The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
- By Decade
- By Type
Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/Left-Step Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity
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Books & Reviews about the Periodic Table of the Elements, by date:
von Richter's Periodic System of the Elements
From page 244 of A Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry by Victor von Richter, Published by Blakiston (US ed. in English, 1885). The full text (scanned) is available from archive.org. The first edition was published in 1874 in German. von Richter was was from the Baltic region, in the the Russian empire at the time.
von Richter's work is almost certainly the first chemistry textbook based on the periodic system. Many (indeed most) modern Inorganic Chemistry texts follow this format, but NOT the Chemogenesis web book!
von Richter, writes:
Thanks to René for the tip!
Venable's The Development of The Periodic Law
The Development of the Periodic Law by Venable, Francis Preston (1856-1934), Easton, Pa. Chemical Pub. Co (1896).
Thanks to René for the tip!
Garrett's The Periodic Law
A book reviewing The Periodic Law by A.E. Garrett, pub. D. Appelton & Co (1909). This work shows the state of knowledge in the first decade of the 20th century.
René Vernon writes:
"On page 43 Garrett notes that, '[Thomas] Carnelley was the first English chemist to work out in detail the manner in which the properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic weights. His papers on this subject appeared in the Philosophical Magazine between the years 1879 and 1885.' "
Quam & Quam's Graphical Representations of The Elements
- Mendeléeff's Table (their spelling, 1872)
- Brauner's Table (1902)
- Rydberg Table (1913)
- Periodic Chart by Quam (1934)
- Rang's Periodic Table (1893)
- Werner's Periodic Table (1905)
- Courtines' Periodic Classification (1925)
- Bayley's Periodic System (1882)
- Adam's Periodic Chart (1911)
- Margary's Periodic Table (1921)
- Stareck's Natural Periodic System (1932)
- Baumhauer's Spiral (1870)
- Erdmann's Spiral Table (1902)
- Nodder's Periodic Table (1920)
- Partington's Periodic Arrangements of the Elements (1920)
- Janet's Helicodial Classification (1929)
- The Telluric Screw (1863)
- Crookes' Periodic Table model (1898)
- Emerson's Helix (1911)
- Periodic Table by Harkins and Hall (1916)
- Schaltenbrand's Periodic Table (1920)
- Rixon's Diagram of the Periodic Table (1933)
- Spring's Diagram (1881)
- Flavitzky's Arrangement (1887)
- Stephenson's Statistical Periodic Table (1929)
- Friend's Periodic System (1927)
- Many others, including: Vogel (1918), Stintzing (1916) and Caswell (1929) are discribed without the benefit diagrams.
Mazurs' Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years
Edward Mazurs, Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years, University of Alabama Press, 1957.
There is an internet archive: Edward G. Mazurs Collection of Periodic Systems Images.
This book gives a very full analysis and classification of periodic table formulations. Most of the formulations are redrawn.
However, anybody who is seriously interested in periodic table formulations will want to see/read/own this book. Read more about Mazrus on the Elements Unearthed blog.
Mazurs' Valence Periodic Table (1974, p.94)
Mazurs' Periodic Table (1974, p. 95)
Mazurs' 1955 Formulation (1974, p. 44)
Mazurs' 1958-73 Formulation (1974, endpaper)
Mazurs' 1965 Formulation (1974, p/ 134)
Mazurs' 1967 Formulation (1974. Inside front cover)
Mazurs' other 1967 Formulation (1974, p. 126)
Mazurs' another 1967 Formulation (1974, p. 134)
Mazurs' Periodic System of Chemical Elements (1974, end foldout)
Mazurs' Version of Janet's "Lemniscate" Formulation (1974, p.80)
Marzus' Wooden Version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table (Chem. Heritage Foundn.)
Mazurs' PT Formulation Analysis (1974, pp.15-16)
Many thanks to Philip Stewart for preparing the links table above.
Galaxy of Elements [Discovered] by Swedish Scientists
Uploaded by request of Fathi Habashi, an historical video on elements discovered by Swedish scientists.
The film is in the Swedish film database, where it is named: Atomernas vintergata and is dated 1963:
1969 van Spronsen's The Periodic System of Chemical Elements: A History of the First Hundred Years
J. W. van Spronsen, The Periodic System of Chemical Elements: A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier 1969
This book gives a good review and discussion of periodic table formulations. Anybody who is seriously interested in periodic table formulations will want to see/read/own this book.
Mendeleevian Conference, Periodicity and Symmetries in the Elementary Structure of Matter
Atti del Convegno mendeleeviano : periodicità e simmetrie nella struttura elementare della materia : Torino-Roma, 15-21 settembre 1969 / [editor M. Verde] Torino : Accademia delle Scienze di Torino ; Roma : Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1971 VIII, 460 p.
Google Translate: Proceedings of the Mendeleevian Conference: periodicity and symmetries in the elementary structure of matter: Turin-Rome, 15-21 September 1969 / [editor M. Verde] Turin: Turin Academy of Sciences; Rome: National Academy of the Lincei, 1971 VIII, 460 p.
From the Internet Archive, the scanned book. Papers are in Italian & English.For the 100th Anniversary of Mendeleev's iconic periodic table, a conference was held to look at (review) the elementary structure of matter. The 1960s saw huge developments in particle physics, including the theory of quarks. Papers were presented by many notable scientists including John Archibald Wheeler and the Nobel laureates: Emilio Segrè & Murray Gell-Mann.
Thanks to René for the tip!
Primo Levi's Elements
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Seaborg's "How the Periodic Table Evolved Over 40 Years" (1939 – 1979)
From the C&EN paper THE PERIODIC TABLE: Tortuous path to man-made elements 57, 1979, pp 46-52.
Until World War II, the three heaviest known elements – thorium, protactinium & uranium – were believed to be related to hafnium, tantalum & tungsten respectively. Similarly, elements 93 to 100 were expected to fit neatly into the periodic table:
Synthesis and study of the transuranic elements – neptunium & plutonium – indicated that these new elements were "cousins" of uranium and in 1944 should be placed into a new "uranide" group.
Subsequently (1944/45), Seaborg advanced the theory that elements heavier than actinium actually constitute a distinct "actinide" group that mirrors the lanthanide rare-earth group:
Finally, Seaborg postulated what a future periodic table, up to Z = 168, may look like:
Chemical Slide Rules
The first chemical slide rules are of interest here because they are, in effect, early periodic tables. But the are more than this, as they can be used for performing chemical calculations. Writing in Bull. Hist. Chem. 12 (1992) (and here), William D. Williams of Harding University writes:
"An article by George Bodner in the Winter 1990 issue of the Bulletin described a rare chemical slide rule designed by Lewis C. Beck and Joseph Henry - their little-known Improved Scale of Chemical Equivalents. [My] paper attempts to place this slide rule in context by describing its origins, as well as some of its predecessors and successors."
Some chemical slide rules mentioned in the text:
- Chemist's Adjustable Duplex Slide Rule made by Keuffel & Esser Co., n.d., ca. 1936-1940. Here are the full instructions for use.
