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The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.

Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:

  Text Search:       


Periodic Tables since 2016, by date:

2016   Valentine Periodic Table
2016   NAWA's byobu-Janet Periodic Table
2016   Advanced Spiral Periodic Classification of the Elements
2016   Triadic Networks
2016   Clock Face Periodic Table
2016   Sensu Periodic Table
2016   KAS Periodic Table
2016   Harrington's Periodic Tables
2016   Lindsay's Periodic Table
2016   Complete Periodic Table Chemistry Clock: H to Og
2016   Instructables 3D Periodic Table
2016   Mystery of Matter: Three Videos
2016   Russian Orthodox Elementary System of Unity of the Periodicity of the Electroatoms of the Universe
2017   Alternative Periodic Table
2017   New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table
2017   NAWA's Periodic Tables
2017   Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table UPDATED
2017   Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version
2017   Stewart's Chemosphere
2017   Moran's Periodic Spiral (updated)
2017   Elements Known and now Named in the Year 2017
2017   Kurushkin's Spiral Periodic Table
2017   Restrepo's Similarity Landscape
2018   IUPAC Periodic Table of The Elements
2018   First Ionisation Energy to the Standard Form Periodic Table
2018   Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table (Extended)
2018   Chemical Galaxy III
2018   Hoyau's Periodic Table Formulations
2018   Race to Invent the Periodic Table
2018   Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System
2018   Nawa's 3-D Octagonal Pillar
2018   Scerri's Reverse Engineered Version of Mendeleev's Eight Column Table
2018   Telluric Remix
2018   Sistema Periódico Binodico
2018   Puddenphatt & Monagham Periodic Table
2018   Periodical System (Binodic Form): a new mathematical paradigm
2018   Ziaei's Circular Periodic Table
2018   Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass
2018   Janet's Left-Step with Ground Level Microstates
2018   ADOMAH Periodic Table Formulation with NIST Data
2018   Simpson's 4-Dimensional Version of the ADOMAH Periodic Table
2018   Space's Elements in Six Dimensions
2018   Beylkin's Periodic Table of The Elements
2019   Archetypes of Periodic Law
2019   Physical Origin of Chemical Periodicities in the System of Elements
2019   Béguyer de Chancourtois' Vis Tellurique: A Better View
2019   Leach's Empirical Periodic Table
2019   UCLA Periodic Table (Proposed)
2019   Möbius-Escher Periodic Table
2019   ElementBook Braille version of the AAE
2019   Kid's Periodic Table
2019   Döbereiner Revisited
2019   Telluric Remix in Colour
2019   Grainger's Elemental Periodicity with "Concentric Spheres Intersecting Orthogonal Planes" Formulation
2019   Schaltenbrand's Helical Gathering of the Elements
2019   Poliakoff's Inverted Periodic Table
2019   Moran's Periodic Spiral (2019)
2019   NAWA's Version of Moran's Periodic Spiral
2019   Stewart's Quantahedron Formulation
2019   5 Periodic Tables We Don't Use (And One We Do)
2019   Papers of Mendeleev, Odlings, Newlands & Chancourtois from the 1860s
2019   Chemical Bonds, Periodic Table of
2019   Slightly Different Periodic Table
2019   Frog Periodic Table
2019   Group 3 of The Periodic Table
2019   Janet Rejuvenated: Stewart-Tsimmerman-Nawa
2019   Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements
2019   Meyer's NYT Graphic
2019   Where Mendeleev Was Wrong
2019   Samanez's Binodic Periodic System, New Mathematical Paradigm Poster
2019   Mendeleev 150
2019   International Year of the Periodic Table with Eric Scerri
2019   Scott Van Note Periodic Table Sculpture
2019   C&EN No Agreement
2019   Alexander Arrangement Unwrapped... and Rewrapped
2019   Weise's Tetrahedral Periodic Table
2019   Cylindrical Periodic Table of Elements
2019   Global Periodic Table
2019   Colburn's 2019 Periodic Table of The Elements
2019   International Year of the Periodic Table with Eric Scerri
2019   Elements & Anti-Elements (Atom-to-Adam)
2019   Tasset's Version of Schaltenbrand
2019   Vernon's Oxidation Number Periodic Table
2019   IUPAC Periodic Table Challenge: Nobelium Contest
2020   Nuclear Periodic Table
2020   Gierałtowski's Periodic Rotation Table
2020   Nawa Version of Maeno's Nuclear Periodic Table
2020   Vernon's Periodic Table showing the Idealized Solid-State Electron Configurations of the Elements
2020   Correlation of Electron Affinity (F) with Elemental Orbital Radii (rorb)
2020   Vernon's Constellation of Electronegativity
2020   Jodogne's Periodic Table of The Elements
2020   artlebedev's 100,000 Permutation Periodic Table of The Elements
2020   Periodic Ziggurat of The Elements
2020   Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements
2020   Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements by ERS
2020   Spiral Electron Spin Periodic Table
2020   Lehikoinen's Circular Clock Form
2020   Vernon's Periodic Treehouse
2020   Workshop on Teaching 3d-4s Orbitals Presented by Dr. Eric Scerri
2020   Vernon's (Partially Disordered) 15 Column Periodic Table
2020   Shukarev's Periodic System (redrawn by Vernon)
2020   Allahyari & Oganov: Mendeleev Numbers & Organising Chemical Space
2020   Zig-Zag Line, Periodic Table
2020   16 Dividing Lines Within The Periodic Table
2020   Split s-, p- & d-Block Periodic Table
2020   Rainbow Periodic Table in ADOMAH Cube
2021   Understanding Periodic and Non-periodic Chemistry in Periodic Tables
2021   Crustal Abundance vs. Electronegativity
2021   van Spronsen's Periodic Table: Update
2021   Helix vs. Screw
2021   Aufbau Periodic Table
2021   Provisional Report on Discussions on Group 3 of The Periodic Table
2021   Nawa's Multi Periodic Table
2021   Vernon's CSF Left-Step Periodic Table
2021   Cubical-Stair Periodic Table
2021   The Periodic Table: Is it Perfect, is it Fractured or is it Broken?
2021   Vernon's Eight-Fold Way Periodic Table
2021   Term & Spin State Periodic Table
2021   Mendeleyev Revisited


