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The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.

Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:

Text search:       

Periodic Table formulations referencing Mendeleev, by date:

1782   Discovery of Tellurium
1868   Mendeleev's Handwritten Draft Periodic Table
1869   Mendeleev's Tabelle I
1870   Meyer's Periodic Table
1871   Mendeleev's Tabelle II
1871   Mendeleev's Predicted Elements
1871   Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013
1872   Mendeléeff's Vertical Table (Q&Q's Spelling)
1880   Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff
1891   Mendeleev's Properties of The Chemical Elements
1891   Mendeleev's Table In English
1892   Bassett's Vertical Arrangement
1892   Bassett Dumb-Bell Form
1893   Nechaev's Truncated Cones
1896   Ramsay's Elements Arranged in the Periodic System
1904   Mendeleev's 1904 Periodic Table
1906   Mendeleev's 1906 Periodic Table
1911   van den Broek's Periodic Table 2
1913   van den Broek's Periodic Table 3
1916   Dushman's Periodic Table
1920   Stewart's Arrangement of The Elements
1923   Deming's Other 1923 Periodic Table: Mendeleev style
1925   Model of the Periodic System of de Chancourtois
1934   Quam & Quam's Graphical Representations of The Elements
1934   Leningrad Monument To The Periodic Table
1936   Libedinski's Periodic Classification of The Elements
1937   Discovery of Technetium
1949   Riggli's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table
1950   Modern Periodic Table
1950   Sidgwick's Periodic Classification (Mendeleeff)
1954   Sabo & Lakatosh's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table
1955   Discovery of Mendelevium
1955   Element Hunters
1957   Mazurs' Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years
1958   Landau & Lifshitz's Periodic System of Mendeleev
1960   Asimov's Periodic Table of The Elements
1966   Ionization Enerties
1969   Tasset's HarmonAtomic Periodic Table
1969   Mendeleevian Conference, Periodicity and Symmetries in the Elementary Structure of Matter
1970   Monument to the Periodic Table
1974   Mazurs' Wooden Version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table
1980   Periodic RoundTable
1996   Concept of Chemical Periodicity
1996   Seaborg's Evolution of the Modern Periodic Table
1997   G.O.O.D. Periodic Table of The Elements
2000   MIT Periodic Table Characters
2001   Funny Periodic Table
2001   Gorbunov and Filippov's Doubled Periodic Table
2002   System Québécium Periodic Table
2007   University of Jaén (Spain) Wall Mural Periodic Table
2007   Bent & Weinhold's 2D/3D Periodic Tables
2008   Polymer Periodic Table
2009   Russian Periodic Table
2009   Scerri's Selected Papers on The Periodic Table
2009   Russian MedFlower Periodic Table
2009   Leuven Periodic Table
2010   Before & After Mendeleev: Periodic Table Videos
2010   Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155
2010   Chemical Elements as a Collection of Images
2010   Newlands Revisited - Poster
2012   Dates of Discovery of the Elements
2012   Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law
2012   Eggenkamp's Periodic Table
2012   Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System
2012   Compact Mendeleev-Moseley-Seaborg Periodic Table (CMMSPT)
2013   Top 10 Periodic Tables
2015   Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements
2016   Harrington's Periodic Tables
2016   Instructables 3D Periodic Table
2016   Mystery of Matter: Three Videos
2017   Habashi Book: The Periodic Table & Mendeleev
2018   Timelines, of The Periodic Table
2018   Alphabet of Chemistry
2018   Nawa's 3-D Octagonal Pillar
2018   Scerri's Reverse Engineered Version of Mendeleev's Eight Column Table
2018   Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table
2018   Telluric Remix
2018   Sistema Peridico Binodico
2018   Periodical System (Binodic Form): a new mathematical paradigm
2019   Archetypes of Periodic Law
2019   Möbius-Escher Periodic Table
2019   Kultovoy's Periodic Table Book
2019   St Catharine's College: Celebrating the Periodic Table
2019   5 Periodic Tables We Don't Use (And One We Do)
2019   Papers of Mendeleev, Odlings, Newlands & Chancourtois from the 1860s
2019   Slightly Different Periodic Table
2019   Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements
2019   Where Mendeleev Was Wrong
2019   Bloomberg Businessweek: Why the Periodic Table of Elements Is More Important Than Ever
2019   Mendeleev 150
2019   Schmiermund's The Discovery of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
2020   What Is A Chemical Element?
2020   artlebedev's 100,000 Permutation Periodic Table of The Elements
2020   Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements
2020   Vernon's Periodic Treehouse
2020   Vernon's (Partially Disordered) 15 Column Periodic Table
2020   Allahyari & Oganov: Mendeleev Numbers & Organising Chemical Space


Discovery of Tellurium


Tellurium, atomic number 52, has a mass of 127.6 au.

Tellurium caused great difficulty to the chemists who first tried to develop a periodic table, because it has an atomic weight greater than iodine (126.9). Mendeleev prioritised chemical properties over the anomalous atomic weight data, and correctly classified Te along with O, S, & Se. It was only when nuclear structure and the importance of atomic number was recognised, around 1918, that the issue was explained.

Tellurium was first isolated in 1782 by F.-J.M. von Reichenstein.

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Handwritten draft of the first version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

From of Bill Jensen, Curator of the Oesper Collection at the University of Cincinnati:

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Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Mendeleev [also spelled Mendeleyev in English] recounted in his diary:

"I saw in a dream a table where all the elements fell into place as required. Awakening, I immediately wrote it down on a piece of paper."

Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Mendeleev as an old man

Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!

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Meyer's Periodic Table. This is rather similar to the Mendeleev attempt at the same time.

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Mendeleev's Tabelle II

Some versions of Mendeleev's Tabelle II of 1871.

From the second volume of Mendeleev's textbook (click to enlarge):

Notice that on the right hand side, there is an additional formulation:

The two formulations above are discussed by Peter Wothers from the University of Cambridge with Sir Martyn Poliakoff, of the University of Nottingham, at 2:30 into the video below:

Mendeleev's Tabelle II can be shown in semi-modern form with the 'missing' group 18 rare gases and the f-block elements:


An alternative version of Mendeleev's Tabelle II:

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Mendeleev's Predicted Elements

In large part, the success of the Mendeleev's analysis can be attributed to the gaps which he predicted would contain undiscovered elements with predictable properties. Mendeleev named these unknown elements using the terms eka, dvi & tri (1, 2 & 3 from the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit).

Mendeleev predictions include:

Image from van Spronsen

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Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013

Mendeleev's Periodic Table of 1871, redrawn by J.O. Moran, 2013, click here to see full size:

Wooden Periodic Table

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Mendeléeff's Vertical Table (Q&Q's Spelling)

Quam & Quam's review paper states:

"Mendeléeff's first table was a vertical arrangement in which the elements could be read in order of increasing atomic weight from the top down and in successive series from left to right. The fist column consisted of H and Li; the second, of Be to Na; the third started with Mg.

"An improved form of this table, shown below, appeared in 1872: H occupied the first position separately. The vertical series in order were Li to F, Na to Cl, K to Br, etc., causing the halogens to appear in the same bottom series, while H, Li, Na, Cu, Ag, and Au constituted a midway series, and K, Rb, and Cs formed the topmost series."

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff

A lecture theatre sized periodic table, titled Periodische Gesetzmässigkeit der Elemente nach Mendelejeff, found at St Andrew's University, published and printed in Austria and dating from about from about 1880. Read more about this in The Guardian.

Two YouTube videos about this PT:

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Mendeleev's Properties of The Chemical Elements

Scanned from the first English edition of Dmitrii Mendeleev's Principles of Chemistry (translated from the Russian fifth edition) a table showing the periodicity of the properties of many chemical elements, taken from the Wikipedia from where a 2116 x 2556 version is available, or here.

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Mendeleev's Table In English

A table, from Wikipedia, showing the periodicity of the properties of many chemical elements, from the first English edition of Dmitrii Mendeleev's Principles of Chemistry (1891, translated from the Russian fifth edition).

It is worth noting that this 1981 formulation shows the presence of gallium and germanium that were not his original table.

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Bassett's Vertical Arrangement

Bassett's Vertical Arrangement is actually designed to be a three dimensional formulation. Quam & Quam's review paper states:

"This table resembles Mendeléeff's vertical arrangement. The Cs period, however, starts far above the horizontal line of K and Rb, thereby giving space to the known and predicted elements of that period. The alkali metals appear in three horizontal lines. Co and Ni are arranged in order of their atomic weights.

"Bassett suggested cutting out the table and rolling it onto a cylinder of such circumference that similar elements would fall in line in Groups. For instance, Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs would then fall on a line parallel to the axis of the cylinder."

From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf

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Bassett Dumb-Bell Form

The Basset 'dumb-bell' formulation, ref. H. Basset, Chem. News, 65 (3-4), 19 (1892).

The image is from Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin, here.

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Nechaev's Truncated Cones

René Vernon (who found this formulation) writes:

This weird and wonderful table appears in Teleshov & Teleshova (2019, p. 230). It is attributed by them to Nechaev (1893) and is apparently discussed by Ipatiev (1904):


Ipat'ev, V. & Sapozhnikov, A. (1904). Kratkij kurs himii po programme voennyh uchilishh [A concise course in chemistry for military academies]. Sankt-Peterburg: tip. V. Demakova.

Nechaev N. P. (1893). Graficheskoe postroenie periodicheskoj sistemy jelementov Mendeleeva. Sposob Nechaeva [Graphic construction of Mendeleev's periodic system of elements. Nechaev's way]. Moskva: tip. Je. Lissnera i Ju. Romana

Teleshov S, Teleshova E.: The international year of the periodic table: An overview of events before and after the creation of the periodic table. In V Lamanauskas (ed.).: Science and technology Education: Challenges and possible solutions. Proceedings of the 3rd International Baltic Symposium on Science and Technology Education, BalticSTE2019, Šiauliai, 17-20 June, 2019. pp. 227-232, (2019)

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Ramsay's Elements Arranged in the Periodic System

From The Gases of the Atmosphere, The History of Their Discovery by William Ramsay (and from the Gutenberg Project.)

The author writes pp 220-221:

"In 1863 Mr. John Newlands pointed out in a letter to the Chemical News that if the elements be arranged in the order of their atomic weights in a tabular form, they fall naturally into such groups that elements similar to each other in chemical behaviour occur in the same columns. This idea was elaborated farther in 1869 by Professor Mendeléeff of St. Petersburg and by the late Professor Lothar Meyer, and the table may be made to assume the subjoined form (the atomic weights are given with only approximate accuracy):—"

Thanks to René for the tip!

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Mendeleev's 1904 Periodic Table

Mendeleev periodic table formulation from 1904.

This formulation was prepared to go with Mendeleev's article predicting that the ether (aether) would be found at the head of group zero in period zero. Also that dashes are left for six elements between H and He.