Nagayasu Nawa writes and provides an explanation as how Wollaston's chemical equivalents slide rules should be used:
"It is very interesting slide rule for me. Because we actually used slide rule in 1960s. There were not the electronic calculator in the world. I think it would be used as a simple slide rule of The Law of Definite Proportions by J.L. Proust 1799."
- '10 water', for example, may be hydrating water in chemical compound
- 'Chlorine' may be HClO: HCl(35) + O(10) = HClO(45), etc.
Click image to enlarge:
Thanks to Nawa for the tip!
Elements & Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry
Carmen Giunta of Le Moyne College Department of Chemistry has collected many of the original papers plus commentary dealing with eighteenth and nineteenth century science in a web book called Elements and Atoms: Case Studies in the Development of Chemistry. This web resource is highly recommended:
Concept of Chemical Periodicity
Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin
The paper "The Concepts of Periodicity and Hyper-Periodicity: from Atoms to Molecules" was published as a the book: Concepts in Chemistry: a Contemporary Challenge. (Ed. D.Rouvray). Research Studies Press, London, 1996, pp. 24-81.
The website, here, is the original text of this paper (copyright by the authors).
The text deals with periodicity in isotopes, atoms and materials.
Seaborg's Evolution of the Modern Periodic Table
By Glenn T. Seaborg, from J. Chem. SOC., Dalton Trans., 1996, Pages 3899-3907:
"In this review, the evolution of the Modern Periodic Table is traced beginning with the original version of Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869.Emphasis is placed on the upper end with a description of the revision to accommodate the actinide series of elements at the time of World War II and the more recent research on the observed and predicted chemical properties of the transactinide elements (beyond atomic number 103).A Modern Periodic Table includes undiscovered elements up to atomic number 118 and a Futuristic Periodic Table with additional undiscovered elements up to atomic number 168 is included."
Dave Trapp' Development of the Periodic Chart
Dave Trapp also has a web site dealing with the origin of the names of the elements:
Jensen Article: The Periodic Law and Table
From William (Bill) Jensen's website, an article: The Periodic Law and Table (written for Britannica on Line, Encyclopaedia Britannica: Chicago, lL, 2000, but never published. ).
Wikipedia Periodic Table
The Wikipedia Periodic Table pages are astonishing, giving hyper-linked data about:
Rouvray & King's The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century
D. H Rouvray and R. B. King (ed.), The Periodic Table: Into the 21st Century, Research Studies Press 2004.
Peter van der Krogt's Elementymology & Elements Multidict
Peter van der Krogt's Elementymology & Elements Multidict, the web site for element names, origins (etymology) of element names and translations into other languages.
Sistema Periódico Armonico de Gutierrez-Samanez
A digitised 2004 book by book by Julio Gutiérrez-Samanez.
"These matrix tables are inspired by the method used by the Peruvian chemist Oswaldo Baca Mendoza (1908-1962).
"The tables are read in this way: The Law of Formation of nuclei generates all the horizontal series Z, is dependent on n (series of integers numbers) and a constant K = 1. In the step-to-right tables (n) it will be equal to or greater than 0. In Janet's Left-Step table, (n) will be less than or equal to (-1). The values of this series Z will serve as a constant for the second law.
"The Group Formation Law or vertical series. Its generate the numeric values of the columns either from left to right or from right to left. In system A -1: With the first law: n = 0, then Z = 1. The vertical series Zg = 1, 3 11, 19, 37, 55, 87 ... That is: 1H, 3Li, 11Na, 19K, 37Rb, 55Cs, 87Fr, 119, 169 ... Changing the values of n or Z, all the columns of the table will be obtained.
"In system A -2: With the first law: on the left, n = -1, then Z = 0. The vertical series Zg will be: 2He, 10Ne, 18Ar, 36Kr, 54Xe, 86Rn, 118Og, 168, 218. .. Similarly, changing the n or Z values, we can fills the columns of the table. In system B -1: With the first law: for n = 0, then Z = 1. The vertical series Zg will be; 1H, 3Li, 5B, 13Al, 21Sc, 39Y, 57La, 89Ac, 121, 171 ... By varying the values of n or Z, the entire table is filled. In system B -2: (Its mathematizes the Janet system). With the first law: on the left, for n = -1, then Z = 0.
"The vertical series Zg will be; 2He, 4Be, 12Mg, 20Ca, 38Sr, 56Ba, 88Ra, 120, 170, 220 ... By varying the values of n or Z, the entire table is filled. The third law of the limiting the periods or periodic law, appears graphically, by comparison between rows: For example: in table B -1, in column Z = 3, after 1H and 2He, en of the first horizontal line, the value 3 appears, which is already entered in the first column as 3Li, therefore, that part of the first horizontal row (from 3 to 50) is deleted.
"The same happens with the number 5 in column 3, which is already in the first column as 5B, therefore it will be deleted in the second row from 5 to 52. The same applies to pair 13, 21 of the column Z = 9, same, with the pair 39, 57 of the column Z = 19 and of the pair 89, 121 of the column Z = 33. For that reason the periods: P are duplicated function: 2 (1 ^ 2), 2 (1 ^ 2), 2 (2 ^ 2), 2 (2 ^ 2), 2 (3 ^ 2), 2 (3 ^ 2) .... = 2, 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32 ... and the forms are exact and staggered. The colors represent the quantum functions: s (red), p (orange), d (yellow), f (green), g (blue)."
Henry Bent's Exploration into Janet's Left-Step Formulation
Henry Ben't detailed exploration into the Left-Step formulation of the periodic table is available as a book:
Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, 2006. Read an interview with the author, here, and a review of the book here.
Periodic Table Radio Show "The Music of Matter"
Periodic Table Radio Show "The Music of Matter" featuring John Emsley, Oliver Sacks & Eric Scerri
Roy Alexander, inventor of the "Desk-Topper" 3-dimensional formulation has developed a rich periodic table resource.. available at Allperiodictables.com.
Chemistry In Its Element
Introducing Chemistry in its element, a tour of the periodic table.
A leading scientist or author tells the stories behind the elements in a five minute podcast.
Podcasts to Download:
The Elements Unearthed is a blog by David V Black concerning "Our Discovery and Usage of the Chemical Elements".
Braille Guidebook Interactive Periodic Table Study Set
Azer's Interactive Periodic Table Study Set is designed to make learning about the Periodic Table of the Elements accessible to students with visual impairments or blindness.
The tangible materials included with this study set complement APH's Periodic Table of the Elements Reference Chart and allow students to enhance their understanding of concepts consistent with the National Science Standards.
Inspired by Samir Azer, a science teacher at the Kentucky School for the Blind, this set can assist in the instruction and demonstration of concepts related to the arrangement of the periodic table, atomic structure, ionic and covalent bonding, and balancing of chemical equations to students who benefit from a hands-on, interactive model.
