The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
- By Decade
- By Type
Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/Left-Step Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity
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Periodic Tables from the years 2010 - 2015, by date:
Periodic Arch of The Elements
Cynthia K. Whitney of Galilean Electrodynamics writes: "In his paper Explaining the periodic table, and the role of chemical triad, Eric Scerri mentioned the existence of at least four different candidate places for Hydrogen: Group 1 (alkali metals - Lithium, etc.), Group 17 (halogens - Fluorine, etc.), Group 14 (Carbon, etc.), or off the Periodic Table entirely, because it is so odd! The four-fold multiplicity (and maybe more) of candidate places for Hydrogen triggered in me the following thought: the excessive multiplicity of candidate places may have to do with the rectangular nature of the Periodic Tables under consideration there." Read more in this pdf file.
3-D Strange Periodic Table
As Lewis Page of The Register puts it: "Top flight international reverse-alchemy boffins say they have managed to transmute gold into an entirely new form of 'negatively strange' antihypernucleic antimatter...", here.
Marks & Marks: Newlands Revisited
Marks & Marks – The Marks bros. – published "A periodic table explicitly for chemists rather than physicists. It is derived from Newlands’ columns. It solves many problems such as the positions of hydrogen, helium, beryllium, zinc and the lanthanoids but all within a succinct format." email here
Periodic Table of Periodic Tables
Tai Chi Periodic Table
Recipe For A Human Shirt
By Sean Fallon and available from Fashionably Geek, A Recipe For Humans Shirt:
Jovanovic's 2D Periodic Table
Jovanovic's 2D Periodic Table is based on the atomic number Z and the electron configuration of the elements. There is a full explanatory pdf file on the website:
The two most interesting are are shown below:
Vajra Periodic Table
The Vajra Periodic Table, which can be found at APM Periodic Tables, lays out according to electron orbitals and thus gives insights into the electron structure surrounding the nucleus. The nucleus organizes with different rules and thus a different periodic table is needed to visualize the nuclear bindings:
Pauling Spheron Periodic Table
Linus Pauling was a brilliant physicist who tended to think outside the mainstream. One of his many contributions to science was his spheron model for the nucleus. The word "spheron" does not mean the nucleus is spherical (although it may be), it refers to Pauling's idea that clusters might form in the nucleus. For example, a nucleus may contain a stable helium nucleus within a larger uranium nucleus. Thus, when uranium decays, it releases a helium atom. Other elements, such as oxygen, may also cluster within larger elements. This makes sense since certain atoms like helium and oxygen are more strongly bound than other elements:
Bing Periodic Table
Pyykkö's Extended Elements
From an RSC new page: Pekka Pyykkö at the University of Helsinki has used a highly accurate computational model to predict electronic structures and therefore the periodic table positions of elements up to proton number 172 - far beyond the limit of elements that scientists can currently synthesise.
From the paper, A suggested periodic table up to Z = 172, based on Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms and ions:
Harrison Spiral Periodic Table
This spiral, inspired by Stewart's Chemical Galaxy, is based on the modern periodic table with the elements strictly arranged in the increasing order of their atomic number and in accordance with their electron configurations.
The spiral separates the elements into the eight dominant 'A' groups of normal elements, and the eight corresponding 'B' subgroups of transitional and inner transitional elements, which have been incorporated as the inner spiral. The organisation of the elements closely follows H.G. Deming's 1923 Periodic Table where A B numeration was first utilized to correspond the characteristic oxides of the 'B' groups to those of the 'A' groups. The result of this design places Group VIII, the triads Fe, Co, Ni, etc. as a subgroup of Group 0 (or 18 Helium Group) which conflicts with some modern periodic tables, though broadly agrees with Deming's original proposal (VIIIA and VIIIB).
Hydrogen, which generally cannot be considered as part of any group, has been placed with the Fluorine group VII which appears its natural place in the spiral. Common names have been used where practicable to make the table more educational and reader-friendly. Element symbols have been included in the expanded poster of this table.
Look at a larger PDF.
Spiral of Atoms and Their Periodic Table
This information clarifies the options published in the editions of my book The Axiomatics of Nature (2007-2009). Mark Adelman Samuilovich (Mark S. Eidelman)
Cartogram Periodic Tables
"Periodic table cartograms are periodic table grids distorted using a computer algorithm so that the areas of the element squares are in proportion to a periodic table property. This is the first poster to show periodic properties plotted in this way".
Scandium Group and The Periodic Table: Sc, Y, Lu, Lr or Sc, Y, La, Ac?
Pieter Thyssen and Koen Binnemans discuss (CRC Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, Chapter 248. Accommodation of the Rare Earths in the Periodic Table: A Historical Analysis) the confusion surrounding the members of and the positioning of the scandium group. There are three forms commonly used.
A medium-long form and long form depiction of the 15LaAc periodic table. As should be clear from the long form periodic table, an intermingling occurs between the f-block and d-block:
A medium-long form and long form depiction of the 14CeTh periodic table. The d-block has been torn apart in the long form, due to the insertion of the f-block:
A medium-long form and long form depiction of the 14LaAc periodic table. The 14LaAc periodic table is in perfect agreement with the Madelung rule:
A recent graphic posted by Eric Scerri:
Upper Limit in Mendeleev's Periodic Table - Element No.155
This book (PDF), by Albert Khazan, represents a result of many-year theoretical research, which manifested hyperbolic law in Mendeleev's Periodic Table.
According to [Khazan's] law, an upper limit (heaviest element) exists in Mendeleev's Table, whose atomic mass is 411.66 and No.155. It is shown that the heaviest element No.155 can be a reference point in nuclear reactions. Due to symmetry of the hyperbolic law, the necessity of the Table of Anti-Elements, consisting of anti-substance, has been predicted. This manifests that the found hyperbolic law is universal, and the Periodic Table is common for elements and anti-elements.
World's Smallest Periodic Table
The World's Smallest Periodic Table:
Khipu or Quipu Periodic Table
The Khipu or Quipu or Talking Knot Periodic Table, developed by Julio Antonio Gutierrez Samanez.
