are near and far and all around us. Unlocking their astonishing secrets and colourful pasts, Periodic Tales will take you on a voyage of wonder and discovery, excitement and novelty, beauty and truth. Along the way, you'll find that their stories are our stories, and their lives are inextricable from our own.
ericscerri.com is the personal internet domain and website of Eric Scerri: chemist and leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of the periodic table. He is founder and editor-in-chief of the international journal Foundations of Chemistry, which publishes academic papers concerned with the PT, and is the author of the respected book: The Periodic Table and Its Significance (Oxford University Press, 2007).
The website has links to all of Eric's extensive publications, including online video lectures and interviews and external links.
Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System
From Eric Scerri's forthcoming book A Tale of Seven Elements (Oxford University Press, 2013) and used by permission of the author, is the most complete and up-to-date list of Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System, including some titles in foreign languages.
Additional books in other languages can be found listed in Mazurs, 1974
H. Alderesey-Williams, Periodic Tales, Viking Press, 2011
N.P. Agafoshin, Ley Periódica y Sistema Periódico de los Elementos de Mendeleiev, Ed. Reverté S.A., Barcelona, 1977
I. Asimov, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Lancer Books, New York, 1966
P.W. Atkins, The Periodic Kingdom, Basic Books, New York, NY, 1995
O. Baca Mendoza, Leyes Geneticas de los Elementos Quimicos. Nuevo Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Cuzco, Cuzco, Peru, 1953
P. Ball, A Guided Tour of the Ingredients, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002
P. Ball, A Very Short Introduction to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2004
I. Barber, Sorting The Elements: The Periodic Table at Work, Rourke Publishing, Vero Beach, Florida, US, 2008
R. Baum (ed), Celebrating the Periodic Table, Chemical & Engineering News, A Special Collector's Issue, September 8, 2003
H.A. Bent, New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law, Author House, Bloomington IN, 2006
J. Bernstein, Plutonium, Joseph Henry, Washington DC, 2007
J. C.A. Boeyens, D.C. Lavendis, Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter, Springer, Berlin, 2008
N. Bohr, Collected Works Vol 4. The Periodic System (1920-1923), Nielsen J Rud (Editor), North Holland Publishing Company, 1977
T. Bondora, The Periodic Table of Elements Coloring Book, Bondora Educational Media Publications, 2010
D.G. Cooper, The Periodic Table, 3rd edition. Butterworths, London, 1964
P.A. Cox, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989
P. Depovere, La Classification périodique des éléments, De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2002
H. Dingle and G.R. Martin, Chemistry and Beyond: Collected Essays of F.A.
Paneth, Interscience, New York, NY, 1964
S. Dockx, Theorie Fondamentale du Systeme Periodique des Elements, Office Internationale de Librairie, Bruxelles, 1950
A. Ducrocq, Les éléments au pouvoir, Julliard, Paris, 1976
A. Ede, The Chemical Elements, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006
J. Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition. Clarendon, Oxford University Press, 1998
J. Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001
P. Enghag, Encyclopedia of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004
D.E. Fisher, Much Ado About (Practically) Nothing, The History of the Noble Gases, Oxford University Press, New York, 2010
I. Freund, The Study of Chemical Composition: An Account of its Method and
Historical Development, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1968
J. García-Sancho & F. Ortega-Chicote, Periodicidad Química, Trillas, México, 1984
A. E. Garrett, The Periodic Law, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1909
L. Garzon Ruiperez, De Mendeleiev a Los Superelementos, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, 1988
L. Gonik, C. Criddle, The Cartoon Guide to Chemistry, Harper Resource, New York, 2005
M. Gordin, A Well-Ordered Thing, Dimitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table, Basic Books, New York, 2004
T. Gray, The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009
D. Green, The Elements, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Scholastic Inc. New York, 2012
R. Hefferlin, Periodic Systems and their Relation to the Systematic Analysis of
Molecular Data, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1989