The predicted elements eka-boron (scandium), eka-aluminium (gallium) & eka-silicon (germanium) are present but the radioactive eka-manganese (technetium) is not. Also, the noble gas elements are on the left hand side of the formulation:

Thanks to Philip Stewart for the corrections and details.

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Mendeleev's 1906 Periodic Table

Mendeleev's periodic table of 1906, the last drawn up by Mendeleev himself, and published in the 8th edition of his textbook, Principles of Chemistry. Mendeleev died in 1907.

Mendeleev DI, Osnovy khimii (Principles of Chemistry), 8th edition, 1906, MP Frolova, Saint Petersburg.

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van den Broek's Periodic Table 2

From Wikipedia: Antonius Johannes van den Broek (1870-1926) was a Dutch amateur physicist notable for being the first who realized that the number of an element in the periodic table (now called atomic number) corresponds to the charge of its atomic nucleus. The 1911 inspired the experimental work of Henry Moseley, who found good experimental evidence for it by 1913. van den Broek envisaged the basic building block to be the 'alphon', which weighed twice as much as a hydrogen atom.

Read more in Chapter 4, Antonius Van Den Broek, Moseley and the Concept of Atomic Number by Eric Scerri. This chapter can be found in the book: For Science, King & Country: The Life and Legacy of Henry Moseley (Edited by Roy MacLeod, Russell G Egdell and Elizabeth Bruton).

van den Broek's periodic table of 1907: Annalen der Physik, 4 (23), (1907), 199-203

van den Broek's periodic table of 1911: Physikalische Zeitschrift, 12 (1911), 490-497); and also a paper in Nature the same year entitled: The Number of Possible Elements and Mendeléff's "Cubic" Periodic System, Nature volume 87, page 78 (20 July 1911)

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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van den Broek's Periodic Table 3

From Wikipedia: Antonius Johannes van den Broek (1870-1926) was a Dutch amateur physicist notable for being the first who realized that the number of an element in the periodic table (now called atomic number) corresponds to the charge of its atomic nucleus. The 1911 inspired the experimental work of Henry Moseley, who found good experimental evidence for it by 1913. van den Broek envisaged the basic building block to be the 'alphon', which weighed twice as much as a hydrogen atom.

Read more in Chapter 4, Antonius Van Den Broek, Moseley and the Concept of Atomic Number by Eric Scerri. This chapter can be found in the book: For Science, King & Country: The Life and Legacy of Henry Moseley (Edited by Roy MacLeod, Russell G Egdell and Elizabeth Bruton).

van den Broek's periodic table of 1907: Annalen der Physik, 4 (23), (1907), 199-203

van den Broek's periodic table of 1911: Physikalische Zeitschrift, 12 (1911), 490-497); and also a paper in Nature the same year entitled: The Number of Possible Elements and Mendeléff's "Cubic" Periodic System, Nature volume 87, page 78 (20 July 1911)

van den Broek's periodic table of 1913: Physikalische Zeitschrift, 14, (1913), 32-41

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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Dushman's Periodic Table

By Dushman et al., a take on Mendeleeve's Periodic System:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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Stewart's Arrangement of The Elements

From A.W. Stewart, Recent Advances in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Longmans, Green and Co., London (1920) 

René Vernon writes:

"Stewart discusses the 'forced symmetry' of Mendeleev's table, and the distinction between 'facetious symmetry' (as he calls it) and the actual correlation of facts (as he saw them at that time)."


237. Mendeleev... objected strongly to the employment of graphic methods of expressing the Periodic Law, on the ground that such methods did not indicate the existence of a limited and definite number of elements in each period.

239. The Periodic Table, as laid down by Mendeleeff in his writings, exhibits a symmetry which was one of its greatest assets. For some psychological reason, symmetry has an attraction for the human mind; and we are always apt to prefer a regular arrangement to one in which irregularities pre- dominate. Psychological peculiarities are, however, undesirable guides in the search for truth; and a careful examination of the Table in the light of our present knowledge will suffice to show that it can boast of no such symmetry as we are led to expect from the text-books of our student days.

For example, owing to the omission of some of the rare earth elements and by the insertion of blanks, the Table in its original form attained a very high degree of regularity; but since there are, as we know from the X-ray spectra results, only sixteen elements to fill the eighteen vacant spaces in the Table, it is evident that the symmetry of Mendeleeff s system is purely factitious.

Further, in order to produce the appearance of symmetry, Mendeleeff was forced to place copper, silver, and gold in the first group, although there is no known oxide Au2O and the stable chloride of gold is AuCl3.

These examples are well-known, and are mentioned here only for the purpose of enforcing the statement that the symmetry of Mendeleef's system cannot be sustained at the present day. Fascinating though its cut-and-dried regularity may be, we cannot afford to let symmetry dominate our minds when in actual fact there is no symmetry to be found.

240. The most superficial examination shows that, instead of being a symmetrical whole, the Table is really pieced together from a series of discrete sections.

250. The first attempt to arrange all the elements in a periodic grouping took the form of a three-dimensional model the Telluric Helix of de Chancourtois and it is not surprising that from time to time attempts have been made to utilize the third dimension as an aid to classification. It cannot be said that much light has been thrown on the matter by these essays; but some account of them must be given here for the sake of completeness.

251. The main drawback to the spiral representation appears to be that in it no new facts are brought to light, and there is no fresh collocation of the allied elements which might give it an advantage over the ordinary forms of classification. Also, in most cases it is more difficult to grasp as a whole.

253 ...if we have to choose between factitious symmetry and actual correlation of facts, we must decide in favour of the latter, discomforting though the choice may be.

255. The following new grouping seems worth considering. Although it has many good points, it is not to be regarded as a final solution, but is put forward mainly in the hope that an examination of it may suggest some more perfect system.

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Deming’s Other 1923 Periodic Table: Mendeleev style

Deming's "other" 1923 periodic table: a Mendeleev style formulation with an unusual metal-non-metal dividing line:

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Model of the Periodic System of de Chancourtois

From the Science Museum in the UK collection, a model of the Periodic System of de Chancourtois from 1862:

"Model demonstrating the telluric screw periodic system of Alexander-Emile Beguyer de Chancourtois proposed in a paper published in 1862.

"This model, made by the Science Museum in 1925, provides a rare physical realisation of arguably the earliest periodic system of for the elements. It was devised by the French geologist, Alexander-Emile Beguyer de Chancourtois in 1862, 7 years prior to Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table.

"De Chancourtois arranged the elements in the order of their atomic weights along a helix which was traced on the surface of a vertical cylinder, with an angle of 45 degrees to its axis. The base of the cylinder was divided into 16 equal parts (the atomic weight of oxygen), and the lengths of the spiral corresponding to the weights of the elements were found by taking the one-sixteenth part of a complete turn as a unit":

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Quam & Quam's Graphical Representations of The Elements

Short Periodic Tables.pdf
Medium Periodic Tables.pdf
Spiral, Helical & Misc Periodic Tables.pdf

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Leningrad Monument To The Periodic Table

Leningrad monument to the periodic table, located near to the main chamber of weights and measures, 1934 (from van Spronsen):

From Wikipedia:

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Libedinski's Periodic Classification of The Elements

Simón Libedinski: PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTS, from his book: Dialectical Materialism, in Nature, in Society and in Medicine, Ediciones Ercilla, Santiago de Chile, 1938, pp 56-57:

"Mendeleev's Table, like that of Werner and others, are not, however, more than flat projections of the actual ordering of the elements. There is as much difference between Mendeleev's Table and the real group as there is between the planisphere and a rotating globe. A rational representation, starting from the simplest element – the negative electron –, would be a spiral line that, surrounding said central point, first gave a small turn, touching only two bodies: hydrogen and helium. From here it would jump to a much larger orbit, in which it would touch eight bodies and then another equal, also of eight. From here, another jump to a much larger orbit, comprising eighteen bodies, and then another equal; from this point one jumps to another orbit, again augmented, comprising thirty-two bodies (including rare earths); and when this round is over, the last one begins, to vanish a short distance.

"In the dialectical grouping of the elements, which I have the satisfaction of exposing, the classic arrangement of the same is respected. Only the arrangement changes, which instead of being rectilinear, is spiral. So I managed to suppress the anomaly of the double columns, and comfortably incorporate the important group of rare earths. I can not give my graphic the name of Tabla, because it is just the opposite: it aims to give the idea of ??space, and of movement in space. The double columns of the Classic Table can be found here as well, but only if you look through the whole, considered as a planetary system of conical shape, with the electron at the vertex. Effectively: column 1 coincides, through space, with column 1a; column 4 with column 4 bis, etc. The dialectical grouping also allows us to easily appreciate the remarkable dialectical character of the properties of matter: these properties are repeated periodically. These are the "returns" to qualities or previous properties, but not exactly equal to those, but only similar: and this resemblance, only to a certain extent. The difference is that that quality, those properties or some characteristic, are exalted to each dialectical return."

Contributed by Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, Cusco, Peru, March 2018 (using Google Translation)

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Discovery of Technetium


Technetium, atomic number 43, has a mass of 98 au.

Radioactive element: Tc is only found in tiny amounts in nature. Most samples are synthetic.

Technetium was first isolated in 1937 by C. Perrier and E. Segrè. The element had been predicted by Mendeleev in 1871 as eka-manganese.

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Riggli's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table

From the Russian Book "100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements", Nauka 1969, p.87.

The caption says: "Volumetric Model of 18-period Long System of D.I.Mendeleev." after Riggli (1949).

Thanks to Larry T for the tip!

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The Modern Periodic Table

The modern periodic table is based on quantum numbers and blocks, here.

A periodic table can be constructed by listing the elements by n and l quantum number:

The problem with this mapping is that the generated sequence is not continuous with respect to atomic number atomic number, Z: Check out the sequence Ar to K, 18 to 19.

Named after a French chemist who first published in the formulation in 1929, the Janet or Left-Step Periodic Table uses a slightly different mapping:

While the Janet periodic table is very logical and clear it does not separate metals from non-metals as well as the Mendeleev version, and helium is a problem chemically.

However, it is a simple mapping to go from the Janet or Left-Step periodic table to a modern formulation of Mendeleev's periodic table:


On this page web, "full" f-block included periodic tables are shown wherever possible, as above.

However, the periodic table is usually exhibited in book and on posters in a compressed form with the f-block "rare earths" separated away from the s-block, p-block and d-block elements:

However, the compression used introduces the well known problem known as a "fence post error".

The effect is that:

La and Ac: move from f-block to d-block
Lu and Lr: move from p-block to f-block

Chemically, the elements can be fitted in and classified either way. Many thanks to JD for pointing the situation with the periodic table is a fence post error.