"As a result of bringing together each pair of periods in a single function or binod, the author has found a new regular on the subject, which has been defined as a new quantum number, since the number of orders or regulations binod growth elements in the table, under the appearance of pairs of new types of quantum structures or periods whose organization responds to a simple mathematical function: a parable of the type Y = 4 X ^ 2 - In this case report: a) That the strings correspond to pairs of periods or binod and knots are double for items with orbital s (in red), six nodes for p in orange, 10 yellow d knots and 14 knots for green f . b) That in each binod or rope, appear regularly in pairing mode or dual, new quantum or orbital structures, such as moving from within the orbital previous binod.":
Circular Periodic Table of Elements
Michael Paukner's circular periodic table is one alternative to the standard periodic table of the elements:
Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure
From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Harrington Projection for The 270 AMU Structure :
Neutronic Schema of the Elements
The Neutronic Schema of the Elements, with LATIN NOTATION by Families and Groups, by Earth/matriX, Science Today, 11" x 17" laminated, color, shows each element of the periodic table with its notation in Latin letters instead of their historically accidental names and symbols:
Newlands Revisited – Poster
At the beginning of last year (Meyers, 2009), a IUPAC editorial offered "something old, something new, something borrowed and something blue".
Marks and Marks 2010 (M&M) preserves the old subgroups (Newlands' columns) that were a feature of all short forms, although M&M would then have been described as a 'medium form' (14 groups) in contrast to Mendeleyev's 'short form' (8 groups) or Werner's 'long form' (32 groups). M&M naturally continues the grouping of the lanthanoids/actinoids whose initial four groups were also included in 'short form' tables.
The logic of the arrangement of the s-elements is a new feature. It recognizes the chemical subgroups of hydrogen, viz. the alkali metals and the halogens, and of helium, viz. the alkaline earth metals and the inert gases. It is interesting to note that subgroups differ chemically from each other inversely as the azimuth, i.e. Li:F > Ca:Zn > La:Lu.
The whole idea is, of course, borrowed from Newlands. The group numbers are borrowed from valency but also from electronic structure in that the number of s, p, d, or f subgroups corresponds to the Pauli maximum for each. Finally, the mnemonic reflects that most elementary introduction to chemistry: alkalis turn Litmus blue.
From this start, the p-bloc is red, the transition elements yellow and the "rare earth" elements green, as argued in the M&M paper. The numbering of groups I - XIV is unambiguous, it is less than IUPAC's arbitrary 18 groups, it preserves subgroups and satisfactorily accommodates hydrogen and the lanthanoids/actinoids.
As required by Leigh (2009), this table is clear, simple and brief.
GJ Leigh "Periodic Tables and IUPAC" Chemistry International 2009, 31: 4-6. EG Marks & JA Marks "Newlands Revisited: a periodic table for chemists" Foundations of Chemistry 2010, 12: 85-93. F Meyers "From the Editor" Chemistry International 2009, 31:1-2.
Discovery of Tennessine
Tennessine, atomic number 117, has a mass of 292 au.
Synthetic radioactive element.
Tennessine was first observed in 2010 by Y. Oganessian et al.
Schwarz & Rich's Periodic Table
W. H. Eugen Schwarz & Ronald L. Rich, Theoretical Basis and Correct Explanation of the Periodic System: Review and Update, J. Chem. Educ. 2010, 87, 4, 435-443. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/ed800124m
Periodic table, representing some aspects of the periodic system of chemical elements (mainly to support the discussions in [the attached] article, perhaps not for the classroom):
- Element symbol and element number Z = 0 – 118
- Period number n
- Group number G, related to the number of valence electrons
- Typical electronic valence configuration of the bound atoms ("neighbour configurations" such as s1p3 instead of s2p2 may be more important for some atoms in the group)
- Characteristic valence orbitals of highest angular momentum
- Chemical group name
- (Elements that do not belong to the group are put in parentheses.)
- The dashed lines indicate alternative or controversial group assignments, they are not meant to represent the authors' views.
Note that the richness of chemistry sometimes prevents clear-cut classifications and assignments.
Bayeh's Theoretical Periodic Table of Elements
"The modern periodic table is based on quantum numbers and blocks, many problems faced the scientists and researchers when arranging the elements in the traditional and modern periodic tables as placing some elements in the incorrect place as (He) Helium, (La) Lanthanide and many others elements..." read the full pdf article here:
Bayeh's Theoretical 3D Periodic Tables
- Crocodile Periodic Table
- Ship Periodic Table
- Snake Periodic Table
- Spiral Periodic Table
- Spiral rectangular Periodic Table
- Spiral triangular Periodic Table
Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table
Eric Scerri made contact, writing: "Following the discussions on Periodic Table debate on the Chemistry Views website here, and as a result of recent turns, I have developed a new periodic table which I believe combines virtues of the Stowe table and also the Janet left-step table. I propose the name Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table. The explanation is posted on the Chemistry Views debate pages.
Piazzalunga's Circular Periodic Table
"My name is Marco Piazzalunga, I'm from Bergamo, Italy and i'm 12 years old. I am very interested about chemistry and about your website dedicated to the periodic tables of elements. I've made one graphic version of the periodic table based on a "round" model and i would like to know your opinion about it. I'm sending you the file attached. I hope you enjoy it":
Pacholek's Multipipe 3D Periodic Table
"I've recently invented a new type of periodic table. My table is 3-dimensional and is similar to the ADOMAH Periodic Table, but it's also very different from the ADOMAH Tetrahedron. Its main advantage is being fully geometric in the plane spanned by n, l and n+l quantum numbers."
Alper's Quantum Table of The Elements
Ben Alper's Quantum Table of The Elements is a simplified periodic table which shows the elements are ordered by the energy level of their sub shells and by the number of electrons in their outer shell. Such a layout is both representative of the structure of atoms and has utility since it is easy to use.
Makeyev's Periodic Table
By Alexander Makeyev – integrated interdisciplinary researcher, inventor, poet – a long pdf document (1093 pages in Russian, here) that contains a new formulation:
Fractional Janet Left-Step Periodic Chart
On Willie Johnson Jr.'s website – Gyroscopic Force Theory – can be found the Fractional Janet Left-Step Periodic Chart:
Wikipedia Long Form Periodic Table
Wikipedia has now adopted a now adopted a long form periodic table to link between the chemical elements. Scroll to the bottom of this page:
Alashvili Rotating Spherical Periodikal Tabel
Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1-270 AMUs
From Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory, comes a Normal vs Correction Shell "Pi Paradox" for 1-270 AMUs:
Elements Known in the Year 2011
Elements known in the year 2011, taken from this Wikipedia page... all the elements to 118 are now known:
Suggested Periodic Table Up To Z ≤ 172, Based on Dirac–Fock Calculations
A suggested periodic table up to Z ≤ 172, based on Dirac-Fock calculations on atoms and ions
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2011,13, 161-168
Extended Average Level (EAL) Dirac–Fock calculations on atoms and ions agree with earlier work in that a rough shell-filling order for the elements.