Special attention was given to make the materials tactually discriminable and visually appealing to the target population, yet appropriate for all students regardless of visual acuity:
Mathematical Formulas Describing the Sequences of the Periodic Table
Mathematical formulas describing all of the sequences of the chemical elements are derived from double tetrahedron face-centered cubic lattice model. More here.
J. Garai, Department of Earth Sciences, Florida International University. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry, Vol 108, 667-670 (2008):
Scerri's Selected Papers on The Periodic Table
Edited by Eric Scerri (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)
Published by: Imperial College Press in London
The book contains key articles by Eric Scerri, the leading authority on the history and philosophy of the periodic table of the elements. These articles explore a range of topics such as the historical evolution of the periodic system as well as its philosophical status and its relationship to modern quantum physics. In this present volume, many of the more in-depth research papers, which formed the basis for this publication, are presented in their entirety; they have also been published in highly accessible science magazines (such as American Scientist), and journals in history and philosophy of science, as well as quantum chemistry. This must-have publication is completely unique as there is nothing of this form currently available on the market.
- Chemistry, Spectroscopy, and the Question of Reduction
- The Electronic Configuration Model, Quantum Mechanics and Reduction
- The Periodic Table and the Electron
- How Good is the Quantum Mechanical Explanation of the Periodic System
- Prediction and the Periodic Table
- Löwdin's Remarks on the Aufbau Principle and a Philosopher's View of Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry
- Mendeleev's Legacy
- The Role of Triads in the Evolution of the Periodic Table: Past and Present
- The Past and Future of the Periodic Table
- The Dual Sense of the Term "Elements", Attempts to Derive the Madelung Rule, and the Optimal Form of the Periodic Table, If Any
Readership: Academic readers: philosophers and science historians, science educators, chemists and physicists. 200pp (approx.) Pub. date: Scheduled Fall 2009
200pp (approx.) Pub. date: Scheduled Fall 2009
1-84816-425-4 US$88 / £66
Gray's The Elements
As Theo (modestly... ) says:
"Much anticipated (by me at least), this is the definitive be-all, end-all book of the elements. Like my poster, it contains beautiful photographs of all the chemical elements, shining out from a deep black background. But unlike my poster, it's not limited to just one picture per element. Instead each element gets a whole 2-page spread. At 10" x 20" (25cm x 50cm), each spread is as large as the whole place mat version of my poster! And several of the more popular elements even get two spreads. There are literally hundreds and hundreds of photos in this book, nearly all of them taken by myself and my co-author Nick Mann of objects in my collection."
Read more here.
Graphic Representations of the Periodic System
Mary E. Saecker writes an article in Chemical Education Digital Library, Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations: Graphic Representations of the Periodic System, that reviews some periodic table formunations.
The paper contains a link to this pdf file which gives templates and instructions for several print, cut-out & build periodic table formulations:
Supplement to: Periodic Table Presentations and Inspirations by Mary E. Saecker, J. Chem. Educ., 2009, 86, 1151.
Construction Directions A Cut-Out Chart of the Periodic System (Periodic Table Cylinder)
Before & After Mendeleev: Periodic Table Videos
Two videos by the Chemical Heritage Foundation:
- Part 1 Before Mendeleev (17min) covers the events leading up to Mendeleev's invention of the periodic table, including the work of several precursors such as de Chancourtois, Newlands, Odling, Hinrichs, and Meyer.
- Part 2 Mendeleeve & Beyond (20 min). The second part covers Mendeleev's working out of his periodic system and the work of his successors, as well as some interesting questions such as whether the periodic table can be entirely deduced from quantum mechanics and the mystery of the Knight's Move pattern of properties.
The videos feature interviews with Dr. Eric Scerri of UCLA, with added narration, animations, illustrations, photos, captions, etc. by David V. Black as well as publication artwork and notes by Edward G. Mazurs.
"The Periodic Table is one of our crowning scientific achievements, but it's also a treasure trove of passion, adventure, betrayal, and obsession. The fascinating tales in The Disappearing Spoon follow carbon, neon, silicon, gold, and every single element on the table as they play out their parts in human history, finance, mythology, conflict, the arts, medicine, and the lives of the (frequently) mad scientists who discovered them: Why did a little lithium help cure poet Robert Lowell of his madness? And how did Gallium (Ga, 31) become the go-to element for laboratory pranksters?"
"The Disappearing Spoon has the answers, fusing science with the classic lore of invention, investigation, discovery, and alchemy, from the Big Bang through the end of time."
Rare Earths in the Periodic Table
CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis by Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans (ISBN: 978-0-444-53590-0):
Curious Lives of the Elements: Periodic Tales
Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements by Hugh Aldersey-Williams and published by Viking, ISBN: 9780670918119.
Everything is made of them, from the furthest reaches of the universe to this book that you hold in your hands, including you.
Like you, the elements have lives: personalities and attitudes, talents and shortcomings, stories rich with meaning. You may think of them as the inscrutable letters of the periodic table but you know them much better than you realise.
Welcome to a dazzling tour through history and literature, science and art. Here you'll meet iron that rains from the heavens and noble gases that light the way to vice. You'll learn how lead can tell your future while zinc may one day line your coffin. You'll discover what connects the bones in your body with the Whitehouse in Washington, the glow of a streetlamp with the salt on your dinner table.
From ancient civilisations to contemporary culture, from the oxygen of publicity to the phosphorus in your pee, the elements are near and far and all around us. Unlocking their astonishing secrets and colourful pasts, Periodic Tales will take you on a voyage of wonder and discovery, excitement and novelty, beauty and truth. Along the way, you'll find that their stories are our stories, and their lives are inextricable from our own.
Dufour's Periodic Tree: Two Short Films
Scerri's Very Short Introduction To The Periodic Table
A book by Eric Scerri, The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction.
- Considers the fundamental nature of the periodic table to the physical sciences
- Explores the history of the discovery of trends among elements, to the construction of various forms of the table, and the growth of understanding of its meaning
- Touches on key ideas about both early atomic theory and quantum mechanics, showing how they have proved key to the meaning of the table
- Ideal for those who are curious to learn more about the periodic table and essential for any student of physics and chemistry
- Part of the Very Short Introduction series - over three million copies sold worldwide:
ericscerri.com is the personal internet domain and website of Eric Scerri: chemist and leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of the periodic table. He is founder and editor-in-chief of the international journal Foundations of Chemistry, which publishes academic papers concerned with the PT, and is the author of the respected book: The Periodic Table and Its Significance (Oxford University Press, 2007).
The website has links to all of Eric's extensive publications, including online video lectures and interviews and external links.
A Tale of 7 Elements
A new book by Eric Scerri: A Tale of 7 Elements about seven 'missing' elements: protactinium, hafnium, rhenium, technetium, francium, astatine, promethium:
Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System
From Eric Scerri's forthcoming book A Tale of Seven Elements (Oxford University Press, 2013) and used by permission of the author, is the most complete and up-to-date list of Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System, including some titles in foreign languages.