Mark Winter's Web Elements project, here, uses the formulation shown below:

Interestingly, the IUPAC periodic table separates out 15 lanthanides, La-Lu, and 15 actinides, Ac-Lr by leaving gaps in period 3 under Sc & Y:

This corresponds to:

By Mark Leach

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Sidgwick's Periodic Classification (Mendeleeff)

From N.V. Sidgwick, Chemical Elements and Their Compounds, vol. 1, Oxford University, London, p. xxviii (1950).

René Vernon writes:

"In this curious table the Lanthanides are located in group IIIA while the Actinides have been fragmented.


• Ac, Th, and Pa are located in groups IIIA, IVA and VA under Lu, Hf, and Ta, respectively
• The uranides, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm, are located in group VIA, under W."

Sidgwick writes:

"This subgroup (VIA) consists of Cr, Mo, W, and U, to which the 'uranide' elements, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm (which might be assigned to any Group from III to VI) must now be added." (p. 998)

"...the trans-uranium elements 93–6... for the first time give clear evidence of the opening of the 'second rare earth series', the 'uranides', through the expansion of the fifth quantum group from 18 towards 32." (p. 1069)

"The question whether the fifth quantum group of electrons which is completed up to 18 in gold begins to expand towards 32, as the fourth does in cerium, has now been settled by the chemical properties of these newly discovered elements. In the Ln the beginning of the expansion is marked by the main valency becoming and remaining 3. With these later elements of the seventh period there is scarcely any sign of valencies other than those of the group until we come to uranium... Up to and including uranium, the group valency is always the stablest, but beyond this no further rise of valency occurs, such as we find in rhenium and osmium. Hence the point of departure of the new series of structures (corresponding to lanthanum in the first series) is obviously uranium, and the series should be called the uranides. (p. 1092):

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Sabo & Lakatosh's Volumetric Model of the Periodic Table

From the Russian Book: 100 Years of Periodic Law of Chemical Elements, Nauka 1969, p.87.

The caption says: "Volumetric Model of 18-period Long System of D.I.Mendeleev." after Sabo and Lakatosh (1954).

Thanks to Larry T for the tip!

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Discovery of Mendelevium


Mendelevium, atomic number 101, has a mass of 258 au.

Synthetic radioactive element.

Mendelevium was first observed in 1955 by A. Ghiorso, G. Harvey, R. Choppin, S. G. Thompson and G. T. Seaborg.

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Element Hunters

A YouTube video, The Element Hunters.

The text accompanying the video says:

"Scientist in Berkeley discover new elements [Californium & Einsteinium] from hydrogen bomb debris in 1951 and then use the 60 inch Cyclotron to create Mendelevium, element 101. The team included Nobel Prize winner Glenn Seaborg and famed element hunter, Albert Ghiorso."

Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip! 

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Mazurs' Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years

Edward Mazurs, Graphical Representations of The Periodic System During 100 Years, University of Alabama Press, 1957.

There is an internet archive: Edward G. Mazurs Collection of Periodic Systems Images.

This book gives a very full analysis and classification of periodic table formulations. Most of the formulations are redrawn.

However, anybody who is seriously interested in periodic table formulations will want to see/read/own this book. Read more about Mazrus on the Elements Unearthed blog.




Mazurs' Valence Periodic Table (1974, p.94)


Mazurs' Periodic Table (1974, p. 95)


Mazurs' 1955 Formulation (1974, p. 44)


Mazurs' 1958-73 Formulation (1974, endpaper)


Mazurs' 1965 Formulation (1974, p/ 134)


Mazurs' 1967 Formulation (1974. Inside front cover)


Mazurs' other 1967 Formulation (1974, p. 126)


Mazurs' another 1967 Formulation (1974, p. 134)


Mazurs' Periodic System of Chemical Elements (1974, end foldout)


Mazurs' Version of Janet's "Lemniscate" Formulation (1974, p.80)


Marzus' Wooden Version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table (Chem. Heritage Foundn.)


Mazurs' PT Formulation Analysis (1974, pp.15-16)


Many thanks to Philip Stewart for preparing the links table above.

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Landau & Lifshitz's Periodic System of Mendeleev

L.D. Landau & E.M. Lifshitz, Quantum Mechanics (Volume 3 of A Course of Theoretical Physics), pages 255-258. (Note: First published in English in 1958, the link is to the 1963 3rd ed. of the English version translated from Russian.)

René Vernon writes:

The authors discuss aspects of the periodic system of D I Mendeleev. The electron configurations of hydrogen & helium are briefly noted. This is followed by three tables setting out the electron configurations of the s, p, d & f elements.

Some extracts from the text follow:

"The elucidation of the nature of the periodic variation of properties, observed in the series of elements when they are placed in order of increasing atomic number, requires an examination of the peculiarities in the successive completion of the electron shells of atoms." (p. 252)

"Many properties of atoms (including the chemical properties of elements...) depend principally on the outer regions of the electron envelopes." (p. 254)

"The elements containing complete d and f shells (or not containing these shells at all) are called elements of the principal groups; those in which the filling up of these states is actually in progress are called elements of the intermediate groups. These groups of elements are conveniently considered separately." (p. 254)

"We see that the occupation of different states occurs very regularly in the series of elements of the principal groups: first the s states and then the p states are occupied for each principal quantum number n. The electron configurations of the ions of these elements are also regular (until electrons from the d and f shells are removed in the ionisation): each ion has the configuration corresponding to the preceding atom. Thus, the Mg+ ion has the configuration of the sodium atom, and the Mg++ ion that of neon." (p. 255)

"Let us now turn to the elements of the intermediate groups. The filling up of the 3d, 4d, and 5d shells takes place in groups of elements called respectively the iron group, the palladium group and the platinum group. Table 4 gives those electron configurations and terms of the atoms in these groups that are known from experimental spectroscopic data. As is seen from this table, the d shells are filled up with considerably less regularity than the s and p shells in the atoms of elements of the principal groups. Here a characteristic feature is the 'competition' between the s and d states."

"This lack of regularity is observed in the terms of ions also: the electron configurations of the ions do not usually agree with those of the preceding atoms. For instance, the V+ ion has the configuration 3d4 (and not 3d24s2 like titanium) ; the Fe+ ion has 3d64s1 (instead of 3d54s2 as in manganese)."

"A similar situation occurs in the filling up of the 4f shell; this takes place in the series of elements known as the rare earths. † The filling up of the 4f shell also occurs in a slightly irregular manner characterised by the 'competition' between 4f, 5d and 6s states."

"† In books on chemistry, lutetium is also usually placed with the rare-earth elements. This, however, is incorrect, since the 4f shell is complete in lutetium; it must therefore be placed in the platinum group."

"The last group of intermediate elements begins with actinium. In this group the 6d and 5f shells are filled, similarly to what happens in the group of rare-earth elements." (p. 256–257)

The authors exclude lanthanum from the rare earths since the 4f shell has not started filling. Yet actinium and thorium are included by them with what we now call the actinoids even though these two metals have no f electrons. No explanation is provided for this puzzling lack of consistency with their categories.

René Vernon writes: I have joined up their one note and three tables. (Curium was the last known element at their time of writing; transcurium elements are shown in parentheses.):

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Asimov's Periodic Table of The Elements

Harry F. Tasset writes:

"As a Professor of Bio-Chemistry, Isaac Asimov wrote many volumes. One of the most interesting is The Intellegent Man's Guide to Science in which the attached periodic table appears: pages 154-155.

"The table suggests that there are still missing elements in the middle, not at the end.

"Published in 1960, this would have been a break with the thinking of most chemists and nuclear physicist of that time because there was no acceptable reason for their existence. My personal thoughts and research has lead me to the conclusion that Professor Asimov intended this to be a faithfull re-construction of the Mendeleev tables. When one takes the time to re-construct the Mendeleev table there are indeed empty spaces and more than just four."

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Periodic Table of Ions

From Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin, here.

"One intriguing problem that arises from with the periodic table of atoms is the possibility of constructing periodic systems of ions, V. K. Grigorovich, Periodic Law of Mendeleev and Electronic Structure of Metals, Nauka Publ.: Moscow, 1966 (in Russian). An atom can be completely or partially ionized to a cation by removing electrons or transformed into an anion by the addition of new electrons. The energy required for a few consecutive ionisations of atoms is plotted against the atomic number. One can see that the curves are periodic, and hence it is possible to construct periodic tables for mono-, di-, and multi- charged cations. If we look at the dispositions of the maxima and minima of the curves and compare them with those for atoms, it becomes evident that the magic numbers of electrons for ions are the same as for neutral atoms. Therefore, the number of electrons (but not the charge of the nucleus) is responsible for the periodicity of ions."

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Tasset's HarmonAtomic Periodic Table

Harry F. Tasset writes:

"The periodic table (below) was originally copyrighted by me in 1969 and represents those missing elements that were lost due to the influence of physicists who were trying to mold the table into a more 'suitable' form. While they did succeed for many years, innovators like Charles Janet (left step table) and Isaac Asimov (missing elements table) had other ideas.

"Below you will see that the laws of chemistry, first discovered by Mendeleev, triumphed."

Click the image to enlarge

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Mendeleevian Conference, Periodicity and Symmetries in the Elementary Structure of Matter

Atti del Convegno mendeleeviano : periodicità e simmetrie nella struttura elementare della materia : Torino-Roma, 15-21 settembre 1969 / [editor M. Verde] Torino : Accademia delle Scienze di Torino ; Roma : Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei, 1971 VIII, 460 p.

Google Translate: Proceedings of the Mendeleevian Conference: periodicity and symmetries in the elementary structure of matter: Turin-Rome, 15-21 September 1969 / [editor M. Verde] Turin: Turin Academy of Sciences; Rome: National Academy of the Lincei, 1971 VIII, 460 p.

From the Internet Archive, the scanned book. Papers are in Italian & English.

For the 100th Anniversary of Mendeleev's iconic periodic table, a conference was held to look at (review) the elementary structure of matter. The 1960s saw huge developments in particle physics, including the theory of quarks. Papers were presented by many notable scientists including John Archibald Wheeler and the Nobel laureates: Emilio Segrè & Murray Gell-Mann.

Thanks to René for the tip!

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Monument to the Periodic Table

Monument to the periodic table, in front of the Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Slovakia. The monument honors Dmitri Mendeleev, and is by the artist Karol Lacko, academic sculptor born in 1938 in Spiská Noá Ves, and who died in 2007. (Many thanks to Fathi Habashi for finding this information.)