2016

Valentine Periodic Table

A Valentine Periodic Table by Claude Bayeh:

Valentine Periodic Table by Claude Bayeh

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2016

NAWA's byobu-Janet Periodic Table

NAWA, Nagayasu: A Japanese schoolteacher and periodic table designer presents a Janet form periodic table in the traditional Japanese "byobu" style:

NAWA's byobu-Janet Periodic Table
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2016

Advanced Spiral Periodic Classification of the Elements

By Imran Ali, Mohd. Suhail and Al Arsh Basheer an Advanced spiral periodic classification of the elements. Read the paper here.

Advanced Spiral Periodic Table

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2016

Triadic Networks

From orijikan.com: a great summary paper by Dr. Eric Scerri on the role of triads in evolution of the periodic table and a paper by Dr. Alfio Zambon inspired this work. Here is my contribution: the Triadic Networks (TN), which is a general mathematical design, and the Triadic Elemental Networks (TEN), that apply that design to chemical elements. For a full discussion, read the pdf here.

triad networks

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2016

Clock Face Periodic Table

In 2014 Prof. Martyn Poliakoff – of YouTube fame – showed us a working Periodic Table clock, here.

The designer of the clock, Nagayasu (a Japannese school teacher), has now provided a fuller periodic table based on the same design:

clock

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2016

Sensu or Fan Periodic Table

By NAWA, Nagayasu — A Japanese schoolteacher and periodic table designer — a "Sensu" or fan periodic table:

Sensu or fan

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2016

KAS Periodic Table

The KAS periodic table reproduces and depicts the nuclear properties of chemical elements. This periodic table depicts not only the trends of nuclear properties, but also reproduces their numerical values that remain very close to the experimental values (difference less than 4%).

The Segre Chart is based on the number of protons, Z, and the number of neutrons, N. It is like a library of nuclei and shows the recorded data only. The Segre Chart can not work when the number of neutrons is not given. But KAS Periodic Table works when the number of neutrons is not given.It does not require the number of neutrons to produce the results.This is a simple chart based on the number of protons of chemical element. We identify the following properties of elements:-

Read more here, here and here.