Additional books in other languages can be found listed in Mazurs, 1974
- H. Alderesey-Williams, Periodic Tales, Viking Press, 2011
- N.P. Agafoshin, Ley Periódica y Sistema Periódico de los Elementos de Mendeleiev, Ed. Reverté S.A., Barcelona, 1977
- I. Asimov, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Lancer Books, New York, 1966
- P.W. Atkins, The Periodic Kingdom, Basic Books, New York, NY, 1995
- O. Baca Mendoza, Leyes Geneticas de los Elementos Quimicos. Nuevo Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Cuzco, Cuzco, Peru, 1953
- P. Ball, A Guided Tour of the Ingredients, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002
- P. Ball, A Very Short Introduction to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2004
- I. Barber, Sorting The Elements: The Periodic Table at Work, Rourke Publishing, Vero Beach, Florida, US, 2008
- R. Baum (ed), Celebrating the Periodic Table, Chemical & Engineering News, A Special Collector's Issue, September 8, 2003
- H.A. Bent, New Ideas in Chemistry from Fresh Energy for the Periodic Law, Author House, Bloomington IN, 2006
- J. Bernstein, Plutonium, Joseph Henry, Washington DC, 2007
- J. C.A. Boeyens, D.C. Lavendis, Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter, Springer, Berlin, 2008
- N. Bohr, Collected Works Vol 4. The Periodic System (1920-1923), Nielsen J Rud (Editor), North Holland Publishing Company, 1977
- T. Bondora, The Periodic Table of Elements Coloring Book, Bondora Educational Media Publications, 2010
- D.G. Cooper, The Periodic Table, 3rd edition. Butterworths, London, 1964
- P.A. Cox, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989
- P. Depovere, La Classification périodique des éléments, De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2002
- H. Dingle and G.R. Martin, Chemistry and Beyond: Collected Essays of F.A. Paneth, Interscience, New York, NY, 1964
- S. Dockx, Theorie Fondamentale du Systeme Periodique des Elements, Office Internationale de Librairie, Bruxelles, 1950
- A. Ducrocq, Les éléments au pouvoir, Julliard, Paris, 1976
- A. Ede, The Chemical Elements, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006
- J. Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition. Clarendon, Oxford University Press, 1998
- J. Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001
- P. Enghag, Encyclopedia of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004
- D.E. Fisher, Much Ado About (Practically) Nothing, The History of the Noble Gases, Oxford University Press, New York, 2010
- I. Freund, The Study of Chemical Composition: An Account of its Method and Historical Development, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, NY, 1968
- J. García-Sancho & F. Ortega-Chicote, Periodicidad Química, Trillas, México, 1984
- A. E. Garrett, The Periodic Law, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1909
- L. Garzon Ruiperez, De Mendeleiev a Los Superelementos, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, 1988
- L. Gonik, C. Criddle, The Cartoon Guide to Chemistry, Harper Resource, New York, 2005
- M. Gordin, A Well-Ordered Thing, Dimitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table, Basic Books, New York, 2004
- T. Gray, The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009
- D. Green, The Elements, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Scholastic Inc. New York, 2012
- R. Hefferlin, Periodic Systems and their Relation to the Systematic Analysis of Molecular Data, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1989
- D.L. Heiserman, Exploring the Chemical Elements and their Compounds, McGraw-Hill New York, 1991
- S. Hofmann, Beyond Uranium, Taylor & Francis, London, 2002
- F. Hund, Linienspektren und Periodisches System der Elemente, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin, 1927
- W.B. Jensen, Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869-1905, Dover, Mineola, NY, 2005
- S. Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown & Co., New York, 2010
- D.M. Knight, Classical Scientific Papers, Chemistry Second Series, American, Elsevier, New York, NY
- P.K. Kuroda, The Origin of the Chemical Elements, and the Oklo Phenomenon, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982
- H.M. Leicester and H.S. Klickstein, A Source Book in Chemistry 1400-1900, 1st Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., London, 1952
- M.F. L'Annunziata, Radioactivity, Introduction and History, Elsevier, 2007
- S.E.V. Lemus, Clasificación periódica de Mendelejew, Guatemalan Ministry of Public Education, Guatemala, 1959
- P. Levi, The Periodic Table, 1st American Edition. Schocken Books, New York, NY, 1984
- R. Luft, Dictionnaire des Corps Simples de la Chimie, Association Cultures et Techniques, Nantes, 1997
- J. Marshall, Discovery of the Elements, Pearson Custom Publishing, 1998
- E. Mazurs, Graphic Representation of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, Alabama University Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1974
- D. Mendeleeff, An Attempt Towards A Chemical Conception of the Ether, translated by G. Kamensky. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1904
- D. Mendeleeff, The Principles of Chemistry, translated by G. Kamensky, 5th Edition, vol. 2. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1891
- L. Meyer, Modern Theories of Chemistry, 5th Edition, translated by P.P. Bedson, Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1888
- L. Meyer, Outlines of Theoretical Chemistry, 2nd Edition, translated by P.P. Bedson and W.C. William. Longmans, Green, and Co., London, 1899
- F. Mohr, (E), Gold Chemistry, Wiley-VCH, 2009
- D. Morris, The Last Sorcerers, The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table, Joseph Henry Press, New York, 2003
- I. Nechaev, G.W. Jenkins, The Chemical Elements, Tarquin Publications, Norfolk, UK, 1997
- R.D. Osorio Giraldo, M.V. Alzate Cano, La Tabla Periodica, Bogota, Colombia, 2010
- M.J. Pentz, (General Editor), The Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding, Open University Press, Bletchley, Buckinghamshire, UK, 1971
- I.V. Peryanov, D.N. Trifonov, Elementary Order: Mendeleev's Periodic System, translated from the Russian by Nicholas Weinstein, Mir Publishers, Moscow, 1984
- J.S.F. Pode, The Periodic Table, John Wiley, New York, NY, 1971
- R.J. Puddephatt, The Periodic Table of the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972
- R.J. Puddephatt and P.K. Monaghan, The Periodic Table of the Elements, 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1986
- H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007
- E. Rabinowitsch, E. Thilo, Periodisches System, Geschichte und Theorie, Stuttgart, 1930
- R. Rich, Periodic Correlations, Benjamin, New York, 1965
- J. Ridgen, Hydrogen, The Essential Element, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002
- H. Rossotti, Diverse Atoms, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998
- D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Periodic Table Into the 21st Century, Research Studies Press, Baldock, UK, 2004
- D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Mathematics of the Periodic Table, Nova Scientific Publishers, New York, 2006
- G. Rudorf, The Periodic Classification and the Problem of Chemical Evolution, Whittaker & Co., London, New York, 1900
- G. Rudorf, Das periodische System, seine Geschichte und Bedeutung für die chemische Sysytematik, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1904
- O. Sacks, Uncle Tungsten, Vintage Books, New York, 2001
- R.T. Sanderson, Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements, School Technical Publishers, Ann Arbor, MI, 1971
- S. E. Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009
- E.R. Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007
- E.R. Scerri, Selected Papers on the Periodic Table, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore, 2009
- E.R. Scerri, A Very Short Introduction to the Periodic Table, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011; Also translated into Spanish and Arabic.