D.L. Heiserman, Exploring the Chemical Elements and their Compounds, McGraw-Hill New York, 1991
S. Hofmann, Beyond Uranium, Taylor & Francis, London, 2002
F. Hund, Linienspektren und Periodisches System der Elemente, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, 1927
W.B. Jensen, Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869-1905, Dover, Mineola, NY, 2005
S. Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown & Co., New York, 2010
D.M. Knight, Classical Scientific Papers, Chemistry Second Series, American, Elsevier, New York, NY
P.K. Kuroda, The Origin of the Chemical Elements, and the Oklo Phenomenon, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982
H.M. Leicester and H.S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400-1900, 1st
Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., London, 1952
M.F. L'Annunziata, Radioactivity, Introduction and History, Elsevier, 2007
S.E.V. Lemus, Clasificación periódica de Mendelejew, Guatemalan Ministry of Public Education, Guatemala, 1959
P. Levi, The Periodic Table, 1st American Edition. Schocken Books, New York, NY, 1984
R. Luft, Dictionnaire des Corps Simples de la Chimie, Association Cultures et Techniques, Nantes, 1997
J. Marshall, Discovery of the Elements, Pearson Custom Publishing, 1998
E. Mazurs, Graphic Representation of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, Alabama University Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1974
D. Mendeleeff, An Attempt Towards A Chemical Conception of the Ether,
translated by G. Kamensky. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1904
D. Mendeleeff, The Principles of Chemistry, translated by G. Kamensky, 5th
Edition, vol. 2. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1891
L. Meyer, Modern Theories of Chemistry, 5th Edition, translated by P.P. Bedson, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1888
L. Meyer, Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry, 2nd Edition, translated by P.P.
Bedson and W.C. William. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1899
F. Mohr, (E), Gold Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, 2009
D. Morris, The Last Sorcerers, The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table, Joseph Henry Press, New York, 2003
I. Nechaev, G.W. Jenkins, The Chemical Elements, Tarquin Publications, Norfolk, UK, 1997
R.D. Osorio Giraldo, M.V. Alzate Cano, La Tabla Periodica, Bogota, Colombia, 2010
M.J. Pentz, (General Editor), The Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding, Open University Press, Bletchley, Buckinghamshire, UK, 1971
I.V. Peryanov, D.N. Trifonov, Elementary Order: Mendeleev's Periodic System, translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1984
J.S.F. Pode, The Periodic Table, John Wiley, New York, NY, 1971
R.J. Puddephatt, The Periodic Table of the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972
R.J. Puddephatt and P.K. Monaghan, The Periodic Table of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986
H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007
E. Rabinowitsch, E. Thilo, Periodisches System, Geschichte und Theorie, Stuttgart, 1930
R. Rich, Periodic Correlations, Benjamin, New York, 1965
J. Ridgen, Hydrogen, The Essential Element, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002
H. Rossotti, Diverse Atoms, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998
D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Periodic Table Into the 21st Century, Research Studies Press, Baldock, UK, 2004
D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Mathematics of the Periodic Table, Nova Scientific Publishers, New York, 2006
G. Rudorf, The Periodic Classification and the Problem of Chemical Evolution, Whittaker & Co., London, New York, 1900
G. Rudorf, Das periodische System, seine Geschichte und Bedeutung für die chemische Sysytematik, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1904
O. Sacks, Uncle Tungsten, Vintage Books, New York, 2001
R.T. Sanderson, Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements, School Technical Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI, 1971
S. E. Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009
E.R. Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007
E.R. Scerri, Selected Papers on the Periodic Table, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore, 2009
E.R. Scerri, A Very Short Introduction to the Periodic Table, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Also translated into Spanish and Arabic.
E.R. Scerri, Le Tableau Périodique, Son Histoire et sa Signification, EDP Sciences, 2011, (translated by R. Luft); Japanese Translation by Hisao Mabuchi et. al.