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Mazurs Wooden Version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

There is a posting in the The Elements Unearthed blog by David V Black concerning a view of the Marzus archive:

"My biggest discovery this week has been a collection in our archives of the notes of Edward Mazurs, who wrote the definitive work on classifying different systems of periodic tables in 1957 with a revised edition in 1974 (Graphic Representations of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, University of Alabama Press). He collected articles and wrote extensive, detailed notes on every version of the periodic table he could find as it developed from its start in the early 1860s with the work of de Chancourtois through 1974. All of those notes have been donated to Chemical Heritage Foundation and fill up ten binders, with meticulous drawings, charts, tables, and frequent additions and changes. There are also some pieces of the original artwork prepared for the book, and a wooden model of the periodic table Mazurs built himself. "

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Periodic RoundTable

Gary Katz says: "The Periodic RoundTable is a unique three-dimensional model of the Periodic Table, an elegant spatial arrangement of the chemical elements that is both symmetrical and mathematical. It is the ultimate refinement of Mendeleev's scheme, one that will take us into the twenty-first century and beyond. The Periodic RoundTable possesses such a high degree of order because it is based exclusively on the system of ideal electronic configuration, which in turn is the basis of periodicity among the elements. In the Periodic RoundTable the electron shells are filled in the same order as the elements themselves appear, demonstrating a holistic relationship between the chemistry of the elements and the orbital descriptions of their electrons."

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Concept of Chemical Periodicity

Concept of Chemical Periodicity: from Mendeleev Table to Molecular Hyper-Periodicity Patterns E. V. Babaev and Ray Hefferlin

The paper "The Concepts of Periodicity and Hyper-Periodicity: from Atoms to Molecules" was published as a the book: Concepts in Chemistry: a Contemporary Challenge. (Ed. D.Rouvray). Research Studies Press, London, 1996, pp. 24-81.

The website, here, is the original text of this paper (copyright by the authors).

The text deals with periodicity in isotopes, atoms and materials.

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Seaborg's Evolution of the Modern Periodic Table

By Glenn T. Seaborg, from J. Chem. SOC., Dalton Trans., 1996, Pages 3899-3907:

"In this review, the evolution of the Modern Periodic Table is traced beginning with the original version of Dimitri Mendeleev in 1869.Emphasis is placed on the upper end with a description of the revision to accommodate the actinide series of elements at the time of World War II and the more recent research on the observed and predicted chemical properties of the transactinide elements (beyond atomic number 103).A Modern Periodic Table includes undiscovered elements up to atomic number 118 and a Futuristic Periodic Table with additional undiscovered elements up to atomic number 168 is included."

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Good Periodic Table of The Elements

From the Good Periodic Table website:

"The Geometric Organisation Of Dimension, aka 'G.O.O.D', Periodic Tables primary function acts as an identifier of relationships between like particles of matter. This operates utilising the original Sample process first discovered by Mendeleev; were atoms that are linked in a straight line hold a unique relationship as compared to the rest of the atoms on the table."




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MIT Periodic Table Characters

Eric Scerri writes:

"This apparently hangs on a wall of Building 6 at MIT. I have identified the people around the old-school periodic table, they are (from left to right): Zosimos, Ko Hung, Jabir, Boyle, Lomonosov, Lavoisier, Berzelius, Wohler, Cannizzaro, Berthelot & Mendeleev":

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed

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Funny Periodic Table

By Eric J Stone a Funny Periodic Table of chemical reactivity.

"This periodic table is unique -- it is informational, educational, and humorous at the same time. Arranged in the standard Mendeleev layout, this table depicts the elements interacting with each other in many interesting ways. The jokes are designed to impart useful information within the context of humor. Ideal for science buffs of all ages -- this is truly the periodic table for the masses. It can be appreciated by children and professionals alike. Children especially like the table, which draws them in with its funny vignettes. This poster is based on the original art of Slavomir Koys. The poster makes a great promotional item. Use it to promote your schools chemistry club or as science fair prizes":

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Gorbunov and Filippov's Doubled Periodic Table

Gorbunov, A. I., Filippov, G. G.: Fine Structure of D. I. Mendeleev Periodic Table: secondary periodicity, early and late elements. Khim-ya Tekhnol. 11, 43–45 (2001). (in Russian)

Naum S. Imyanitov (Foundations of Chemistry) writes:

"The two-table design is of particular interest. Atoms with odd n+l are located in the upper table, and the ones with even n+l are placed in the bottom table (Tables 5). The elements are divided by a vertical line of symmetry to the early and late ones both in the upper and bottom tables. The advantage of Tables 5 is a clear demarcation into subsets, with each subset having its own separate place in the table. The drawback is directly related to this advantage: this table does not reflect the similarity between members of different subsets."

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System Québécium Periodic Table

Using Google Translate of this page:

"To establish a new classification system components, Pierre Demers was assumed that the electronic structure of the atom contains one of my all others according to the equation Z = 117 to Z = 1. It is taking my electrons and removing them from my material that can reproduce all the elements and thus repeat the structure of your table. That is why this new organization is called the System Québécium":

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University of Jaén (Spain) Wall Mural Periodic Table

From November of 2007 a large Periodic Table placed on the main facade of Sciences Building in the University of Jaén (Spain) welcome everybody.

The table was made in honor of Mendeleev on the 100 aniversary of his death and on the occasion of the Spanish Year of Science according to the concept and design of the Spanish Chemist Antonio Marchal Ingrain, who was inspired in a postage stamp launched that year in Spain.

The artistic mural is composed of 117 tiles of 20 x 30 cm, one for each of the elements known to date, reaching a final dimensions of 2.8 x 3.6 meters. Apart from the traditional information with which students are familiar, such as the atomic number, atomic mass and the chemical symbol of the element, each of the ceramics incorporate information concerning the meaning of its name in Latin or Greek, the year and the name of the person or group of people who discovered it or isolated.


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Bent & Weinhold's 2D/3D Periodic Tables

From a paper by Henry Bent & Frank Weinhold, J. Chem. Educ., 2007, 84, 7, 1145 and here. The authors write in the abstract:

"The periodic table epitomizes chemistry, and evolving representations of chemical periodicity should reflect the ongoing advances in chemical understanding. In this respect, the traditional Mendeleev-style table appears sub-optimal for describing a variety of important higher-order periodicity patterns that have become apparent in the post-Mendeleevian quantal era. In this paper we analyze the rigorous mathematical origins of chemical periodicity in terms of the quantal nodal features of atomic valence orbitals, and we propose a variety of alternative 2D/3D display symbols, tables, and models.":

Thanks to René for the tip!

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Polymer Periodic Table

"The Periodic Table of the elements by Mendeleev was a historic achievement in chemistry and enabled chemists to see the relationship between structure and properties of the basic elements. Polymers also have a strong relationship between structure and properties and this Periodic Table of Polymers is a first attempt to provide a simple codification of the basic polymer types and structures. The diversity of polymer types makes it impossible to include all of the variations in one simple table and this table only includes the most common polymers. At this stage the Table only includes the most common thermoplastics but it will be extended in the future to include thermosets and potentially rubbers and alloys/blends."

Download the pdf file.

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Russian Periodic Table

A modern Russian periodic table using the Mendeleeve formulation:

An older version of the same formulation (date unknown, 1950s?), from here:

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Scerri's Selected Papers on The Periodic Table

Edited by Eric Scerri (University of California, Los Angeles, USA)

Published by: Imperial College Press in London

The book contains key articles by Eric Scerri, the leading authority on the history and philosophy of the periodic table of the elements. These articles explore a range of topics such as the historical evolution of the periodic system as well as its philosophical status and its relationship to modern quantum physics. In this present volume, many of the more in-depth research papers, which formed the basis for this publication, are presented in their entirety; they have also been published in highly accessible science magazines (such as American Scientist), and journals in history and philosophy of science, as well as quantum chemistry. This must-have publication is completely unique as there is nothing of this form currently available on the market.


Readership: Academic readers: philosophers and science historians, science educators, chemists and physicists.
200pp (approx.) Pub. date: Scheduled Fall 2009

200pp (approx.) Pub. date: Scheduled Fall 2009
ISBN 978-1-84816-425-3
1-84816-425-4 US$88 / £66

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Russian MedFlower Periodic Table

Google Russian to English translation:

From Secology.Narod.RU: "Must also give up the basic heuristic principle of Mendeleev and follow him. Forget about the group, we will not argue with what period begins, but just consistently and continuously to build all the elements in a row in ascending order, and fold this series into a spatial helix, in the corporeal form, allowing the convergence of such chemical elements in the vertical..."

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KU Leuven Periodic Table

On the ground floor of the Universiteitshal (University Hall) of KU Leuven in Belgium is a physical periodic table.

Each element can be explored from this page:

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Before & After Mendeleev: Periodic Table Videos

Two videos by the Chemical Heritage Foundation:

The videos feature interviews with Dr. Eric Scerri of UCLA, with added narration, animations, illustrations, photos, captions, etc. by David V. Black as well as publication artwork and notes by Edward G. Mazurs.

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Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155

This book (PDF), by Albert Khazan, represents a result of many-year theoretical research, which manifested hyperbolic law in Mendeleev's Periodic Table.

According to [Khazan's] law, an upper limit (heaviest element) exists in Mendeleev's Table, whose atomic mass is 411.66 and No.155. It is shown that the heaviest element No.155 can be a reference point in nuclear reactions. Due to symmetry of the hyperbolic law, the necessity of the Table of Anti-Elements, consisting of anti-substance, has been predicted. This manifests that the found hyperbolic law is universal, and the Periodic Table is common for elements and anti-elements.

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Chemical Elements as a Collection of Images

Using Google Translate (German -> English):

"The periodic table of chemical elements as a collection of images [click to zoom in]. A collection of images of materials constitute the basic components of the whole universe. This is a periodic table of chemical elements (also called short PSE) with a difference! Visible in pure form, as it really looks like. Not only naked dry boring data. There are the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, boron group, carbon group, nitrogen group, chalcogens, halogens, noble gases, hard metals, ferrous metals, precious metals, lanthanides..." from the website, here:

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Newlands Revisited – Poster

At the beginning of last year (Meyers, 2009), a IUPAC editorial offered "something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue".

Marks and Marks 2010 (M&M) preserves the old subgroups (Newlands' columns) that were a feature of all short forms, although M&M would then have been described as a 'medium form' (14 groups) in contrast to Mendeleyev's 'short form' (8 groups) or Werner's 'long form' (32 groups). M&M naturally continues the grouping of the lanthanoids/actinoids whose initial four groups were also included in 'short form' tables.

The logic of the arrangement of the s-elements is a new feature. It recognizes the chemical subgroups of hydrogen, viz. the alkali metals and the halogens, and of helium, viz. the alkaline earth metals and the inert gases. It is interesting to note that subgroups differ chemically from each other inversely as the azimuth, i.e. Li:F > Ca:Zn > La:Lu.

The whole idea is, of course, borrowed from Newlands. The group numbers are borrowed from valency but also from electronic structure in that the number of s, p, d, or f subgroups corresponds to the Pauli maximum for each. Finally, the mnemonic reflects that most elementary introduction to chemistry: alkalis turn Litmus blue.

From this start, the p-bloc is red, the transition elements yellow and the "rare earth" elements green, as argued in the M&M paper. The numbering of groups I - XIV is unambiguous, it is less than IUPAC's arbitrary 18 groups, it preserves subgroups and satisfactorily accommodates hydrogen and the lanthanoids/actinoids.