- E.R. Scerri, Le Tableau Périodique, Son Histoire et sa Signification, EDP Sciences, 2011, (translated by R. Luft); Japanese Translation by Hisao Mabuchi et. al.
- C. Schmidt, Das periodische System der chemischen Elementen, Leipzig, 1917.
- G.T. Seaborg, W.D. Loveland, The Elements Beyond Uranium, Wiley, New York, 1990
- M.S. Sethi, M. Satake, Periodic Tables and Periodic Properties, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India, 1992
- H.H. Sisler, Electronic Structure, Properties, and the Periodic Law, Reinhold, New York, 1963
- P. Strathern, Mendeleyev's Dream, Hamish-Hamilton, London, 1999
- R.S. Timmreck, The Power of the Periodic Table, Royal Palm Publishing, 1991
- M. Tweed, Essential Elements, Walker and Company, New York, 2003
- F.P. Venable, The Development of the Periodic Law, Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA, 1896
- M.E. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, Journal of Chemical Education, Easton PA, 1960
- B.D. Wilker, The Mystery of the Periodic Table, Bethlehem Books, New York, 2003
- J. Van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969
- T. Zoellner, Uranium, Penguin Books, London, 2009
- A. Zwertska, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998
Works by D. I. Mendeleev
- Nauchnyi arkhiv. Periodicheskii zakon, t. I, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1953
- Periodicheskii zakon. Dopolnitel'nye materialy. Klassiki nauki, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1960
- Periodicheskii zakon. Klassiki nauki, ed. B. M. Kedrov. Moscow: Izd. AN SSSR, 1958
Eric Scerri's Lecture on The Periodic Table
A lecture by Eric Scerri at the Oscar Peterson auditorium of Concordia University, in Montreal.
The topic is the history and iconic nature of the Periodic Table, in high quality video, about one hour:
Wonderful Life with the Elements
In this super periodic table, every element is a unique character whose properties are represented visually: heavy elements are fat, man-made elements are robots, and noble gases sport impressive afros. Every detail is significant, from the length of an element's beard to the clothes on its back. You'll also learn about each element's discovery, its common uses, and other vital stats like whether it floats - or explodes - in water.
There is also a full review with more images from Wired.
Scientific American: The Quest for the Periodic Table
From Scientific American, a series of original articles (scanned) dealing with the development of the periodic table dating from 1861 to 1998.
Edited by Eric Scerri.
Eric Scerri Lecture, Dedicated to Fernando Dufour
Dr. Eric Scerri from the Chemistry Department at UCLA giving a distinguished invited lecture at the Oscar Peterson auditorium of Concordia University, in Montreal. The topic is the history and iconic nature of the Periodic Table.
Electronegativity Chart (Leach)
Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.
When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:
30 Second Elements
"30 Second Elements presents you with the foundations of chemical knowledge, distilling the 50 most significant chemical elements into half-a-minute individual entries, using nothing more than two pages, 300 words and one picture. Divided into seven chapters, it includes the atomic details of the other 68 elements and the relationships of all 118, as well as biographies of the chemists who transformed scientific knowledge and unlocked the mysteries of life itself. Illustrated with explosive graphics, here is the quickest way to know your arsenic from your europium".
The curator of this website is a contributor:
From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement
A paper in J.Chem. Ed.: From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement
Emili Besalú, Departament de Química i Institut de Química Computacíonal i Catàlisis, Universitat de Girona, C/Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 69, 17071 Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (8), pp 1009-1013 DOI: 10.1021/ed3004534 Publication Date (Web)
"A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification. From the information given, the whole procedure can be reproduced by any interested reader having a basic background in statistics and with the help of the supplementary material provided. Intermediate calculations are instructive because they quantify several concepts the students know only at a qualitative level. The final scores representation reveals an unexpected periodic table presenting some interesting features and points for discussion."
Top 10 Periodic Tables
There are more than 1000 periodic tables hosted by the Chemogenesis Webbook Periodic Table database, so it can be a little difficult to find the exceptional ones.
Here we present – in our humble opinion – The ten most significant periodic tables in the database.
We present the best:
- Three best data rich periodic tables
- Five formulations which show the development of the modern PT
- One, of many, interesting alternative formulations
- One example of the periodic table being used as an infographic template
Three Excellent, Data Rich Periodic Tables
The first three of our top 10 periodic tables are classic element data repositories.
They all work in the same way: click on the element symbol to get data/information about the selected element. The three are Mark Winter's WebElements, Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table & Michael Dayah's Ptable.
- Since 1993 – and with its rather bland interface – WebElements has given access to vast quantities of in depth chemical data & information. This is the professional chemist's periodic table:
- Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table is undoubtedly the most attractive PT available in web space, but there is more. Clicking around the website gives access to a host of information, pictures & anecdotes from Theo's extraordinary and extensive collection of chemical elements:
- Ptable has a super-slick, and very fast interface. It is data/information rich and is available in 50 languages:
Five Formulations Showing The History & Development
The next five examples deal with history and development Periodic Table. The first is Dalton's 1808 list of elements, next is Mendeleev's 1869 Tabelle I, then Werner's remarkably modern looking 1905 formulation. This is followed by Janet's Left Step formulation and then a discussion of how and why the commonly used medium form PT formulation, is constructed.
- There are several early listings of chemical substances, including Valentinus' Alchemy Table and Lavoisier's Table of Simple Substances (1789). In 1803 Dalton proposed that matter consists of discrete atoms that combine in fixed ratios, stoichiometry, to form chemical elements. Thus, Dalton's list of chemical elements, plus mass data, must be included in any top ten listing:
- If you examine the periodic tables from Antiquity to 1899, you will see that from about 1830 onwards, proto-periodic tables were coming thick and fast. Significant developments include: Daubeny's Teaching Display Board of Atomic Weights (1831), Chancourtois Telluric Helix (1862) and Newlands octaves (1864).
But, it was Mendeleev's Tabelle I that was first near complete periodic table formulation of the then known elements (no Group 18 rare gasses, note). Crucially, Mendeleev identified gaps and was able to make predictions about the chemical properties of the missing substances. Plus, Mendeleev promoted his ideas with great energy:
- Werner's 1905 Periodic Table is remarkably modern looking. The formulation is a long form that separates transition metals and rare earths, but he guessed wrong on how many existed:
- Janet's Left Step formulation of 1928 is one for the purists as it clearly shows the chemical elements arranged into s, p, d & f-blocks of the recently developed quantum mechanical description of atomic structure:
- The modern (and commonly employed) periodic table is obtained by transforming Janet's Left Step into the modern long form periodic table by rearranging the blocks around. This transformational mapping is discussed in some detail here.
The long form and medium form PTs have electronegativity trending from top-right (electronegative) to bottom left (electropositive), and many aspects of periodicity corollate with electronegativity: atomic radius, first ionisation energy, etc.