C. Schmidt, Das periodische System der chemischen Elementen, Leipzig, 1917.
G.T. Seaborg, W.D. Loveland, The Elements Beyond Uranium, Wiley, New York, 1990
M.S. Sethi, M. Satake, Periodic Tables and Periodic Properties, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India, 1992
H.H. Sisler, Electronic Structure, Properties, and the Periodic Law, Reinhold, New York, 1963
P. Strathern, Mendeleyev's Dream, Hamish-Hamilton, London, 1999
R.S. Timmreck, The Power of the Periodic Table, Royal Palm Publishing, 1991
M. Tweed, Essential Elements, Walker and Company, New York, 2003
F.P. Venable, The Development of the Periodic Law, Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA, 1896
M.E. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, Journal of Chemical Education, Easton PA, 1960
B.D. Wilker, The Mystery of the Periodic Table, Bethlehem Books, New York, 2003
J. Van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969
T. Zoellner, Uranium, Penguin Books, London, 2009
A. Zwertska, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998
Works by D. I. Mendeleev
Nauchnyi arkhiv. Periodicheskii zakon, t. I, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1953
Periodicheskii zakon. Dopolnitel'nye materialy. Klassiki nauki, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1960
Periodicheskii zakon. Klassiki nauki, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1958
From the Japanese artist Bunpei Yorifuji comes Wonderful Life with the Elements, an illustrated guide to the periodic table that gives chemistry a friendly face, available from Amazon.
In this super periodic table, every element is a unique character whose properties are represented visually: heavy elements are fat, man-made elements are robots, and noble gases sport impressive afros. Every detail is significant, from the length of an element's beard to the clothes on its back. You'll also learn about each element's discovery, its common uses, and other vital stats like whether it floats—or explodes—in water.
There is also a full review with more images from Wired.
From Mark R Leach's paper, Concerning electronegativity as a basic elemental property and why the periodic table is usually represented in its medium form, Journal & PDF.
Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.
When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:
"30 Second Elements presents you with the foundations of chemical knowledge, distilling the 50 most significant chemical elements into half-a-minute individual entries, using nothing more than two pages, 300 words and one picture. Divided into seven chapters, it includes the atomic details of the other 68 elements and the relationships of all 118, as well as biographies of the chemists who transformed scientific knowledge and unlocked the mysteries of life itself. Illustrated with explosive graphics, here is the quickest way to know your arsenic from your europium".
Emili Besalú, Departament de Química i Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisis, Universitat de Girona, C/Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 69, 17071 Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (8), pp 1009–1013
Publication Date (Web)
"A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification. From the information given, the whole procedure can be reproduced by any interested reader having a basic background in statistics and with the help of the supplementary material provided. Intermediate calculations are instructive because they quantify several concepts the students know only at a qualitative level. The final scores representation reveals an unexpected periodic table presenting some interesting features and points for discussion."
Since 1993 – and with its rather bland interface – WebElements has given access to vast quantities of in depth chemical data & information. This is the professional chemist's periodic table:
Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table is undoubtedly the most attractive PT available in web space, but there is more. Clicking around the website gives access to a host of information, pictures & anecdotes from Theo's extraordinary and extensive collection of chemical elements:
Ptable has a super-slick, and very fast interface. It is data/information rich and is available in 50 languages:
Five Formulations Showing The History & Development
But, it was Mendeleev's Tabelle I that was first near complete periodic table formulation of the then known elements (no Group 18 rare gasses, note). Crucially, Mendeleev identified gaps and was able to make predictions about the chemical properties of the missing substances. Plus, Mendeleev promoted his ideas with great energy:
Werner's 1905 Periodic Table is remarkably modern looking. The formulation is a long form that separates transition metals and rare earths, but he guessed wrong on how many existed:
Janet's Left Step formulation of 1928 is one for the purists as it clearly shows the chemical elements arranged into s, p, d & f-blocks of the recently developed quantum mechanical description of atomic structure:
The long form and medium form PTs have electronegativity trending from top-right (electronegative) to bottom left (electropositive), and many aspects of periodicity corollate with electronegativity: atomic radius, first ionisation energy, etc.