As required by Leigh (2009), this table is clear, simple and brief.

Newlands Revisited

GJ Leigh "Periodic Tables and IUPAC" Chemistry International 2009, 31: 4-6. EG Marks & JA Marks "Newlands Revisited: a periodic table for chemists" Foundations of Chemistry 2010, 12: 85-93. F Meyers "From the Editor" Chemistry International 2009, 31:1-2.

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Dates of Discovery of the Elements

The Elements and their dates of discovery, taken from this Wikipedia page:

Two charts showing the dates of discovery of the elements, one from the 'time of the ancients' (10,000 BC) to the present day, and the second from 1700 to the present day.

These show that there were two distinct phases for the discovery of the 118 known elements:

Data from: this Wikipedia page.


Discovery of Copper-9000
Discovery of Lead -7000
Discovery of Gold -6000
Discovery of Iron -5000
Discovery of Silver -5000
Discovery of Carbon -3750
Discovery of Tin -3500
Discovery of Sulfur (Sulphur) -2000
Discovery of Mercury -2000
Discovery of Zinc -1000
Discovery of Antimony -800
Discovery of Arsenic -300
Discovery of Phosphorus 1669
Discovery of Cobalt 1735
Discovery of Platinum 1748
Discovery of Nickel 1751
Discovery of Bismuth 1753
Discovery of Hydrogen 1766
Discovery of Oxygen 1771
Discovery of Nitrogen 1772
Discovery of Chlorine 1774
Discovery of Manganese 1774
Discovery of Molybdenum 1781
Discovery of Tellurium 1782
Discovery of Tungsten 1783
Discovery of Zirconium 1789
Discovery of Uranium 1789
Discovery of Titanium 1791
Discovery of Yttrium 1794
Discovery of Beryllium 1798
Discovery of Chromium 1798
Discovery of Niobium 1801
Discovery of Tantalum 1802
Discovery of Palladium 1803
Discovery of Cerium 1803
Discovery of Osmium 1803
Discovery of Iridium 1803
Discovery of Rhodium 1804
Discovery of Sodium 1807
Discovery of Potassium 1807
Discovery of Boron 1808
Discovery of Magnesium 1808
Discovery of Calcium 1808
Discovery of Strontium 1808
Discovery of Barium 1808
Discovery of Iodine 1811
Discovery of Lithium 1817
Discovery of Selenium 1817
Discovery of Cadmium 1817
Discovery of Silicon 1824
Discovery of Aluminium (Aluminum) 1825
Discovery of Bromine 1825
Discovery of Thorium 1829
Discovery of Vanadium 1830
Discovery of Lanthanum 1838
Discovery of Terbium 1842
Discovery of Erbium 1842
Discovery of Ruthenium 1844
Discovery of Cesium 1860
Discovery of Rubidium 1861
Discovery of Thallium 1861
Discovery of Indium 1863
Discovery of Gallium 1875
Discovery of Ytterbium 1878
Discovery of Scandium 1879
Discovery of Samarium 1879
Discovery of Holmium 1879
Discovery of Thulium 1879
Discovery of Gadolinium 1880
Discovery of Praseodymium 1885
Discovery of Neodymium 1885
Discovery of Fluorine 1886
Discovery of Germanium 1886
Discovery of Dysprosium 1886
Discovery of Argon 1894
Discovery of Helium 1895
Discovery of Neon 1898
Discovery of Krypton 1898
Discovery of Xenon 1898
Discovery of Polonium 1898
Discovery of Radium 1898
Discovery of Radon 1899
Discovery of Europium 1901
Discovery of Actinium 1902
Discovery of Lutetium 1906
Discovery of Protactinium 1913
Discovery of Rhenium 1919
Discovery of Hafnium 1922
Discovery of Technetium 1937
Discovery of Francium 1939
Discovery of Astatine 1940
Discovery of Neptunium 1940
Discovery of Plutonium 1940
Discovery of Americium 1944
Discovery of Curium 1944
Discovery of Promethium 1945
Discovery of Berkelium 1949
Discovery of Californium 1950
Discovery of Einsteinium 1952
Discovery of Fermium 1952
Discovery of Mendelevium 1955
Discovery of Lawrencium 1961
Discovery of Nobelium 1966
Discovery of Rutherfordium 1969
Discovery of Dubnium 1970
Discovery of Seaborgium 1974
Discovery of Bohrium 1981
Discovery of Meitnerium 1982
Discovery of Hassium 1984
Discovery of Darmstadtium 1994
Discovery of Roentgenium 1994
Discovery of Copernicium 1996
Discovery of Flerovium 1999
Discovery of Livermorium 2000
Discovery of Oganesson 2002
Discovery of Nihonium2003
Discovery of Moscovium2003
Discovery of Tennessine2010

By Mark Leach

A nice graphic from Compound Interest: (click image to enlarge)


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Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law

Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Tetrahedron periodic table formulation and the Perfect Periodic Table website, presents a Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law:

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Eggenkamp's Periodic Table

Hans EggenkampI presents a periodic table based upon the table by Mendeleev, in combination with the lanthanides and actinides as suggested by Laing. A simplified Pourbaix (Eh-pH) diagram is shown for each element, colored according to the oxidation stage showing the systematics in the Periodic Table:

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Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System

From Eric Scerri's forthcoming book A Tale of Seven Elements (Oxford University Press, 2013) and used by permission of the author, is the most complete and up-to-date list of Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System, including some titles in foreign languages.

Additional books in other languages can be found listed in Mazurs, 1974

Works by D. I. Mendeleev


Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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Compact Mendeleev-Moseley-Seaborg Periodic Table (CMMSPT)

A Compact Mendeleev-Moseley-Seaborg Periodic Table (CMMSPT).

This table can be found by two different ways:

These 2 transformations lead to the same table, with 7 rows and 32 columns. Blocks p (green), d (light grey), and f (light orange) are preserved.

The 14 terms of the s block (dark orange/red) are splited in "cascads".

This table can be seen in the A173592 sequence in the On-line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences (OEIS). Row differences are 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32.

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Top 10 Periodic Tables

There are more than 1000 periodic tables hosted by the Chemogenesis Webbook Periodic Table database, so it can be a little difficult to find the exceptional ones.

Here we present – in our humble opinionThe ten most significant periodic tables in the database.

We present the best:

Three Excellent, Data Rich Periodic Tables

The first three of our top 10 periodic tables are classic element data repositories.

They all work in the same way: click on the element symbol to get data/information about the selected element. The three are Mark Winter's WebElements, Theo Gray's Photographic Periodic Table & Michael Dayah's Ptable.

<Web Elements>

Photographic Periodic Table


Five Formulations Showing The History & Development

The next five examples deal with history and development Periodic Table. The first is Dalton's 1808 list of elements, next is Mendeleev's 1869 Tabelle I, then Werner's remarkably modern looking 1905 formulation. This is followed by Janet's Left Step formulation and then a discussion of how and why the commonly used medium form PT formulation, is constructed.

<Eight-Group Periodic Table>

Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Werner's 1905 Periodic Table

Janet's Left Step

modern (and commonly employed) periodic table

electronegativity periodic table

An Alternative Formulation

The internet database contains many, many alternative formulations, and these are often spiral and/or three dimensional. These exemplified by the 1965 Alexander DeskTopper Arrangement. To see the variety of formulations available, check out the Spiral & Helical and 3-Dimensional formulations in the database:

Alexander DeskTopper Arrangement

Non-Chemistry PTs

The periodic table as a motif is a useful and commonly used infographic template for arranging many types of object with, from 50 to 150 members.

There are numerous examples in the Non-Chemistry section where dozens of completely random representations can be found:

Non-Chemistry Periodic Table

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Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is a multimedia project about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long (and continuing) quest to understand what the world is made of – to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter. In a nutshell, the project is about the human story behind the Periodic Table of the Elements.

The centerpiece of the project is a three-hour series that premieres Aug. 19, 2015 on PBS. The Mystery of Matter introduces viewers to some of history's most extraordinary scientists:

The Mystery of Matter will show not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words, and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment. Knitting these strands together into a coherent, compelling whole is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor best known for his roles on Lost and Person of Interest. Eric Scerri appears as the expert.

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Harrington Periodic Tables

So we start this effort tabula rasa (without preconceived ideas).

1) All atoms have a default "common denominator" structure at 270 mass units, irrespective of the element under discussion. Therefore, no elements seen as wisps and glints past this point are of consequence. Ergo, the bizarre stability of Dubnium 270.

2) This common structure is divided up by the exact same divisors as are the electron orbitals - i.e. the prime numbers of 2, 3, 5, and 7.

3) Pi as a divisor produces its own, unique and dominating organizational patterns.

4) Each of these sets of plotted nuclide "boxes" use identical formats, but are arranged in vertical columns based on the set of 270 AMUs being divided by these prime numbers. So the 5D Table is 270/5 or 54 AMUs per vertical column/"tower".

5) Each system reinforces unique elemental parameters. The system based on 3/Pi, and its second "harmonic" at 6/2Pi reflects physical properties. The 2Pi configuration almost exactly emulates the "conventional" / Mendeleevian element-based table, except the periods are based upon mass not element count, and these periods do not organize in rows of 18 elements, but rather rows of 44 mass units. The organization/configuration of this default structure is: Pi(Pi^2 + Pi + 1) = 44 This is the primary physical default structure of the periodic table and spectrum of elements, as projected in 3D space, and as perceptible to humans.

6) 5D determines everything with magnetic properties. This disproves every single theory that attributes electron shell behavior as determining magnetic parameters. Clearly here we see that the nucleus is "calling the shots", with electron orbitals conforming as driven. The various red and blue shaded boxes are found at extremes of top and bottom.

7) The system of 7D determines most of all physical parameters of surface and molecular behavior. Here we see surface tension, density, softness and hardness, malleability, boiling and melting points and a few other behaviors. This system of correlation is fully unknown to conventional theory. Notice how superlative parameters bunch at the top and bottom of this configuration.

8) When this system of 270 mass units is divided by 12, for 22 mass units per period, the periodic cycle rate precisely correlates with known Type 1 and 2 elemental superconductors. The physical correlations between periodic repetition at 22 mass units, the 270 count system, and superconductors is also completely novel and not compatible to conventional BCS theory. The correlation between this 22 count system and the three largest cross section nuclides known to man (113Cd, 157Gd and 135Xe) is also completely heretical, however mathematically symmetrical and perfect it may actually be organized.