[This new] Periodic Table develops further that of Fricke, Greiner and Waber [Theor. Chim. Acta 1971, 21, 235] by formally assigning the elements 121–164 to (nlj) slots on the basis of the electron configurations of their ions. Simple estimates are made for likely maximum oxidation states, i, of these elements M in their MXi compounds:
"Three-dimensional table of the periodic law can be constructed in the form of a tetrahedron having an inner order. A comparison of the tetrahedron shells and the table of elements shows, that one tetrahedron shell corresponds to 4 periods of the 2D table."
Jess Tauber adds:
"The spheres here also aren't labeled, but I explain how they get labeled in the text accompanying the pic. Each such period (except for s-only, which are obviously simpler) we have a 'switchback' configuration. Like a road going up a mountain back and forth to minimize verticality, or a parachute folded into a pack. There are 8 different ways to do this (4 basic types in 2 chirally opposite mappings). And the original Weise-style non-continuous tetrahedron is just another way to organize half tetrahedra."
Tresvyatskii's Periodic Table
The paper published below represents Tresvyatskii's fundamental study. It establishes the interrelation between the ionization potential and place of an element in the periodic table. Oxides with a certain composition may form only when an element is ionized to the needed degree. Hence, the ionization potential of elements is an important parameter that governs the formation of an oxide. In this regard, the dependence of the ionization potential on the place of an element in the periodic table is of paramount importance. The role of the ionization potential in the hightemperature chemistry of oxide compounds, which underlies modern oxide materials science, is especially significant. The paper is published in Tresvyatskii's original version.
René Vernon adds:
A depiction of the short-form table, showing some clever thinking:
- The reversal in atomic number order of Np to Am
- The return of the curides
- The placement of the Ln and the curides alongside the main table
- The assignment of the Ln and An to groups
- Triple periodicity among the Ln and heavy An
Aldersley 3D Periodic Table
A Three Dimensional Periodic Table by Michael F. Aldersley, U.S. Patent 7,938,646 2B
Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law
Zigzag Periodic Table
In this periodic table we can see that the elements are arranged in a different way. Hydrogen is placed in between (and above) fluorine and lithium. This is because there is an issue on the placement of hydrogen as it has the properties of both alkali metals and halogens.
How to read the Zigzag periodic table
For periods (1), (2B), (3B) etc. read from right to left.
For periods (2A), (3A), (4A) etc. read from left to right
The arrows will guide you through the periodic table:
- Periodic Trends Atomic Radius- When moving opposite to the zigzag line in a particular period, the atomic radius of the elements increase.
- Metallic Character- Metallic Character decreases when moving along the zigzag line in a particular period.
- Ionization Energy- When moving along the zigzag line in a particular period, the ionization energy increases. Electron Affinity- Electron Affinity increases when moving along the zigzag line in a particular period.
By Akash Srivaths, High School Student, Chennai, India
Eggenkamp's Periodic Table
Hans EggenkampI presents a periodic table based upon the table by Mendeleev, in combination with the lanthanides and actinides as suggested by Laing. A simplified Pourbaix (Eh-pH) diagram is shown for each element, colored according to the oxidation stage showing the systematics in the Periodic Table:
JR's Chemistry Set
For the iPhone and iPad, JR's Chemistry Set makes chemistry interesting and fun to learn. Based upon the innovative Rota Period, it is a handy and powerful reference tool for chemistry enthusiasts and practitioners at all ages and all levels.
Magnetic Periodic Table
Schematic Periodic Table of Double-Charged Cations
N. S. Imyanitov / The Periodic Law. Formulations, Equations, Graphic Representations, Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 56 (14), 2183 - 2200, 2011 (In English), DOI: 10.1134/S0036023611140038
Extended Periodic Table - Alternative
Three Different Long-Form, or 32-Column, Periodic Tables
- Top: Version with group 3 consisting of Sc, Y, Lu, and Lr.
- Middle: Version with group 3 consisting of Sc, Y, La, Ac. The sequence of increasing atomic number is anomalous with this assignment of elements to group 3, e.g., Lu (71), La (57), Hf (72).
- Bottom: Third option for incorporating the f-block elements into a long-form table. This version adheres to increasing order of atomic number from left to right in all periods, while grouping together Sc, Y, La and Ac but at the expense of breaking-up the d-block into two highly uneven portions :
Rihani's 120 Element Periodic Table Formulations
Jeries Rihani writes: "Assuming the periodic table may reach an end at atomic number 120, I wish to draw your attention to the following three variations for the periodic table that I have on my web site Symmetry Of The Periodic Table which I think might be of interest, here, here & here":
Compact Mendeleev-Moseley-Seaborg Periodic Table (CMMSPT)
A Compact Mendeleev-Moseley-Seaborg Periodic Table (CMMSPT).
This table can be found by two different ways:
- Via MMSPT - All terms of the MMSPT are shifted to the right side without spaces.
- Via Janet Periodic Table - The first row of the Janet PT is deleted. - We remove 2 from all others 118 terms.
These 2 transformations lead to the same table, with 7 rows and 32 columns. Blocks p (green), d (light grey), and f (light orange) are preserved.
The 14 terms of the s block (dark orange/red) are splited in "cascads".
Srivaths–Labarca Periodic Table
This is an improved version of the Zigzag Periodic Table (2012). In this new arrangement the main criteria proposed to settle the placement of the elements hydrogen and helium has been taken into account: electronic configurations, the number of electrons needed to fill the outer-shell, chemical behavior, and triads of atomic number.
This is a new categorial criterion recently proposed by Eric Scerri, according to which hydrogen and helium form part of the triads H(1), F(9), Cl(17) and He(2), Ne(10), Ar(18), respectively. Thus, hydrogen preserves its place between alkali metals and halogen while helium is now in between noble gases and alkaline earth elements.