Thus, the long form and medium form periodic tables are commonly used in the classroom:
An Alternative Formulation
The internet database contains many, many alternative formulations, and these are often spiral and/or three dimensional. These exemplified by the 1965 Alexander DeskTopper Arrangement. To see the variety of formulations available, check out the Spiral & Helical and 3-Dimensional formulations in the database:
The periodic table as a motif is a useful and commonly used infographic template for arranging many types of object with, from 50 to 150 members.
There are numerous examples in the Non-Chemistry section where dozens of completely random representations can be found:
- Adobe Illustrator Shortcuts
- Adult Positions
- Airline Customer Reviews
- Beer Styles
- And, chosen more or less at random, European Nations:
Rogue Elements: What's Wrong with the Periodic Table
An article in New Scientist by Celeste Biever (news editor at Nature), Image by Martin Reznik
Weights gone awry, elements changing position, the ructions of relativity – chemistry's iconic chart is far from stable, and no one knows where it will end
IF IMITATION is the sincerest form of flattery, the periodic table has many true admirers. Typefaces, types of meat and even the Muppets have been ordered in its image. For chemists, knowing an element's position in the periodic table, and the company it keeps, is still the most reliable indicator of its properties – and a precious guide in the search for new substances. "It rivals Darwin's Origin of Species in terms of the impact of bringing order out of chaos," says Peter Edwards of the University of Oxford.
The origins of the periodic table lie in the 19th century, when chemists noticed that patterns began to emerge among the known chemical elements when they... click here to continue:
Elements: A Series of Business Radio Programs/Podcasts
A series of BBC World Service Radio Programs, available as MP3 Podcasts, talking about the chemical elements with a strong business/technology bias, rather than the more usual chemical or historical approach:
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
Oliver Sacks' Table of Elements
From Radiolab (a podcast):
"As a young boy, neurologist, author and Radiolab favorite Oliver Sacks pored over the pages of the Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, fantasizing about the day that he, like the shy gas Xenon, would find a companion with whom to connect and share. That companion turned out to be the Periodic Table of the Elements itself, a relationship he's never outgrown. He introduces us to the elements that he's known and loved."
Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a multimedia project about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long (and continuing) quest to understand what the world is made of – to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. In a nutshell, the project is about the human story behind the Periodic Table of the Elements.
The centerpiece of the project is a three-hour series that premieres Aug. 19, 2015 on PBS. The Mystery of Matter introduces viewers to some of history's most extraordinary scientists:
- Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen – and radical interpretation of it – led to the modern science of chemistry
- Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements
- Dmitri Mendeleev, whose Periodic Table brought order to the growing gaggle of elements
- Marie Curie, whose groundbreaking research on radioactivity cracked open a window into the atom
- Henry Moseley, whose investigation of atomic number redefined the Periodic Table
- Glenn Seaborg, whose discovery of plutonium opened up a whole new realm of elements, still being explored today.
The Mystery of Matter will show not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words, and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together into a coherent, compelling whole is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor best known for his roles on Lost and Person of Interest. Eric Scerri appears as the expert.
Mystery of Matter: Three Videos
From Alpha-Omega, three videos about the discovery of the Periodic Table.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history's most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment.
Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor.
Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements.
Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie's groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom.
The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today's television audience.:
Habashi Book: The Periodic Table & Mendeleev
By Fathi Habashi, a small book:
Gray's Wooden Periodic Table Table Video
Theo Gray collects elements and has put together this awesome Periodic Table Table. This week Reactions explores the science and chemistry going on inside this periodic table.
Step into his office at Wolfram Research, and you'll see a silicon disc engraved with Homer Simpson, a jar of mercury, uranium shells and thousands of other chemical artifacts. But his real DIY masterpiece is the world's first "periodic table table". Within this masterfully constructed table-top lay samples of nearly every element known to man, minus the super-radioactive ones.
Theo Gray is 2011 winner of the ACS Grady Stack Award for Interpreting Chemistry for the Public. The Periodic Table Table is a testament to Theo's love for chemistry -- as well as his Ebay buying habits -- and is full of fascinating stories.
Restrepo's Similarity Landscape
Building Classes of Similar Chemical Elements from Binary Compounds and Their Stoichiometries by Guillermo Restrepo, Chapter 5 from: Elements Old and New: Discoveries, Developments, Challenges, and Environmental Implications p 95-110.
From the abstract:
Similarity is one of the key concepts of the periodic table, which was historically addressed by assessing the resemblance of chemical elements through that of their compounds. A contemporary approach to the similarity among elements is through quantum chemistry, based on the resemblance of the electronic properties of the atoms involved. In spite of having two approaches, the historical one has been almost abandoned and the quantum chemical oversimplified to free atoms, which are of little interest for chemistry. Here we show that a mathematical and computational historical approach yields well-known chemical similarities of chemical elements when studied through binary compounds and their stoichiometries; these similarities are also in agreement with quantum chemistry results for bound atoms. The results come from the analysis of 4,700 binary compounds of 94 chemical elements through the definition of neighbourhoods for every element that were contrasted producing similarity classes. The method detected classes of elements with different patterns on the periodic table, e.g. vertical similarities as in the alkali metals, horizontal ones as in the 4th-row platinum metals and mixed similarities as in the actinoids with some transition metals. We anticipate the methodology here presented to be a starting point for more temporal and even more detailed studies of the periodic table.
Thanks to René for the tip!
Timelines, of The Periodic Table
By Steven Murov, a chronology of the events that have resulted in our present periodic table of the elements and a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev (birthday, 02/08/1834) periodic table (1869).
Race to Invent the Periodic Table
From PBS Digital Studios, a short-but-fast-moving video about the development of the periodic table during the 19th century, and a discussion about gallium:
Alphabet of Chemistry
A BBC World Service radio program, first broadcast Tue 23 Jan 2018.
The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev attempted nothing less than to pull apart the fabric of reality and expose the hidden patterns that lie beneath everything in existence, from shoes and ships and sealing wax to cabbages and kings. The result was something known to almost everyone who has ever been to school: the Periodic Table of the elements. But why this particular arrangement? And why is it still the foundation of chemistry?
The presenter Quentin Cooper is joined by:
- Hugh Aldersey-Williams, who since he was a teenager, has collected samples of elements and has drawn on his samples and knowledge to write Periodic Tales: The Curious Lives of the Elements.
- Michael Gordin, Professor of History at Princeton University and the author of A Well-Ordered Thing: Dmitri Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table.
- Ann Robinson, Historian at the University of Massachusetts studying the development of the periodic table.
- Eugene Babaev, Professor of Chemistry at Moscow State University who maintains both Russian and English websites on Mendeleev and his work.
Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table
Since 1969, the international chemistry community has only held conferences on the topic of the Periodic Table three times, and the 2012 conference in Cusco, Peru was the first in almost a decade. The conference was highly interdisciplinary, featuring papers on geology, physics, mathematical and theoretical chemistry, the history and philosophy of chemistry, and chemical education, from the most reputable Periodic Table scholars across the world. Eric Scerri and Guillermo Restrepo have collected fifteen of the strongest papers presented at this conference, from the most notable Periodic Table scholars. The collected volume will contain pieces on chemistry, philosophy of science, applied mathematics, and science education.