KAS Periodic Table

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2016

Harrington Periodic Tables

So we start this effort tabula rasa (without preconceived ideas).

1) All atoms have a default "common denominator" structure at 270 mass units, irrespective of the element under discussion. Therefore, no elements seen as wisps and glints past this point are of consequence. Ergo, the bizarre stability of Dubnium 270.

2) This common structure is divided up by the exact same divisors as are the electron orbitals - i.e. the prime numbers of 2, 3, 5, and 7.

3) Pi as a divisor produces its own, unique and dominating organizational patterns.

4) Each of these sets of plotted nuclide "boxes" use identical formats, but are arranged in vertical columns based on the set of 270 AMUs being divided by these prime numbers. So the 5D Table is 270/5 or 54 AMUs per vertical column/"tower".

5) Each system reinforces unique elemental parameters. The system based on 3/Pi, and its second "harmonic" at 6/2Pi reflects physical properties. The 2Pi configuration almost exactly emulates the "conventional" / Mendeleevian element-based table, except the periods are based upon mass not element count, and these periods do not organize in rows of 18 elements, but rather rows of 44 mass units. The organization/configuration of this default structure is: Pi(Pi^2 + Pi + 1) = 44 This is the primary physical default structure of the periodic table and spectrum of elements, as projected in 3D space, and as perceptible to humans.

6) 5D determines everything with magnetic properties. This disproves every single theory that attributes electron shell behavior as determining magnetic parameters. Clearly here we see that the nucleus is "calling the shots", with electron orbitals conforming as driven. The various red and blue shaded boxes are found at extremes of top and bottom.

7) The system of 7D determines most of all physical parameters of surface and molecular behavior. Here we see surface tension, density, softness and hardness, malleability, boiling and melting points and a few other behaviors. This system of correlation is fully unknown to conventional theory. Notice how superlative parameters bunch at the top and bottom of this configuration.

8) When this system of 270 mass units is divided by 12, for 22 mass units per period, the periodic cycle rate precisely correlates with known Type 1 and 2 elemental superconductors. The physical correlations between periodic repetition at 22 mass units, the 270 count system, and superconductors is also completely novel and not compatible to conventional BCS theory. The correlation between this 22 count system and the three largest cross section nuclides known to man (113Cd, 157Gd and 135Xe) is also completely heretical, however mathematically symmetrical and perfect it may actually be organized.

9) The center portion of this common 270 count structure is named the "Cordillera", for the habit of multiple parallel mountain ridges sharing a common alignment. This area is profoundly affected by Pi-based organizations. The very center at 135Xe indicates that the overall table should terminate at element 108 Hassium at 270 mass units. This has a Proton/Neutron ratio of 3:2. This actual nuclide has very poor stability, unlike Dubnium 105 with 270 mass counts. This nuclide has a ratio of precisely 1:Pi/2, indicating the entire table describes a spectrum of mass organizational states spanning the integer ratio of 1:1 (Deuterium) to 3:2, then on through to 1:Pi/2. Current accepted atomic theories concerning "Islands of Stability" are ridiculous.

WAH

Click on the image to see the full size version

KAS Periodic Table

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2016

Lindsay's Periodic Table

From Geoffrey Lindsay:

"I put together a table of elements that may be useful for teaching 101 chem from the point of view of valence electrons and the energy sublevels of the valence orbitals".

Click image to see a larger version.

Lindsay's Periodic Table
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2016

Complete Periodic Table Chemistry Clock: H to Og

From MrEorganization: "I've created a new periodic table clock for my son, a chemistry undergrad at Whitman College, a holiday present and a celebration of the official new names."

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2016

Instructables 3D Periodic Table

From Makendo on the Instructables website:

The first periodic table was developed in 1862 by a French geologist called Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois. He plotted the elements on a cylinder with a circumference of 16 units, and noted the resulting helix placed elements with similar properties in line with each other. But his idea - which he called the "Telluric Spiral" (see here), because the element tellurium was near the middle - never caught on, perhaps because it was published in a geology journal unread by chemists, and because de Chancourtois failed to include the diagram and described the helix as a square circle triangle.