This periodic table allows visualizing easily the relationships of hydrogen and of helium with the different criteria, avoiding drawing lines to see them in contrast to other similar periodic systems.
Akash Srivaths, Chennai, India
Martín Labarca, CONICET & National University of Quilmes, Argentina
Alexander Arrangement of Elements, 3D Illustrated
The design of the 2012 Alexander Arrangement of Elements (AAE) follows the principles of a three-dimensional model developed by Roy Alexander in 1965: a printed representation of element information based on strict adherence to the Periodic Law, with every element data box physically and visually contiguous and continuous within the sequence of atomic numbers in generally accepted element property related columns - "...the periodic table the way it's supposed to be".
This is made possible by wrapping, folding, and joining the printed material and employing the patented p-block downslant of the element data boxes to allow the end element of a period to be adjacent to the first element of the next period.
Several unique features separate it from the previous four versions of the AAE
- The visual effect mirrors the look of Theodore Gray's series of posters, books, element cards and periodictable.com website and apps for the Apple iPod and iPad.
- Each element box is dominated by a Theodore Gray element photograph, with the element name, letter symbol, and atomic number relatively large, often overlapping the photo.
- The period numbers (below, right) are printed at the interface of the end/beginning of the periods, folded 90 degrees on the model, and the blocks and columns (old & new numbers), are identified below the data boxes - and in the case of the Actinoids, above.
- The element blocks connect at a central nexus (below, center), with the d- and f-blocks leaving, looping, and returning there, thus allowing the shorter period gaps above to be closed. For best visibility of the element data, these loops pinch together near the intersection. The p-block bends in a half-circle to join the s-block at the corner described above, with a patented 'downslant' where the element boxes gracefully sweep down a full box height (above) within this block to allow elimination of the "carriage return" effect: each period ending on the row above the next.
- The extended Hydrogen data box, a characteristic of all Alexander Arrangements, is more extended in this model, reaching for the multiple positions of the H box that are still under discussion among experts. The extra-extended Hydrogen box, illustrated by a composite image of a hydrogen cloud in space, (above, right) loops over the s- and p-blocks. Starting up from behind the corner of Helium & Lithium, inside the half-helical tube to loop over Helium, attach above Lithium, Beryllium and then Carbon as the loop descends (joining the ascending portion) over the data boxes of the s- & p-blocks, terminating in contact with Fluorine, Neon, and corner-on to Neon.
- The model size is the same as the previous Display Version of the AAE, but has fewer element data boxes, due to there being no photos of the lab created elements and for simplification of the educational application - introduction to property periodicity and organization of element data - the elements with atomic numbers over 94 are not included (see addendum).
- Where the f-block begins and ends, between Barium and Lutetium, the f-block is held perpendicular to the only flat segment of the element display by a pair of triangular braces, which also create the flat area, aligning the s-block with the 'pinch' of the d-block. This is particularly apparent from the bottom, when the model is supported from above. (see below)
Designed by Roy Alexander, a science museum exhibit and teaching aid designer, the Adobe Illustrator art for the model was started by Ann Grafelman, and continued by Roy from mid 2011 through November of 2012.
Photos were provided by Theodore Gray, and Element Collection funded the printing and die cutting performed by Strine Printing in York, Pennsylvania. The model kit was first offered at Theo's PeriodicTable.com, then at Roy's AllPeriodicTables.com and the new 3dPeriodicTable.com, which site is dedicated to the 3D Forever Periodic Table only, with add-ons, application suggestions, and descriptions and commentary of all sorts.
Assembly instructions and step photos, as well as a number or completed model color photographs are included with the kit. These were developed with prototype models, and while functional, have been upgraded and accompanied by an assembly video at AlexanderArrangementOfElements.com/3D
Text relating to the abbreviation of the ever increasing number of elements is explained at two places on the 3D AAE illustrated periodic table model kit. One will remain with the model and one is removed at the time of assembly.
That which remains runs under the Actinoids and the d-block elements, where the lab created elements might ordinarily be expected to be found, says:
The lab created elements ordinarily found in this part of a periodic table are not to be found in nature, there can be no photographs of them, so nothing needs to be added to this element photo periodic table - ever - so it will never be obsolete, a Forever Periodic Table.
That which is removed says:
Naturally-occurring elements have been numbered variously, generally between 80 and 96, all for cogent scientific reasons.
For easier teaching and learning, we have included on this periodic table only the 92 elements actually currently existing on Earth and in the remainder of the Universe, and adding Technetium and Promethium, which, although they may have no stable forms, serve to fill what would otherwise be gaps in the sequence.
Not added for practical and educational reasons are 'elements' consisting only of pages and pages of computer data from smashing atoms in particle accelerators. Another reason is that there can be no photographs of them to show, and as a result, your arrangement is complete and never be obsolete - your Forever Periodic Table.
Included with the art of the periodic table on the die cut substrate that makes up the model is some background information about the the history of three dimensional periodic tables.
The first of these is about the discoverer of the concept of arranging the elements in periods suggested by the properties of the elements, de Chancourtois.
The second 3D periodic table information piece (on the rear of the de Chancourtois removable card) are sketches of a number of the 3D periodic tables found on the Chemogenesis website.
Vortic Periodic Table in Marquetry
From Dr David Robson:
"My vortic periodic table created in marquetry may be of interest. I have always thought of vortic energies and with retirement time, I used my Marquetry Hobby to so create. Despite the inevitable Black Hole centre I have included the Higgs Boson there as a tribute to its discovery and potential as a window to elsewhere."
Makeyev's Verticle Form Periodic Table
A new version of the periodic table of elements on the vertical table form. Alexander K. Makeyev, a member of the Moscow Society of Naturalists, section of planetonautics; freelance interdisciplinary researcher and inventor, firstname.lastname@example.org.
1. Makeyev A.K. Normal and pathological anatomy and physiology of the human person and society. Fundamental knowledge about the qualities of the human person, human society and the software company, produces and acts of people, based on the universal algorithm of holographic structure and function at all levels and forms of matter. / / Scientific and Technical Library. July 25, 2012. 364 p, here
2. Makeyev A.K. Particles of electrostatic and magnetic fields in the system of matter photons move faster than a photon moves himself. / / The scientific debate: Proceedings IV International Correspondence scientific conference. Part I. (20 August 2012) - Moscow:. "International Centre for Science and Education", 2012. 142., S. 47-65. ISBN 978-5-905945-37-3 UDC 08. BBK 94. H 34, here:
Wheelshaped Table of Elements
From Facebook, a Wheelshaped table of elements.