Eric Scerri is a leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of chemistry and especially the periodic table. He is the author of numerous OUP books including A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science (2016) and The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction (2012). Scerri has been a full-time lecturer at UCLA for the past eighteen years where he regularly teaches classes in history and philosophy of science.
Guillermo Restrepo is a chemist specializing in mathematical and philosophy of chemistry with more than sixty scientific papers and book chapters on these and related areas. Restrepo was a professor of chemistry at the Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia) between 2004 and 2017, and since 2014 has been in Germany as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at Leipzig University and more recently as researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences.
1. Heavy, Superheavy...Quo Vadis?
2. Nuclear Lattice Model and the Electronic Configuration of the Chemical Elements
3. Amateurs and Professionals in Chemistry: The Case of the Periodic System
4. The Periodic System: A Mathematical Approach
5. The "Chemical Mechanics" of the Periodic Table
6. The Grand Periodic Function
7. What Elements Belong in Group 3 of the Periodic Table?
8. The Periodic Table Retrieved from Density Functional Theory Based Concepts: The Electron Density, the Shape Function and the Linear Response Function
9. Resemioticization of Periodicity: A Social Semiotic Perspective
10. Organizing the Transition Metals
11. The Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions: A New Periodic Table Founded on Non-Traditional Concepts
12. The Origin of Mendeleev's Discovery of the Periodic System
13. Richard Abegg and the Periodic Table
14. The Chemist as Philosopher: D. I. Mendeleev's "The Unit" and "Worldview"
15. The Philosophical Importance of the Periodic Table
Physical Origin of Chemical Periodicities in the System of Elements
From de Gruyter: Physical origin of chemical periodicities in the system of elements, Chang-Su Cao, Han-Shi Hu, Jun Li* and W. H. Eugen Schwarz*, Pure Appl. Chem. 2019; 91(12).
Published Online: 2019-11-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2019-0901 (open access)
The Periodic Law, one of the great discoveries in human history, is magnificent in the art of chemistry. Different arrangements of chemical elements in differently shaped Periodic Tables serve for different purposes. "Can this Periodic Table be derived from quantum chemistry or physics?" can only be answered positively, if the internal structure of the Periodic Table is explicitly connected to facts and data from chemistry.
Quantum chemical rationalization of such a Periodic Tables is achieved by explaining the details of energies and radii of atomic core and valence orbitals in the leading electron configurations of chemically bonded atoms. The coarse horizontal pseudo-periodicity in seven rows of 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32 members is triggered by the low energy of and large gap above the 1s and nsp valence shells (2 ≤ n ≤ 6 !). The pseudo-periodicity, in particular the wavy variation of the elemental properties in the four longer rows, is due to the different behaviors of the s and p vs. d and f pairs of atomic valence shells along the ordered array of elements. The so-called secondary or vertical periodicity is related to pseudo-periodic changes of the atomic core shells.
The Periodic Law of the naturally given System of Elements describes the trends of the many chemical properties displayed inside the Chemical Periodic Tables. While the general physical laws of quantum mechanics form a simple network, their application to the unlimited field of chemical materials under ambient 'human' conditions results in a complex and somewhat accidental structure inside the Table that fits to some more or less symmetric outer shape. Periodic Tables designed after some creative concept for the overall appearance are of interest in non-chemical fields of wisdom and art.
Möbius-Escher Periodic Table
"Can quantum ideas explain chemistry's greatest icon? Simplistic assumptions about the periodic table lead us astray.
"Such has been the scientific and cultural impact of Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table of the elements that many people assume it is essentially complete. [But] in its 150th year, can researchers simply raise a toast to the table's many dividends, and occasionally incorporate another heavy synthetic element?
"No – this invaluable compilation is still not settled. The placements of certain elements, even hydrogen and helium, are debated."
International Year of the Periodic Table (in Paris and Moscow)
Kultovoy's Periodic Table Book
Nicolay Kultovoy, website, as sent me a copy of his Periodic Table book, entitled [Google Translate]: Book 5. Part 11-08. A single quantum mechanical model of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the periodic table of chemical elements of D.I. Mendeleev.
In a mixture of Russian & English, the PDF of the book can be viewed here.
Chapter 1. Triune (electrons, nucleons, chemical elements) quantum mechanical model of Colt. Three
1.1 the Rules of filling of the orbits of electrons.
1.2 Pyramidal lattice.
1.3 models with cubic sieve.
1.4 models with face-centered lattice.
1.5 quantum Mechanical form of the periodic table of chemical elements.
1.6 Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table.
Chapter 2. A lattice model of the nucleus. Model 62
2.1 Berezovsky G. N.
2.2 I. Boldov
2.5 Manturov V.
2.6 Semikov S. A.
2.7 alpha-partial model of the atomic nucleus.
2.8 Burtaev V.
Chapter 3. Various lattice (crystal) model of the nucleus of an atom. One hundred five
3.0 Luis Pauling.
3.1 Valery Tsimmerman. ADOMAH Periodic Table. Model 3-2.
3.2 Klishev B. V. Model 3-1.
3.3 Garai J. Model 3-1.
3.4 Winger E Model 4-2.
3.5 Norman D. Cook. Model 4-1.
3.6 Gamal A. Nasser. Model 4-1.
3.7 D. Asanbaeva Model 4-1.
3.8 Datsuk V. K.
3.9 Bolotov B.
3.10 Djibladze M. I.
3.11 Dyukin S. V.
3.12 A. N. Mishin.
3.13 M. M. Protodyakonov
3.14 Dry I. N.
3.15 Ulf-G. Meißner.
3.16 Foreign works.
Chapter 4. Long-period periodic table. One hundred eighty one
4.1 long-Period representation of the periodic table.
4.2 Artamonov, G. N.
4.3 Galiulin R. V.
4.4 E. K. Spirin
4.5. Khoroshavin L.
4.6 Step form proposed by Thomsen and Bohr.
4.7 Symmetrical shape of the periodic table.
Chapter 5. Construction of a periodic table based on the structure of orbitals. Two hundred twenty one
5.1 construction of the periodic table on the basis of orbitals.
5.2 Short V. M.
5.3 Kulakov, the Novosibirsk table of multiplets.
Chapter 6. Atomic structure. Two hundred forty eight
6.1 Table of isotopes.
6.2 the structure of the orbitals.
St Catharine's College: Celebrating the Periodic Table
The United Nations have proclaimed 2019 to be the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements since it is the 150th anniversary of the publication of Dmitri Mendeleev's first Periodic Table. But was it really the first?
St Catharine's College, Cambridge, in the UK, is proud to exhibit its fine collection of material relating to the early development of the Periodic Table. Starting from the first list of elements which emerged around the time of the French Revolution in the late 1780s, and the first list of atomic masses drawn up by Manchester chemist John Dalton, we explore why six different chemists from around the world each came up with their own versions of the iconic table in the 1860s.