Thus, the long form and medium form periodic tables are commonly used in the classroom:
An Alternative Formulation
The internet database contains many, many alternative formulations, and these are often spiral and/or three dimensional. These exemplified by the 1965Alexander DeskTopper Arrangement. To see the variety of formulations available, check out the Spiral & Helical and 3-Dimensional formulations in the database:
The periodic table as a motif is a useful and commonly used infographic template for arranging many types of object with, from 50 to 150 members.
There are numerous examples in the Non-Chemistry section where dozens of completely random representations can be found:
Rogue Elements: What's Wrong with the Periodic Table
An article in New Scientist by Celeste Biever (news editor at Nature), Image by Martin Reznik
Weights gone awry, elements changing position, the ructions of relativity – chemistry's iconic chart is far from stable, and no one knows where it will end
IF IMITATION is the sincerest form of flattery, the periodic table has many true admirers. Typefaces, types of meat and even the Muppets have been ordered in its image. For chemists, knowing an element's position in the periodic table, and the company it keeps, is still the most reliable indicator of its properties – and a precious guide in the search for new substances. "It rivals Darwin's Origin of Species in terms of the impact of bringing order out of chaos," says Peter Edwards of the University of Oxford.
The origins of the periodic table lie in the 19th century, when chemists noticed that patterns began to emerge among the known chemical elements when they... click here to continue:
Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts
A series of BBC World Service Radio Programs, available as MP3 Podcasts, talking about the chemical elements with a strong business/technology bias, rather than the more usual chemical or historical approach:
"As a young boy, neurologist, author and Radiolab favorite Oliver Sacks pored over the pages of the Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, fantasizing about the day that he, like the shy gas Xenon, would find a companion with whom to connect and share. That companion turned out to be the Periodic Table of the Elements itself, a relationship he's never outgrown. He introduces us to the elements that he's known and loved."
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a multimedia project about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long (and continuing) quest to understand what the world is made of – to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. In a nutshell, the project is about the human story behind the Periodic Table of the Elements.
The centerpiece of the project is a three-hour series that premieres Aug. 19, 2015 on PBS. The Mystery of Matter introduces viewers to some of history’s most extraordinary scientists:
Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen—and radical interpretation of it—led to the modern science of chemistry
Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements
Dmitri Mendeleev, whose Periodic Table brought order to the growing gaggle of elements
Marie Curie, whose groundbreaking research on radioactivity cracked open a window into the atom
Henry Moseley, whose investigation of atomic number redefined the Periodic Table
Glenn Seaborg, whose discovery of plutonium opened up a whole new realm of elements, still being explored today.
The Mystery of Matter will show not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists’ own words, and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together into a coherent, compelling whole is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor best known for his roles on Lost and Person of Interest. Eric Scerri appears as the expert.
The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev attempted nothing less than to pull apart the fabric of reality and expose the hidden patterns that lie beneath everything in existence, from shoes and ships and sealing wax to cabbages and kings. The result was something known to almost everyone who has ever been to school: the Periodic Table of the elements. But why this particular arrangement? And why is it still the foundation of chemistry?
The presenter Quentin Cooper is joined by:
Hugh Aldersey-Williams, who since he was a teenager, has collected samples of elements and has drawn on his samples and knowledge to write Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements.
Michael Gordin, Professor of History at Princeton University and the author of A Well-Ordered Thing: Dmitri Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table.
Ann Robinson, Historian at the University of Massachusetts studying the development of the periodic table.
Eugene Babaev, Professor of Chemistry at Moscow State University who maintains both Russian and English websites on Mendeleev and his work.