Please note the symmetry of this representation.
As a result, it is possible that element 118 is the very last one in the periodic table. We have the sequence:
2 x 14 (blue)
4 x 10 (brown)
6 x 6 (violet)
8 x 2 (green)
and, logically, neither first nor last factor can be 0 or -2 (they differ in two columns above respectively by 2 and 4). On the other hand, the coherence of the structure requires the existence of two additional elements at the beginning!
Bettermann Periodic Table
In the course of my enquiries regarding the peridoc table of the elements your comprehensive and interesting collection of the varying configuration of the elements caught my eye. Responding to a growing interest, I worked through all models but couldn't find any configuration which agrees with mine.
Find my configuration for the elements in the figure below. Please open the attachment in which you find an explanatory statement for the illustrated principle, pdf file here. It bases upon the Moseleysches diagrams and the work of Eugenie Lisitzin from the thirties of the last century.
Piazzalunga's Pyramidal Periodic Table Formulations
Three Pyramidal Periodic Table Formulations, and a Spiral, from Marco Piazzalunga:
Ato Circular Periodic Table by Ramanpreet Singh Jandu
Ramanpreet Singh Jandu writes:
"The present invention relates to a device for the understanding of the periodic table and the structure of the atom together in a better way.
The device consists of seven concentric circular disks rotatable about their centre, wherein the size of the disks increases from the centre to the end like that in the structure of the atom.
Each disk is marked so as to form the sub-blocks and each disk in itself represents the periods of the periodic table.
The disks are divided into sub-blocks and labeled with elements at back side as well.
Thus the Ato Circular Periodic Table, as the name suggests, is the combination of atomic structure of the atom and that of the periodic classification of the elements."
Read more in the pdf file which describes the new formulation in detail.
Eric Scerri Lecture, Dedicated to Fernando Dufour
Dr. Eric Scerri from the Chemistry Department at UCLA giving a distinguished invited lecture at the Oscar Peterson auditorium of Concordia University, in Montreal. The topic is the history and iconic nature of the Periodic Table.
Twin Spiral Pi Trinomial - Based Periodic Table
A Twin Spiral Pi Trinomial - Based Periodic Table by Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory. For full size, click the image:
Macro-Valence Cells vs Jovian Image and Red Spot Location Periodic Table
A Macro-Valence Cells vs Jovian Image and Red Spot Location Periodic Table by Bill Harrington, Founder/CTO of Rainforest Reactor Research and Temporal Dynamics Laboratory. For full size, click the image:
Fattah's Periodic Table
A new vertical periodic table by Dr. Khalid A. FATTAH, Faculty of Eng., Karary University, Khartoum, Sudan. For full size, click the image:
7 Elemental Chemical Synthesis
The Mystics Guide to Elemental Chemistry, by bzylman at deviantart:
[A] poster is designed to geek out the chemist and the mystic alike. It is a variation on the periodic table of chemical elements that have been rearranged into a circular structure based upon their proton count and chemical family, augmented with the concept of the 7 mystic elements of earth, air, fire, water, metal, wood and void. It was very interesting to work upon once I hit the correct organization of elements that they lined up almost perfectly.
Electronegativity Chart (Leach)
Due to the importance of Pauling's electronegativity scale, as published in The Nature of The Chemical Bond (1960), where electronegativity ranges from Cs 0.7 to F 4.0, all the other electronegativity scales are routinely normalised with respect to Pauling's range.
When the Pauling, Revised Pauling, Mulliken, Sanderson and Allred-Rochow electronegativity scales are plotted together against atomic number, Z, the similarity of the data can be observed. The solid line shows the averaged data:
MCAS Electron Orbital Filling
From Joel M Williams:
"While the periodic table arrangement is usefully interpreted in columns of similar behavior, it is erroneous to imply that the underlying orbitals are all the same for all the elements in the columns of a block. Sub-orbital information has been excluded! From the standpoint of chemistry, the rule of eight would have provided better imagery on which to build an orbital system than was Bohr's orb turned-sphere. A sphere is useless from a chemical standpoint. Hybridization should not have to occur to explain the simplest of molecules. Simplicity would have the electrons occupying orbital spaces that are similar in shape. Only three orbital types are actually needed to describe the electron packing of the elements. Octahedral, square-planar, and pyramidal coordination complexes of the transition elements follow logically without the need to hybridize. This brief paper describes a rational packing of electrons around a nucleus that ends up mimicking the familiar periodic table when compressed to similar behavior."
Modeling the MCAS Way describes this concept of "building blocks" and can be found here.
Higgs Boson and Fundamental Particle/Force Periodic Tables
The Higgs boson sits at the heart of the Standard Model of particle physics, and so is at the centre of periodic table type representations of quarks, leptons and forces.
Fattah's Extended Periodic Table
A new vertical periodic table (Extended) by Dr. Khalid A. FATTAH, Faculty of Eng., Karary University, Khartoum, Sudan:
Proton Configuration Periodic Table
A Periodic Table of Proton Configurations by Radoslav Rasko Jovanovic:
4D Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table
"I've replaced the standard periodic table in the 7th "Chemistry Pane" of my E8 visualizer with a 2D/3D/4D Stowe-Janet-Scerri version of the Periodic Table."
"Interestingly, it has 120 elements, which is the number of vertices in the 600 Cell or the positive half of the 240 E8 roots. It is integrated into VisibLie_E8 so clicking on an element adds that particular atomic number's E8 group vertex number to the 3rd E8 visualizer pane. The code is a revision and extension of Enrique Zeleny's Wolfram Demonstration":
Shapes Periodic Table
3D Left Step Periodic Table
By Masahiko Suenaga, Kyushu University, Japan a 3D Left Step Periodic Table.