9) The center portion of this common 270 count structure is named the "Cordillera", for the habit of multiple parallel mountain ridges sharing a common alignment. This area is profoundly affected by Pi-based organizations. The very center at 135Xe indicates that the overall table should terminate at element 108 Hassium at 270 mass units. This has a Proton/Neutron ratio of 3:2. This actual nuclide has very poor stability, unlike Dubnium 105 with 270 mass counts. This nuclide has a ratio of precisely 1:Pi/2, indicating the entire table describes a spectrum of mass organizational states spanning the integer ratio of 1:1 (Deuterium) to 3:2, then on through to 1:Pi/2. Current accepted atomic theories concerning "Islands of Stability" are ridiculous.


Click on the image to see the full size version

KAS Periodic Table

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Instructables 3D Periodic Table

From Makendo on the Instructables website:

The first periodic table was developed in 1862 by a French geologist called Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois. He plotted the elements on a cylinder with a circumference of 16 units, and noted the resulting helix placed elements with similar properties in line with each other. But his idea - which he called the "Telluric Spiral" (see here), because the element tellurium was near the middle - never caught on, perhaps because it was published in a geology journal unread by chemists, and because de Chancourtois failed to include the diagram and described the helix as a square circle triangle.

Mendeleev got all the glory, and it is his 1869 version (dramatically updated, but still recognizable) that nearly everyone uses today.

This instructable [project] documents my efforts to reimagine a 3D periodic table of the elements, using modern making methods. It's based on the structure of a chiral nanotube, and is made from a 3D printed lattice, laser cut acrylic, a lazy susan bearing, 118 sample vials and a cylindrical lamp.

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Mystery of Matter: Three Videos

From Alpha-Omega, three videos about the discovery of the Periodic Table.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history's most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment.

Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor.

Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements.

Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie's groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today's television audience.:



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Habashi Book: The Periodic Table & Mendeleev

By Fathi Habashi, a small book:

Courtines 3D PT

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Timelines, of The Periodic Table

By Steven Murov, a chronology of the events that have resulted in our present periodic table of the elements and a celebration of the 150th anniversary of the Mendeleev (birthday, 02/08/1834) periodic table (1869).

Recursively, the Murov website has many links to this [Chemogenesis] website.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed

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Alphabet of Chemistry

A BBC World Service radio program, first broadcast Tue 23 Jan 2018.

The Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev attempted nothing less than to pull apart the fabric of reality and expose the hidden patterns that lie beneath everything in existence, from shoes and ships and sealing wax to cabbages and kings. The result was something known to almost everyone who has ever been to school: the Periodic Table of the elements. But why this particular arrangement? And why is it still the foundation of chemistry?

The presenter Quentin Cooper is joined by:

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Nawa's 3-D Octagonal Pillar

A 3-D octagonal pillar periodic table model by Nawa, "acccording to Scerri's reverse engineering [of] Mendeleev's 8-column table":

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Scerri's Reverse Engineered Version of Mendeleev's Eight Column Table

Eric Scerri has updated – reverse engineered – the classic Mendeleev Table, here, here & here:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed

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Mendeleev to Oganesson: A Multidisciplinary Perspective on the Periodic Table

Since 1969, the international chemistry community has only held conferences on the topic of the Periodic Table three times, and the 2012 conference in Cusco, Peru was the first in almost a decade. The conference was highly interdisciplinary, featuring papers on geology, physics, mathematical and theoretical chemistry, the history and philosophy of chemistry, and chemical education, from the most reputable Periodic Table scholars across the world. Eric Scerri and Guillermo Restrepo have collected fifteen of the strongest papers presented at this conference, from the most notable Periodic Table scholars. The collected volume will contain pieces on chemistry, philosophy of science, applied mathematics, and science education.

Eric Scerri is a leading philosopher of science specializing in the history and philosophy of chemistry and especially the periodic table. He is the author of numerous OUP books including A Tale of Seven Scientists and a New Philosophy of Science (2016) and The Periodic Table: A Very Short Introduction (2012). Scerri has been a full-time lecturer at UCLA for the past eighteen years where he regularly teaches classes in history and philosophy of science.

Guillermo Restrepo is a chemist specializing in mathematical and philosophy of chemistry with more than sixty scientific papers and book chapters on these and related areas. Restrepo was a professor of chemistry at the Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia) between 2004 and 2017, and since 2014 has been in Germany as an Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at Leipzig University and more recently as researcher at the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences.

1. Heavy, Superheavy...Quo Vadis?
2. Nuclear Lattice Model and the Electronic Configuration of the Chemical Elements
3. Amateurs and Professionals in Chemistry: The Case of the Periodic System
4. The Periodic System: A Mathematical Approach
5. The "Chemical Mechanics" of the Periodic Table
6. The Grand Periodic Function
7. What Elements Belong in Group 3 of the Periodic Table?
8. The Periodic Table Retrieved from Density Functional Theory Based Concepts: The Electron Density, the Shape Function and the Linear Response Function
9. Resemioticization of Periodicity: A Social Semiotic Perspective
10. Organizing the Transition Metals
11. The Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions: A New Periodic Table Founded on Non-Traditional Concepts
12. The Origin of Mendeleev's Discovery of the Periodic System
13. Richard Abegg and the Periodic Table
14. The Chemist as Philosopher: D. I. Mendeleev's "The Unit" and "Worldview"
15. The Philosophical Importance of the Periodic Table

Publisher     Amazon

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Telluric Remix

Philip Stewart writes:

The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.

My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).

The printable version is available (click here for the full size version) to make your own:

I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship.

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Sistema Peridico Binodico

By Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, who writes:

"Sistema Periodico Binodico. Nuevo Paradigma Matematizado. I have followed the work of the wise Mendeleev, of Emil de Chancourtois, of Charles Janet; inspired by the work of my countryman Dr. Oswaldo Baca Mendoza. It is in Spanish but soon I will have the English version."

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Periodical System (Binodic Form): a new mathematical paradigm

By Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, who writes:

"System devised and prepared by the Peruvian chemical engineer, Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, deals with a new conception of Mendeleev's Law as a mathematical function and a new description of the process of forming the series of chemical elements according to mathematical laws and dialectical processes of changes quantitative and qualitative under a dynamic spiral architecture in 3D, which is postulated as a new scientific paradigm."

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Archetypes of Periodic Law

Archetypes of Periodic Law by Dmitry Weise, read more on the website.

One of the creators of quantum mechanics Wolfgang Ernst Pauli wrote in his work The Influence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientific Theories of Kepler (1948):

"The process of understanding nature as well as the happiness that man feels in understanding – that is, in the conscious realization or new knowledge – seems thus to be based on a correspondence, a 'matching' of inner images pre-existent in the human psyche with external objects and their behavior. This interpretation of scientific knowledge, of course, goes back to Plato and is, as we shall see, advocated very clearly by Kepler. These primary images, which the soul can perceive with the aid of an innate 'instinct', are called by Kepler archetypal. Their agreement with the 'primordial images' or archetypes introduced into modern psychology by C. G. Jung and functioning as 'instincts of imagination' is very extensive. A true spiritual descendant of the Pythagoreans, he attached the utmost importance to geometric claiming that its theorems 'have been in the spirit of God since eternity'. His basic principle was: 'Geometria est archetypus pulchritudinis mundi' (Geometry is the archetype of the beauty of the world)."

Dmitry writes:

"The key archetype, in our opinion, is the concept of the square and its gnomon. This is due to the well-known fact that the electron filled shell contains 2n2 electrons, and the number of electrons on the subshell is twice the odd number; the gnomon of the square. Triangle, tetrahedron, square pyramid, octahedron, pyramid-like figures composed of square layers are also considered. The methodical concept for these constructions is the figurate numbers, actively studied by the Pythagoreans. The tables of the periodic law built on the motifs of ancient folk and modern ornaments take a special place. They include not only geometric archetypes, but also magic-symbolic, cultural and religious archetypes of the collective unconscious. Note that the periodic law table, built on the basis of the Native American ornament, surpasses the modern Mendeleev table in the parameter reflecting quantum numbers in its structure."

Note the final photograph below shows Prof. Martyn Poliakoff of The University on Nottingham and Periodic Videos:

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Möbius-Escher Periodic Table

A comment article in Nature by Prof. Eric Scerri about quantum mechanics and the periodic table:

"Can quantum ideas explain chemistry's greatest icon? Simplistic assumptions about the periodic table lead us astray.

"Such has been the scientific and cultural impact of Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table of the elements that many people assume it is essentially complete. [But] in its 150th year, can researchers simply raise a toast to the table's many dividends, and occasionally incorporate another heavy synthetic element?

"No – this invaluable compilation is still not settled. The placements of certain elements, even hydrogen and helium, are debated."

The article is accompanied by a fantastic illustration by Señor Salme with ideas from the Möbius strip and M.C. Escher:

Click image to enlarge:

Another Señor Salme PT image:

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Kultovoy's Periodic Table Book

Nicolay Kultovoy, website, as sent me a copy of his Periodic Table book, entitled [Google Translate]: Book 5. Part 11-08. A single quantum mechanical model of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the periodic table of chemical elements of D.I. Mendeleev.

In a mixture of Russian & English, the PDF of the book can be viewed here.

Chapter 1. Triune (electrons, nucleons, chemical elements) quantum mechanical model of Colt. Three
1.1 the Rules of filling of the orbits of electrons.
1.2 Pyramidal lattice.
1.3 models with cubic sieve.
1.4 models with face-centered lattice.
1.5 quantum Mechanical form of the periodic table of chemical elements.
1.6 Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table.
Chapter 2. A lattice model of the nucleus. Model 62
2.1 Berezovsky G. N.
2.2 I. Boldov
2.4 Konovalov.
2.5 Manturov V.
2.6 Semikov S. A.
2.7 alpha-partial model of the atomic nucleus.
2.8 Burtaev V.
Chapter 3. Various lattice (crystal) model of the nucleus of an atom. One hundred five
3.0 Luis Pauling.
3.1 Valery Tsimmerman. ADOMAH Periodic Table. Model 3-2.
3.2 Klishev B. V. Model 3-1.
3.3 Garai J. Model 3-1.
3.4 Winger E Model 4-2.
3.5 Norman D. Cook. Model 4-1.
3.6 Gamal A. Nasser. Model 4-1.
3.7 D. Asanbaeva Model 4-1.
3.8 Datsuk V. K.
3.9 Bolotov B.
3.10 Djibladze M. I.
3.11 Dyukin S. V.
3.12 A. N. Mishin.
3.13 M. M. Protodyakonov
3.14 Dry I. N.
3.15 Ulf-G. Meißner.
3.16 Foreign works.
Chapter 4. Long-period periodic table. One hundred eighty one
4.1 long-Period representation of the periodic table.
4.2 Artamonov, G. N.
4.3 Galiulin R. V.
4.4 E. K. Spirin
4.5. Khoroshavin L.
4.6 Step form proposed by Thomsen and Bohr.
4.7 Symmetrical shape of the periodic table.
Chapter 5. Construction of a periodic table based on the structure of orbitals. Two hundred twenty one
5.1 construction of the periodic table on the basis of orbitals.
5.2 Short V. M.
5.3 Kulakov, the Novosibirsk table of multiplets.
Chapter 6. Atomic structure. Two hundred forty eight
6.1 Table of isotopes.
6.2 the structure of the orbitals.