From the RSC Website:
"Curated by periodic table superfan Peter Wothers, the main body of the exhibition is a staggering collection of historic books that trace the creation of chemistry's roadmap.
"This is an unprecedented record of the periodic table's origins, from early alchemical texts through to original copies of Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 Elementary Treatise of Chemistry – the first true list of elements – and notes on the discoveries of (among others) John Newlands, Julius Lothar Meyer through to Dmitri Mendeleev".
Evolution and Understanding of the d-Block Elements in the Periodic Table
Edwin C. Constable's review, Evolution and understanding of the d-block elements in the periodic table:
Nucleosynthesis of the Heavy Elements
A PBS video explaining how neutron star mergers lead to the formation of heavy elements, and how a merger only 80 million years before the formation of the solar system, 4.5 billions years ago, seeded the Earth wth the heavy elements of the periodic table:
5 Periodic Tables We Don't Use (And One We Do)
"From Mendeleev's original design to physicist-favorite "left-step" rendition, the periodic table of elements has gone through many iterations since it was first used to organize elements 150 years ago - each with its own useful insights into the patterns of the elements":
Papers of Mendeleev, Odlings, Newlands & Chancourtois from the 1860s
Peter Wothers from the University of Cambridge with Sir Martyn Poliakoff, of the University of Nottingham discuss the discovery/development of the periodic table in the 1860s with the original publications.
Links to some of the formulations discussed in the video:
- Mendeleeve Table I
- Mendeleeve Table II
- Odlings' Formulation
- Newlands Octaves
- Chancourtois' Teluric Helix
Meyer's NYT Graphic
A nice graphic by Alex Eben Meyer in the New York Times accompanying an article about the periodic table and some of Sir Martyn Poliakoff ideas.
Where Mendeleev Was Wrong
A paper by Gábor Lente, Where Mendeleev was wrong: predicted elements that have never been found, from ChemTexts https://doi.org/10.1007/s40828-019-0092-5.
As is well known, Mendeleev sucessfully predicted the existance of several elements, but he was not always correct.
Bloomberg Businessweek: Why the Periodic Table of Elements Is More Important Than Ever
A Bloomberg Businessweek article on the chemical elements: Mendeleev's 150-year-old periodic table has become the menu for a world hungry for material benefits. (This story is from Bloomberg Businessweek's special issue The Elements.)
Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip!
Bloomberg Businessweek Special Issue: The Elements
Using state of the art  web graphics, and packed with interesting business stories:
Mendeleev 150 is the 4th International Conference on the Periodic Table. The event welcomed nearly 300 guests from over 30 countries and has become one of the key events of IUPAC's International Year of the Periodic Table.
C&EN No Agreement
From C&EN: The periodic table is an icon. But chemists still can't agree on how to arrange it:
Scerri's The Periodic Table: Its Story & Its Significance 2nd Edition
The 2nd Edition of Eric Scerri's well regarded book, The Periodic Table: Its Story & Its Significance has been published by Oxford University Press and is available at all good bookshops, including online.
International Year of the Periodic Table with Eric Scerri
Interview with leading expert on the periodic table and UCLA professor, Eric Scerri, to celebrate the International Year of the Periodic Table.
Radio New Zealand Podcast: Elemental, A journey through the periodic table of elements with chemistry professor Allan Blackman, from AUT, and Alison Ballance
Schmiermund's The Discovery of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
Torsten Schmiermund's book: The Discovery of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements (Springer, in German)
150 years ago, in 1869, D. I. Mendeleev and L. Meyer independently published their ideas on the arrangement of the chemical elements in a periodic system. The United Nations and UNESCO therefore declared 2019 the "International Year of the Periodic Table". The question arises what is so special about this "simple table". Embark on a short journey into the history of the periodic table with the author. Get to know its predecessors and see how the Periodic Table of the Elements has evolved over the years. Discover the periodic properties of the elements. Find out what makes the periodic table so interesting and timeless, and see what other ideas there are and have been.
The author, Torsten Schmiermund has worked as a chemical engineer in the chemical industry for many years.
What Is A Chemical Element?
A Collection of Essays by Chemists, Philosophers, Historians, and Educators Edited by Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi published by Oxford University Press
- A collection of 14 edited papers from historians of chemistry, philosophers of chemistry, and chemists with epistemological and educational concerns
- Contains educational debates concerning how to teach and present the concept of elements
- Provides a beneficial, scholarly, unique, and understandable overview of the current debate on the chemical elemen.
The concept of a chemical element is foundational within the field of chemistry, but there is wide disagreement over its definition. Even the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) claims two distinct definitions: a species of atoms versus one which identifies chemical elements with the simple substances bearing their names. The double definition of elements proposed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry contrasts an abstract meaning and an operational one. Nevertheless, the philosophical aspects of this notion are not fully captured by the IUPAC definitions, despite the fact that they were crucial for the construction of the Periodic Table. Although rich scientific literature on the element and the periodic table exists as well as a recent growth in the philosophy of chemistry, scholars are still searching for a definitive answer to this important question: What is an element?
Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi have teamed up to assemble a group of scholars to provide readers an overview of the current state of the debate on chemical elements from epistemological, historical, and educational perspectives. What Is A Chemical Element? fills a gap for the benefit of the whole chemistry community-experimental researchers, philosophers, chemistry educators, and anyone looking to learn more about the elements of the periodic table.
CHAPTER 1: The many questions raised by the dual concept of 'element' Eric R. Scerri
CHAPTER 2: From simple substance to chemical element Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
CHAPTER 3: Dmitrii Mendeleev's concept of the chemical element prior to the Periodic Law Nathan M. Brooks
CHAPTER 4: Referring to chemical elements and compounds: Colourless airs in late eighteenth century chemical practice Geoffrey Blumenthal, James Ladyman, and Vanessa Seifert
CHAPTER 5: The Changing Relation Between Atomicity and Elementarity: From Lavoisier to Dalton Marina P. Banchetti-Robino
CHAPTER 6: Origins of the Ambiguity of the Current Definition of Chemical Element Joseph E. Earley
CHAPTER 7: The Existence of Elements, and the Elements of Existence Robin F. Hendry
CHAPTER 8: Kant, Cassirer, and the Idea of Chemical Element Farzad Mahootian
CHAPTER 9: The Operational Definition of the Elements: A Philosophical Reappraisal Joachim Schummer
CHAPTER 10: Substance and Function: The case of Chemical Elements Jean-Pierre Llored
CHAPTER 11: Making elements Klaus Ruthenberg
CHAPTER 12: A formal approach to the conceptual development of chemical element Guillermo Restrepo
CHAPTER 13: Chemical Elements and Chemical Substances: Rethinking Paneth's Distinction Sara N. Hjimans
CHAPTER 14: The dual conception of the chemical element: epistemic aspects and implications for chemical education Elena Ghibaudi, Alberto Regis, and Ezio Roletto
Appendix: Reference list on the philosophy of chemistry Index.
|What is the Periodic Table Showing?||Periodicity|
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
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