"Inspired by the work of Dr. Tsimmerman and Dr. Samanez, I have created a new 3D Left Step Periodic Table, which resembles to Mt. Fuji, recently registered as a World Heritage site. For more information, please visit my website":
From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement
A paper in J.Chem. Ed.: From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement
Emili Besalú, Departament de Química i Institut de Química Computacíonal i Catàlisis, Universitat de Girona, C/Maria Aurèlia Capmany, 69, 17071 Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (8), pp 1009-1013 DOI: 10.1021/ed3004534 Publication Date (Web)
"A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification. From the information given, the whole procedure can be reproduced by any interested reader having a basic background in statistics and with the help of the supplementary material provided. Intermediate calculations are instructive because they quantify several concepts the students know only at a qualitative level. The final scores representation reveals an unexpected periodic table presenting some interesting features and points for discussion."
A Periodic Pyramid by Jennifer N. Hennigan and W. Tandy Grubbs * Department of Chemistry, Stetson University, DeLand, Florida 32723, United States
J. Chem. Educ., 2013, 90 (8), pp 1003-1008 DOI: 10.1021/ed3007567 Publication Date (Web): June 21, 2013
The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy the shells identified by the principle quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The numbers 2, 8, 18, and 32 are shown in this work to be related to the triangular numbers from mathematical number theory. The relationship to the triangular numbers, in turn, suggests an alternate method for arranging elements in terms of periodicity. The resulting three-dimensional "periodic pyramid" is highly symmetric in shape. Just as is true in the modern periodic table, each layer of the periodic pyramid can be separated into shell and subshell contributions. Examining the pyramid's structure is arguably a pedagogically useful activity for college-level introductory or physical chemistry students, as it provides an opportunity to further ponder the shell model of the atom and the origins of periodicity. The connections to number theory are used to show that the outermost subshell of a given shell contains (2n - 1) orbitals.
Bernard Periodic Spiral
The Bernard Periodic Spiral of the Elements (BPSE), depicts a novel rendition of the Periodic Table that replaces the flat rectangular format with a continuous unidirectional spiral that maintains all the properties of Group and Period formation.
Comparisons may be made with similar models spanning the last three decades of the 20th century (Alexander, 1971; Mazurs, 1974; & Kaufman, 1999).
In the chart form, this new rendition is referred to as the Elliptical Periodic Chart of the Elements. In the three-dimensional form, the model resembles a Christmas tree in shape with the 7 Periods represented as circular platforms situated at various levels with the elements placed appropriately at the outer edges of each of these platforms as a Period builds up. The elements may be represented as spherical objects or flat discs with radii proportionate to atomic radii (or reasonable approximations). Color schemes accentuate the four different Blocks of elements: the s-Block (green), the p-Block (blue, with the exception that the last Group is red signifying the end of a Period), d-Block (orange), and the f-Block (yellow). The grey section, called the Group-Period Interchange, is where the end of a particular Period connects to the beginning of the next Period, and, at the same time, transitions from Group 18 to Group 1.
Watch the video here:
Underground Map of the Elements
From here: "My son loves trains. So I came up with a train related twist to an inspection of the periodic table. We sat and cut up a copy of the table and then rearranged each element as a 'station' on an underground rail system. Each line represents a characteristic shared by the elements on that line":
Matrix Series Periodic Table
By Richard Kingstone, a Matrix Series Periodic Table. Read more here.
The Janet Periodic Table (aka Left Step Table) may be re-arranged as a series of square matrices. Each element is represented as a cell and is identified by the atomic number (Z), shown as the upper number of each cell.
The quantum numbers (n, l, mL, mS) determine the location of an element within the table. The quantum pair (n, l ) are the lower numbers in each cell. Four matrices are required, each matrix is identified by a 'matrix number' (a) as shown below;:
Music Notes of Periodic Table
By Claude Bayeh, a Musical Notes formulation:
Averaged Ionisation Potential Periodic Table
By Leland Allen, a representation of the periodic table with the third dimension of energy derived from the averaged ionisation potentials of the s and p electrons. (Allen suggested that this was a direct measure of electronegativity). From J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1989, 111, 9004:
Model Wooden Periodic Table
From here, and translated from Spanish:
Among the events commemorating the 75th anniversary of the creation of the School of Treball, the author of this site, B. Navarro, along with J. Semis and J. Gràcia have built a model wooden periodic table.
The table has been divided into 5 areas: representative elements, noble gases, transition elements, rare earths and finally the groups I and II of alkali and alkaline earth together. Each of these areas of the table is made with a different type of wood. The block transition elements is made with oak, ash noble gases, representative elements in cherry, sapele the rare earth and alkali/alcalinoterros beechwood.
The central idea of the model is that each element is represented by a cube of 3 cm edge so that you can see on all sides, from left to right or right to left without losing the order of increasing atomic number or the relative position of the elements:
Muradjan's Mathematical Structure of The Periodic Table
From the website periodictablemathstructure:
The Periodic Table with a new double numerical structure, presented here is attempt to find table form which will in some new way represent the periodicity and symmetry of the Elements, with the Periodic System as base. Also this tetrahedral laminar table structure maybe will became a base for developing a new shell structure of atomic nucleus. This new rearrangement of the chemical element is based on mathematical formula which result is simple, length of the periods:
Atomic Periodic Town
Three related formulations by Baha Tangour (Tangour Bahoueddine), the Atomic Town and two Boomerang periodic tables.
Baha says: "The propositions are different representation of a 3D dimensions that depend on three properties (spectral term multiplicity, lone-pairs and period number)":
Ye Olde Periodic Table
Thanks to Marcus Lynch for the tip!
Labarca & Zambon's Formulation
Labarca & Zambon's new representation of the periodic system.
A reconceptualization of the element concept as a basis for a new representation of the periodic system, Martín Labarca and Alfio Zambon, Educ. Quím., 24(1), 63-70, 2013.
"The aim of this paper is to propose a new conceptualization of the term 'element' as the basis for a new representation of the periodic system. For this purpose we begin by recalling the dual sense of the concept of element. Next, we develop the 'limits isotopes' argument which is the basis of the new periodic chart. This task leads us both to reconceptualize the notion of element and to characterize the term 'basic substance'. In turn, the argument is used to face the epistemological problem with hydrogen and helium in the periodic table. Finally, the Döbereiner's triads are used to calculate atomic masses in three periodic charts: the medium-long-form, the modified 'left-step' proposed by Scerri, and the proposed in this work. Evaluation results allows us to stand out the fruitful predictive power of our periodic system.
"The 46 blocks of elements are ordered vertically by the increasing number of neutrons of the lighter isotope (primary criterion) and, horizontally, by the increasing atomic number (secondary criterion). The subscript represents the value of L - Z and the superscript the value of Z."