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St Catharine's College: Celebrating the Periodic Table

The United Nations have proclaimed 2019 to be the International Year of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements since it is the 150th anniversary of the publication of Dmitri Mendeleev's first Periodic Table. But was it really the first?

St Catharine's College, Cambridge, in the UK, is proud to exhibit its fine collection of material relating to the early development of the Periodic Table. Starting from the first list of elements which emerged around the time of the French Revolution in the late 1780s, and the first list of atomic masses drawn up by Manchester chemist John Dalton, we explore why six different chemists from around the world each came up with their own versions of the iconic table in the 1860s.

From the RSC Website:

"Curated by periodic table superfan Peter Wothers, the main body of the exhibition is a staggering collection of historic books that trace the creation of chemistry's roadmap.

"This is an unprecedented record of the periodic table's origins, from early alchemical texts through to original copies of Antoine Lavoisier's 1789 Elementary Treatise of Chemistry – the first true list of elements – and notes on the discoveries of (among others) John Newlands, Julius Lothar Meyer through to Dmitri Mendeleev".

Celebrating the periodic table – the first edition of Mendeleev's textbook from Chemistry World on Vimeo.

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5 Periodic Tables We Don't Use (And One We Do)

SciShow says:

"From Mendeleev's original design to physicist-favorite "left-step" rendition, the periodic table of elements has gone through many iterations since it was first used to organize elements 150 years ago - each with its own useful insights into the patterns of the elements":

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Papers of Mendeleev, Odlings, Newlands & Chancourtois from the 1860s

Peter Wothers from the University of Cambridge with Sir Martyn Poliakoff, of the University of Nottingham discuss the discovery/development of the periodic table in the 1860s with the original publications.

Links to some of the formulations discussed in the video:

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Slightly Different Periodic Table

The Max Planck Society (M-P-G, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) has an article about the hidden structure of the periodic system.

Guillermo Restrepo, MPI for Mathematics in the Sciences:

"A slightly different periodic table: The table of chemical elements, which goes back to Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer, is just one example of how objects – in this case the chemical elements – can be organized in such a system. The researchers from Leipzig illustrate the general structure of a periodic table with this example: The black dots represent the objects ordered by the green arrows. Using a suitable criterion, the objects can be classified into groups (dashed lines) in which the red arrows create a sub-order":

Thanks to René for the tip!

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Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements

Randhir Bhavial Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements poster, as presented 4th International Conference on Periodic Table at St. Petersburg, Russia.

Click here, or on the image, to enlarge:

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Where Mendeleev Was Wrong

A paper by Gábor Lente, Where Mendeleev was wrong: predicted elements that have never been found, from ChemTexts

As is well known, Mendeleev sucessfully predicted the existance of several elements, but he was not always correct.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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Bloomberg Businessweek: Why the Periodic Table of Elements Is More Important Than Ever

A Bloomberg Businessweek article on the chemical elements: Mendeleev's 150-year-old periodic table has become the menu for a world hungry for material benefits. (This story is from Bloomberg Businessweek's special issue The Elements.)

Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip! 

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Mendeleev 150

Mendeleev 150 is the 4th International Conference on the Periodic Table. The event welcomed nearly 300 guests from over 30 countries and has become one of the key events of IUPAC's International Year of the Periodic Table.

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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Schmiermund's The Discovery of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

Torsten Schmiermund's book: The Discovery of the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements (Springer, in German)

Google Translate:

150 years ago, in 1869, D. I. Mendeleev and L. Meyer independently published their ideas on the arrangement of the chemical elements in a periodic system. The United Nations and UNESCO therefore declared 2019 the "International Year of the Periodic Table". The question arises what is so special about this "simple table". Embark on a short journey into the history of the periodic table with the author. Get to know its predecessors and see how the Periodic Table of the Elements has evolved over the years. Discover the periodic properties of the elements. Find out what makes the periodic table so interesting and timeless, and see what other ideas there are and have been.

The author, Torsten Schmiermund has worked as a chemical engineer in the chemical industry for many years.

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What Is A Chemical Element?

A Collection of Essays by Chemists, Philosophers, Historians, and Educators Edited by Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi published by Oxford University Press

The concept of a chemical element is foundational within the field of chemistry, but there is wide disagreement over its definition. Even the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) claims two distinct definitions: a species of atoms versus one which identifies chemical elements with the simple substances bearing their names. The double definition of elements proposed by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry contrasts an abstract meaning and an operational one. Nevertheless, the philosophical aspects of this notion are not fully captured by the IUPAC definitions, despite the fact that they were crucial for the construction of the Periodic Table. Although rich scientific literature on the element and the periodic table exists as well as a recent growth in the philosophy of chemistry, scholars are still searching for a definitive answer to this important question: What is an element?

Eric Scerri and Elena Ghibaudi have teamed up to assemble a group of scholars to provide readers an overview of the current state of the debate on chemical elements from epistemological, historical, and educational perspectives. What Is A Chemical Element? fills a gap for the benefit of the whole chemistry community-experimental researchers, philosophers, chemistry educators, and anyone looking to learn more about the elements of the periodic table.

CHAPTER 1: The many questions raised by the dual concept of 'element' Eric R. Scerri
CHAPTER 2: From simple substance to chemical element Bernadette Bensaude-Vincent
CHAPTER 3: Dmitrii Mendeleev's concept of the chemical element prior to the Periodic Law Nathan M. Brooks
CHAPTER 4: Referring to chemical elements and compounds: Colourless airs in late eighteenth century chemical practice Geoffrey Blumenthal, James Ladyman, and Vanessa Seifert
CHAPTER 5: The Changing Relation Between Atomicity and Elementarity: From Lavoisier to Dalton Marina P. Banchetti-Robino
CHAPTER 6: Origins of the Ambiguity of the Current Definition of Chemical Element Joseph E. Earley
CHAPTER 7: The Existence of Elements, and the Elements of Existence Robin F. Hendry
CHAPTER 8: Kant, Cassirer, and the Idea of Chemical Element Farzad Mahootian
CHAPTER 9: The Operational Definition of the Elements: A Philosophical Reappraisal Joachim Schummer
CHAPTER 10: Substance and Function: The case of Chemical Elements Jean-Pierre Llored
CHAPTER 11: Making elements Klaus Ruthenberg
CHAPTER 12: A formal approach to the conceptual development of chemical element Guillermo Restrepo
CHAPTER 13: Chemical Elements and Chemical Substances: Rethinking Paneth's Distinction Sara N. Hjimans
CHAPTER 14: The dual conception of the chemical element: epistemic aspects and implications for chemical education Elena Ghibaudi, Alberto Regis, and Ezio Roletto
Appendix: Reference list on the philosophy of chemistry Index.

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artlebedev's 100,000 Permutation Periodic Table of The Elements

Moscow-based design company Art. Lebedev Studio have released a new Periodic Table which can be adapted for any task.

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Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements

From Eric Scerri, a periodic table of books about the periodic table & the chemical elements... many by Eric Scerri himself.

Eric Scerri, UCLA, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry. See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Click to enlarge:

There is no particular connection between each of the elements and the book associated with it in the table, with the exception of: H, He, N, Ti, V, Nb, Ag, La, Au, Ac, U, Pu & Og.

The following is a list of references for each of the 118 books featured on Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements. Books published in languages other than English are shown in color. They include the Catalan, Croatian, French, German, Italian, Norwegian & Spanish languages:

1 H J. Ridgen, Hydrogen, the Essential Element, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002.
2 He W.M. Sears Jr., Helium, The Disappearing Element, Springer, Berlin, 2015.
3 Li K. Lew, The Alkali Metals, Rosen Central, New York, 2009.
4 Be S. Esteban Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009. (Spanish)
5 B E.R. Scerri. The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.
6 C U. Lagerkvist, The Periodic Table and a Missed Nobel Prize, World Scientific, Singapore, 2012.
7 N W.B. Jensen, Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905, Dover, Mineola, NY, 2005.
8 O M. Kaji, H. Kragh, G. Pallo, (eds.), Early Responses to the Periodic System, Oxford University, Press, New York, 2015.
9 F E. Mazurs, Graphic Representation of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, Alabama University Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1974.
10 Ne T. Gray, The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009.
11 Na N.C. Norman, Periodicity and the s- and p-Block Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007.
12 Mg M. Gordin, A Well-Ordered Thing, Dimitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table, 2nd edition, Basic Books, New York, 2019.
13 Al S. Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown & Co., New York, 2010.
14 Si P.A. Cox, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989.
15 P J. Emsley, The 13th Element: The Sordid Tale of Murder, Fire, and Phosphorus, Wiley, New York, 2002.
16 S P. Parsons, G. Dixon, The Periodic Table: A Field Guide to the Elements, Qurcus, London, 2014.
17 Cl P. Levi, The Periodic Table, Schocken, New York, 1995.
18 Ar B.D. Wiker, The Mystery of the Periodic Table, Bethlehem Books, New York, 2003.
19 K H. Alderesey-Williams, Periodic Tales, Viking Press, 2011.
20 Ca P. Strathern, Mendeleyev's Dream, Hamish-Hamilton, London, 1999.
21 Sc D. Scott, Around the World in 18 Elements, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2015.
22 Ti E. W. Collings, Gerhard Welsch, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, ASM International, Geauga County, Ohio, 1994.
23 V D. Rehder, Bioinorganic Vanadium Chemistry, Wiley-Blackwell, Weinheim, 2008.
24 Cr K. Chapman, Superheavy, Bloomsbury Sigma, New York, 2019.
25 Mn E.R. Scerri, E. Ghibaudi (eds.), What is an Element? Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.
26 Fe M. Soon Lee, Elemental Haiku, Ten Speed Press, New York, 2019.
27 Co J. Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
28 Ni T. James, Elemental, Robinson, London, 2018.
29 Cu E.R. Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007.
30 Zn H. Rossotti, Diverse Atoms, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
31 Ga P. Ball, A Very Short Introduction to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2004.
32 Ge I. Asimov, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Lancer Books, New York, 1966.
33 As J. Browne, Seven Elements that Changed the World, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 2013.
34 Se N. Raos, Bezbroj Lica Periodnog Sustava Elemenata, Technical Museum of Zagreb, Croatia, 2010. (Croatian)
35 Br P. Strathern, The Knowledge, The Periodic Table, Quadrille Publishing, London, 2015.
36 Kr A. Ede, The Chemical Element, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006.
37 Rb A. Stwertka, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
38 Sr E.R. Scerri, A Tale of Seven Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013.
39 Y H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007.
40 Zr M. Fontani, M. Costa, M.V. Orna (eds.), The Lost Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2015.
41 Nb M. Seegers, T. Peeters (eds.), Niobium: Chemical Properties, Applications and Environmental Effects, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2013.
42 Mo E.R. Scerri, Selected Papers on the Periodic Table, Imperial College Press, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore, 2009.
43 Tc A. Dingle, The Periodic Table, Elements with Style, Kingfisher, Richmond, B.C. Canada, 2007.
44 Ru G. Rudorf, Das periodische System, seine Geschichte und Bedeutung für die chemische Sysytematik, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1904. (German)
45 Rh I. Nechaev, G.W. Jenkins, The Chemical Elements, Tarquin Publications, Publications, Norfolk, UK, 1997.
46 Pd P. Davern, The Periodic Table of Poems, No Starch Press, San Francisco, 2020.
47 Ag C. Fenau, Non-ferrous metals from Ag to Zn, Unicore, Brussells, 2002.
48 Cd J. Van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969.
49 In M. Tweed, Essential Elements, Walker and Company, New York, 2003.
50 Sn M.E. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, Journal of Chemical Education, Easton PA, 1960.
51 Sb P. Wothers, Antimony Gold Jupiter's Wolf, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.
52 Te W. Zhu, Chemical Elements in Life, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 2020.
53 I O. Sacks, Uncle Tungsten, Vintage Books, New York, 2001.
54 Xe E.R. Scerri, (ed.), 30-Second Elements, Icon Books, London, 2013.
55 Cs M. Jacob (ed.), It's Elemental: The Periodic Table, Celebrating 80th Anniversary, Chemical & Engineering News, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 2003.
56 Ba J. Marshall, Discovery of the Elements, Pearson Custom Publishing, New York,1998.
57 La K. Veronense, Rare, Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York, 2015.
58 Ce N. Holt, The Periodic Table of Football, Ebury Publishing, London, 2016.
59 Pr S. Alvarez, C. Mans, 150 Ans de Taules Périodiques a la Universitat de Barcelona, Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2019. (Catalan)
60 Nd L. Garzon Ruiperez, De Mendeleiev a Los Superelementos, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, 1988. (Spanish)
61 Pm P. Ball, A Guided Tour of the Ingredients, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.
62 Sm S. Esteban Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009. (Spanish).
63 Eu A. E. Garrett, The Periodic Law, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1909.
64 Gd M.S. Sethi, M. Satake, Periodic Tables and Periodic Properties, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India, 1992.
65 Tb M. Eesa, The cosmic history of the elements: A brief journey through the creation of the chemical elements and the history of the periodic table, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.
66 Dy P. Depovere, La Classification périodique des éléments, De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2002. (French).
67 Ho F. Habashi, The Periodic Table & Mendeleev, Laval University Press, Quebec, 2017.
68 Er W.J. Nuttall, R. Clarke, B. Glowacki, The Future of Helium as a Natural Resource, Routledge, London, 2014.
69 Tm R.D. Osorio Giraldo, M.V. Alzate Cano, La Tabla Periodica, Bogota, Colombia, 2010. (Spanish).
70 Yb P.R. Polo, El Profeta del Orden Quimico, Mendeleiev, Nivola, Spain, 2008. (Spanish).
71 Lu E.R. Scerri, A Very Short Introduction to the Periodic Table, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.
72 Hf D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Mathematics of the Periodic Table, Nova Scientific Publishers, New York, 2006.
73 Ta P. Thyssen, A. Ceulemans, Shattered Symmetry, Oxford University Press, New York, 2017.
74 W P.W. Atkins, The Periodic Kingdom, Basic Books, New York, NY, 1995.
75 Re D.G. Cooper, The Periodic Table, 3rd edition. Butterworths, London, 1964.
76 Os E. Lassner, W.-D. Schubert, Tungsten: Properties, Chemistry, Technology of the Element, Alloys, and Chemical Compounds, Springer, Berlin, 1999.
77 Ir J.C.A. Boeyens, D.C. Levendis, Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter, Springer, Berlin, 2008.
78 Pt R. Hefferlin, Periodic Systems and their Relation to the Systematic Analysis of Molecular Data, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1989.
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Vernon's Periodic Treehouse

René Vernon's Periodic Treehouse of the Elements, fearuring the World's longest dividing line between metals and nonmetals.

René writes:

I can't remember what started me off on this one. It may have been Mendeleev's line, as shown on the cover of Bent's 2006 book, New ideas in chemistry from fresh energy for the periodic law.

There are a few things that look somewhat arbitrary, so I may revisit these:

Click to enlarge:

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Vernon's (Partially Disordered) 15 Column Periodic Table

A formulation by René Vernon, who writes:

"Here is a 15-column table which is a hybrid of a Mendeleev 8-column table and an 18-column standard table. The key relocations are the p-block nonmetals to the far left; and the coinage and post-transition metals under their s and early d-block counterparts.

"Taking a leaf out of Mendeleev's playbook, I ignored atomic number order when this seemed appropriate. It's refreshing to see the traditional horizontal gaps between blocks disappear. (DIM did not like these.)

"Since Dias (2004, see references below) reckoned a periodic table is a partially ordered set forming a two-dimensional array, I believe I now have a partially ordered table that is partially disordered twice over.

"The table has some curious relationships. Equally, some relationships seen in the standard form are absent. The Group 2, 3, and aluminium dilemmas disappear. This confirms my impression that such dilemmas have no intrinsic meaning. Rather, their appearance or non-appearance is context dependent."

Notes & references below.

Groups 1 to 4 have either a C or F suffix where C (nonmetal) is after the importance of carbon to our existence; and F (metal) is for the importance of iron to civilisation.

Groups 1C and 1F present the greatest contrast in nonmetallic and metallic behaviour.

Coactive Nonmetals: They are capable of forming septenary heterogeneous compounds such as C20H26N4O10PSSe.

Group 2C: Helium is shaded as a noble gas. "Heliox" is a breathing gas mixture of helium and oxygen used in saturation diving, and as a medical treatment for patients with difficulty breathing.

Group 3C: Boron over nitrogen looks odd. Yet one boron atom and one nitrogen atom have the same number of electrons between them as two adjacent carbon atoms. The combination of nitrogen and boron has some unusual features that are hard to match in any other pair of elements (Niedenzu & Dawson 1965).

Boron and phosphorus form a range of ring and cage compounds having novel structural and electronic properties (Paine et al. 2005).

Metalloids. I treat them here as nonmetals given their chemistry is predominately that of chemically weak nonmetals.

Metals: The labels electropositive; transition; and electronegative are adapted from Kornilov (2008).

Group 1F: Monovalent thallium salts resemble those of silver and the alkali metals.

An alloy of cesium (73.71%), potassium (22.14%) and sodium (4.14%) has a melting point of –78.2°C (–108.76°F) (Oshe 1985).

Silver, copper, and gold, as well as being the coinage metals, are borderline post-transition metals.

Group 2F: Beryllium and magnesium are not in fact alkaline earths. Beryllium is amphoteric rather than alkaline; magnesium was isolated in impure form from its oxides, unlike the true alkaline earths. The old ambiguity over whether beryllium and magnesium should go over calcium or zinc has gone.

Nobelium is here since +2 is its preferred oxidation state, unlike other actinoids.

Group 3F: Aluminium is here in light of its similarity to scandium (Habishi 2010).

InGaAsP is a semiconducting alloy of gallium arsenide and indium phosphide, used in lasers and photonics.

There is no Group 3 "issue" since lanthanum, actinium, lutetium and lawrencium are in the same family.

Gold and aluminium form an interesting set of intermetallic compounds known as Au5Al2 (white plague) and AuAl2 (purple plague). Blue gold is an alloy of gold and either gallium or indium.

Lanthanoids: The oxidation state analogies with the transition metals stop after praseodymium. That is why the rest of lanthanoids are footnoted in dash-dot boxes.

Actinoids: The resemblance to their transition metal analogues falters after uranium, and peters out after plutonium.

Group 4F: It's funny to see titanium—the lightweight super-metal—in the same group as lead, the traditional "heavy" metal.

This is the first group impacted by the lanthanoid contraction (cerium through lutetium) which results in the atomic radius of hafnium being almost the same as that of zirconium. Hence "the twins".

The chemistry of titanium is significantly different from that of zirconium and hafnium (Fernelius 1982).

Lead zirconate titanate Pb[ZrxTi1–x]O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) is one of the most commonly used piezo ceramics.

Group 5: Bismuth vanadate BiVO4 is a bright yellow solid widely used as a visible light photo-catalyst and dye.

Steel Friends: The name is reference to their use in steel alloys. They have isoelectronic soluble oxidizing tetroxoanions, plus a stable +3 oxidation state. (Rayner-Canham 2020).

Ferromagnetic Metals: The horizontal similarities among this triad of elements (as is the case among the PGM hexad) are greater than anywhere in the periodic table except among the lanthanides (Lee 1996). The +2 aqueous ion is a major component of their simple chemistry (Rayner-Canham 2020).

Group 8: "Rubiferous metals" (classical Latin rubēre to be red; -fer producing) is from the reddish-brown colour of rust; the most prevalent ruthenium precursor being ruthenium trichloride, a red solid that is poorly defined chemically but versatile synthetically; and the red osmates [OsO4(OH)4]?2 formed upon reaction by osmium tetroxide with a base.

Group 9: "Weather metals" comes from the use of cobalt chloride as a humidity indicator in weather instruments; rhodium plating used to "protect other more vulnerable metals against weather exposure as well as against concentrated acids or acids fumes" (Küpfer 1954); and the "rainbow" etymology of iridium.

Group 10: "Catalytic metals" is after a passage in Greenwood and Earnshaw, "They are... readily obtained in finely divided forms which are catalytically very active." (2002). Of course, many transition metals have catalytic properties. That said, if you asked me about transition metal catalysts, palladium and platinum would be the first to come to mind. Group 10 appear to be particularly catalytic.


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Allahyari & Oganov: Mendeleev Numbers & Organising Chemical Space

This formulation may not look like a periodic table, but look again.

Zahed Allahyari & Artem R. Oganov, Nonempirical Definition of the Mendeleev Numbers: Organizing the Chemical Space, J. Phys. Chem. C 2020, 124, 43, 23867–23878, A preprint version of the paper is available on the arxiv preprint server.


Organizing a chemical space so that elements with similar properties would take neighboring places in a sequence can help to predict new materials. In this paper, we propose a universal method of generating such a one-dimensional sequence of elements, i.e. at arbitrary pressure, which could be used to create a well-structured chemical space of materials and facilitate the prediction of new materials.

This work clarifies the physical meaning of Mendeleev numbers, which was earlier tabulated by Pettifor. We compare our proposed sequence of elements with alternative sequences formed by different Mendeleev numbers using the data for hardness, magnetization, enthalpy of formation, and atomization energy. For an unbiased evaluation of the MNs, we compare clustering rates obtained with each system of MNs.

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