The Periodic Pyramid by Jennifer N. Hennigan and W. Tandy Grubbs, J. Chem. Educ. 2013, 90, 8, 1003-1008, https://doi.org/10.1021/ed3007567.
"The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy the shells identified by the principle quantum numbers n = 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.
The numbers 2, 8, 18, and 32 are shown in this work to be related to the triangular numbers from mathematical number theory. The relationship to the triangular numbers, in turn, suggests an alternate method for arranging elements in terms of periodicity. The resulting three-dimensional 'periodic pyramid' is highly symmetric in shape. Just as is true in the modern periodic table, each layer of the periodic pyramid can be separated into shell and subshell contributions. Examining the pyramid's structure is arguably a pedagogically useful activity for college-level introductory or physical chemistry students, as it provides an opportunity to further ponder the shell model of the atom and the origins of periodicity. The connections to number theory are used to show that the outermost subshell of a given shell contains (2n – 1) orbitals."
Lado's Periodic Table Series Analysis
By Solomon F Lado, a mathematical analysis.
Abstract (full paper):
"There is a periodic table, at least in terms of atomic number and electronic configuration, for every positive integer, c >= 2, with a capacity of 20c2 – 21c + 1 elements, where c is the construction index, and c equals one plus the maximum number of electrons per orbital of an atom. The c-construction index and the c-construction-index formulae are unique to this report. The maximum number of potential orbitals per sub-shell of an atom = 3n-1 where n is the index of the s, p, d, and f sub-shells":
Jodogne's Janet New Color Periodic Table
By J.C. Jodogne, "a Janet type slightly modified to enhance shells, periods and to make determination of ground state configuration (orbitals) very easily to build". Click here to get the full size pdf.
Jodogne's New Color Table
By J.C. Jodogne, "a medium type with the above features but with Z continuity and a general aspect very similar to the usual presentation". Click here to get the full size pdf.
ADOMAH Periodic Table Glass Cube
This amazing object is available for sale from Grand Illusions:
A Note by Philip Stewart email@example.com
The cube represents 120 chemical elements etched into a cube of Optical Crystal glass. The s, p, d, and f blocks of the Janet periodic table form four rectangles, which are slices of a regular tetrahedron, parallel with two of its edges and with two faces of the circumscribed cube. All four quantum numbers are made visible in this arrangement. You can see a 2-D version on the Perfect Periodic Table website, click on the "skyscraper" version on the right to see the tetrahedron, and go to Regular Tetrahedron at foot of page for details.
The regular tetrahedron is the only form in which slices are rectangles of different shape and identical perimeter. When each orbital is represented by a square of unit edge, the rectangles representing the blocks all have the same perimeter, which is twice the length of the edges of the tetrahedron (which are of course √2 times the edges of the cube): 18 units = 2(values of n + values of ml).
Valery Tsimmerman, firstname.lastname@example.org, creator of the design, has written to me as follows:
"I just had some thoughts about the Perimeter Rule that is at the basis of the tetrahedral arrangement. Dimensions of the blocks are dictated by number of values of ml and number of values of n. We know that n governs quantization of energy. Recently I learned that quantization of the possible orientations of L with respect to an external magnetic field is often referred to as space quantization. (Serway, Jewett: Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th edition. p.1369).
"That is, ml stands for space quantization. Therefore, the Perimeter Rule reflects a direct relationship between energy and space. I think that this could have some significance. The beautiful thing about the Universe is that each type of symmetry is related to some conservation law. Symmetry in time is related to energy. Therefore, n is related to time also, so, in the Perimeter Rule we have relationship between time and space on quantum numerical level. The interesting thing is that ml can be positive and negative, while n can only be positive. Similarly, things can move in space in positive and negative directions, but time has only one direction. There is no negative time, just as there are no negative values of quantum number n."
Adomah is a variant of Adamah, Hebrew for 'dust of the earth', from which Adam was made (Genesis 2:7).
Gutierrez Samanez's Binodic Form of the Periodic Table (Video)
Cross Periodic Table
By Claude Ziad Bayeh, a Cross Periodic Table:
Zambon's Periodic Table Based on Triads
Alfio Zambon – Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia
In the last decades, the notion of triad has been recovered by Eric Scerri, who suggested it as a possible categorical criterion to represent chemical periodicity. In particular, he reformulates the notion of triad in terms of atomic number instead of atomic weights and, in this way, the value of the intermediate term of the triad is the exact average of the values of the two extremes. The author notes that the attempt of finding new triads is very important since this relation is based exclusively on the atomic number, that is, the only feature of the elements considered as basic substances. In this work, I will follow Scerri's general proposal.
Read the full paper here (pdf):
Eadie's Periodic Electron Configuration
By Gerald Eadie, a Periodic Electronic Configuration:
Chandra's Polar Plot Periodic Table
MONOGRAPH ON ATOMS, BY Dr. N. Naveen Chandra, 543 Bellamy Road North Scarborough, On, M1H1G5, 416 439 6630, email@example.com >© N.Naveen Chandra, 2014.
A new way of graphical representation of atoms is developed and presented here. Atoms are recognized as functions of two variables A(r,Θ), where r =2,10,18,36,54,86,118 (given arbitrarily r=1,2,3,4,5,6,7) represents period and Θ representing group, is actually the angle between the groups. A mathematical solution is obtained for Θ having three distinct values of (π /9) radians, (π/18) radians and (π/27) radians which define three super groups satisfying the equation 15(π/27) +10(π/18) +8 (π /9) =2π. 15 groups of two Atoms with a transition zone of (π/27) radians is nominally called Grey Super Group (GSG). 10 groups of which 9 have four Atoms and 1 has two Atoms, also including a transition zone of (π/18) radians, is nominally called Blue Super Group (BSG). 8 groups of which 7 have 6 Atoms and one has 7 Atoms, including a transition zone of (π/9) radians is called Yellow Super Group (YSG). The group with 7 atoms is the so called reference group of Atoms 2, 10, 18,36,54,86 and 118. The GSG has 30 Atoms, the BSG has 38 Atoms and the YSG has 49 Atoms. The Atom 1 is at the centre of the Hub and does not belong to any group or period and has coordinates of (0, 0). Atom 1 having no neutrons is unique.
Metallic Character Table
"I would like to submit you an hexagonal periodic table. It's structured in different rings. The elements are ordered on their metallic characters so in the inner rings there are noble gases and nonmetals while in the outer rings there are alkali and alkaline earth metals. I based the order on the typical metallic characteristics: low ionization energy, electron affinity, etc... "
Marco Piazzalunga <firstname.lastname@example.org>
By Philip Stewart:
Janet Rejuvenated, with acknowledgement to Mazurs and to Valery Tsimmerman for the idea of using one square per orbital and of shifting the blocks so that each row represents one value of n, the principal quantum number.
The main objection people make to Janet is that He is placed at the head of the alkaline earth metals although it behaves as a noble gas. The essential answer is that electronic structure explains behaviour and not vice versa; like Ne (and unlike Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn), He has a complete shell. Similarly H, like C, is half way between a full and an empty shell, unlike the alkali metals and the halogens. I suggest a new argument: nobody finds it strange that the p block has a row of non-metals at its head (and that half its members are non-metals), so why not the s block?
UVS Periodic Tables
From the Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) website, two related formunations from the nucleosynthesis in the universe section, one showing a "manifold dual-core 3-sphere hypersphere topology", and the other showing a "dual-core Möbius strip topology":
Clock Periodic Table
Prof. Martyn Poliakoff of the University of Nottingham, and star of the Periodic Videos YouTube Channel, explains how he was given a periodic table clock by a Japanese School teacher... which he likes very much:
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Belikov's Modular Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
"I call this version of the Modular Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. I got the idea for it some time between 2005 and 2007, during the chemistry course at my university, in attempt to rationalize the clumsy common version I was being taught. I showed it to my chemistry teacher, but he didn't seem to be impressed much, so it went into the drawer. Recently I decided to resurrect it and publish somewhere. So I had a look on the web and found your excellent database, with hundreds of versions. After the first shock, I realized that only few are actually similar to my version. These are well known Janet's table and ADOMAH table. So, it appeared to me that the idea to group elements strictly according to filling of their atomic shells is not new. However, the way I have done it is slightly different from the mentioned tables. For example, s,p,d and f blocks of elements are completely autonomous and can be placed wherever desired (hence the name 'Modular'). This reflects the notion that there is little in common in chemical behavior between the elements in different blocks. Also, outer subshell type, energy level and electron count are clearly labeled, so that these parameters can be quickly determined for each element.
"Overall, I think that this version of periodic table allows easier understanding and transition from IUPAC table and could be implemented in school and university textbooks."
Jodogne's Janet New Colour Periodic Table
"This Periodic Table(click here for larger version) incorporates the Real Aufbau of Professor Pyykkö based on relativistic Quantum Mechanics, with Z continuity horizontally and vertically, by means of taking into account the ground level - energy increase upward - of the last incoming electron (the lower side of the element case is the level guide mark). A large yellow line indicates period. A gradual color for H induces a manifold chemical behavior."
Aco Muradjan's New Notation Scheme
On 08.11.2014 I added an article to the General Science Journal:
"Necessity of urgent revising and changing the present IUPAC notation scheme in the Periodic Table"
The current and present modern notation scheme for the groups in the Periodic Table exist from 1985, proposed from the IUPAC Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry, as recommendation. This proposal was also verified in 2005.
Because the IUPAC Commission encourages further discussions, improvements and proposals on this subject I made this new article which article investigates the possibilities for the new notation scheme in the Periodic Table. Links:
This article has picture of the Periodic Table with new notation scheme:
Arrangement of Elements 7th Order & Element Sequences
An exploration of some mathematics underlying the periodic table, read the PDF here, by Olivier Joseph.
"May I propose you the following pattern, as the result of a personal study concerning the arrangement of the Elements, including sequences. Based on some hypothesis and as depicted in the enclosed illustrations, the elements are positioned according to a spiral function of atomic number and atomic mass, representation in 2D in a spiral form pattern, or in 3D conical helix model.
"The elements are numbered and placed consecutively along this spiral according to a specific angle, appropriately established between each element, forming a seven arm spiral pattern. With such an angle, specifically defined, a link is established between the various elements of a same group (corresponding to chemical elements with similar properties) and different layers. These latter becoming distributed among each arm of the spiral in a notable arranged way."
Schaeffer's IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent
IUPAC Periodic Table Quantum Mechanics Consistent, Bernard Schaeffer, Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 5, No. 3, February 24, 2014
Abstract: Most periodic tables of the chemical elements are between 96% and 100% in accord with quantum mechanics. Three elements only do not fit correctly into the official tables, in disagreement with the spherical harmonics and the Pauli exclusion principle. Helium, belonging to the s-block, should be placed beside hydrogen in the s-block instead of the p-block. Lutetium and lawrencium belonging to the d-block of the transition metals should not be in the f-block of the lanthanides or the actinoids. With these slight modifications, the IUPAC table becomes quantum mechanics consistent.
UVS Periodic Table Model of a Klein Bottle Topology
This configuration can topologically suggest the g-block cycle in the 8th period for extended periodic table.
In the Klein bottle topology as illustrated, it is plausible that after the s-block cycle in the 8th periodical cycle, the topological path continues to spiral around the outer f-block cycle to harmonically form 14 elements.
And then subjected to the spiral Möbius strip topological twist, it could resonate to form 4 more elements in the anti-cyclonic path around 17th, 18th, 1st, and 2nd angular phases of the anti-cyclonic core; this would render the 18 elemental positions for the hypothetical g-block cycle in the entire half-integral anti-cyclonic cycle of the Klein bottle topology.
Hypothetically, the topological path then moves into the cyclonic cycle, and harmonically forms its d-block and p-block cycles with 16 elemental positions to complete the 8th periodical cycle with a total of 36 elements.
Quantum Fold Periodic Table
A Multi-Form Periodic Table, by keytochemistry.com, with a visual key to electronic configurations:
ADOMAH Periodic Table and Normal Distribution
Valery Tsimmerman writes:
Pams Quantum Periodic Table
By Dr. N. D. Raju, the Pams Quantum Periodic Table. Read the full paper discussing the logic of the new formulation.
Heart Periodic Table
A Heart Periodic Table by Claude Bayeh:
|What is the Periodic Table Showing?||Periodicity|
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
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