Mendeleev got all the glory, and it is his 1869 version (dramatically updated, but still recognizable) that nearly everyone uses today.

This instructable [project] documents my efforts to reimagine a 3D periodic table of the elements, using modern making methods. It's based on the structure of a chiral nanotube, and is made from a 3D printed lattice, laser cut acrylic, a lazy susan bearing, 118 sample vials and a cylindrical lamp.

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2016

Mystery of Matter: Three Videos

From Alpha-Omega, three videos about the discovery of the Periodic Table.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements is an exciting series about one of the great adventures in the history of science: the long and continuing quest to understand what the world is made of. Three episodes tell the story of seven of history's most important scientists as they seek to identify, understand and organize the basic building blocks of matter.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements shows us not only what these scientific explorers discovered but also how, using actors to reveal the creative process through the scientists' own words and conveying their landmark discoveries through re-enactments shot with replicas of their original lab equipment.

Knitting these strands together is host Michael Emerson, a two-time Emmy Award-winning actor.

Meet Joseph Priestley and Antoine Lavoisier, whose discovery of oxygen led to the modern science of chemistry, and Humphry Davy, who made electricity a powerful new tool in the search for elements.

Watch Dmitri Mendeleev invent the Periodic Table, and see Marie Curie's groundbreaking research on radioactivity crack open a window into the atom.

The Mystery of Matter: Search for the Elements brings the history of science to life for today's television audience.:

 

 

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2016

Russian Orthodox Elementary System of Unity of the Periodicity of the Electroatoms of the Universe

By Bence Szalai: Russian Orthodox Elementary System of Unity of the Periodicity of the Electroatoms of the Universe

See the 2D version here and the 3d vesion here (in Ukrainian)

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2017

Alternative Periodic Table

From Useful Charts:

You'll notice that this periodic table looks quite a bit different from the one you're used to. The traditional periodic table is designed to emphasize the concept of valence, which is important for knowing which elements can easily combine with others to form compounds. In contrast, the periodic table below is designed to simply emphasize the way in which atoms are "built" (specifically, how electrons group together into shells and subshells).

It's based on a design proposed by Edward Mazurs in the 1960s. Like the traditional table, this alternative version can be used to find an elements name, number, atomic weight, state of matter, period, group, and block. However, it also contains detailed information on electron configurations and the different types of electron subshells.

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2017

New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table

From Valery Tsimmerman, of the PerfectPeriodicTable.com and the ADOMAH Periodic Table:

"I received email from Dr. Marcus Wolf who is a chemist, working on renewable energy and electrochemical storage in Germany, near Nuremberg. He also lectures at Georg Simon Ohm, Technische Hochschule Nürnberg. Attached to his email was new version of ADOMAH Periodic Table that he created. In this new rendering he is using Jensen's Valence Manifold (VM)."

This is what Dr. Marcus Wolf wrote:

"The first one to come up with the idea of using a valence manifold VM = [e + v] as a label for the groups, was Will B. Jensen. He derived it from the very early attempts of Richard Abegg, who, at around 1904, brought up the hypothesis of 'main- and counter-valences', derived from the observable behavior of elements and their compounds in electrochemical experiments. Eric Scerri is citing Jensen in his latest book, in the chapter about Richard Abegg. But Jensen's proper article from 1983 or so is far more detailed and in his later publications he then introduces the valence manifold concept. Last weekend I accidentally observed another consistency between the G-values and their ordering and the valence electron counts, e. If you fix the e value of the starting group in a given l-block as e(initial), you could generate every G-number of a given group by adding the valence vacancy count, v, to it:

G = e(initial) + v.

"That is another hint for the consistency of the VM labelling concept."

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2017

NAWA Periodic Tables

Nagayasu Nawa - "A Japanese school teacher and periodic table designer" - has a home page showing all his designs:

NAWA Periodic Tables

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2017

Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table UPDATED

Stowe's 'A Physicist's Periodic Table' was published in 1989, and is a famous & well respected formulation of the periodic table.

Since 1989 quite a number of elements have been discovered and Jeries A. Rihani has produced an updated and extended version. Click here to see the full size .pdf version:

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2017

Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version

From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a Braille version of the Clock Prism periodic table:

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2017

Stewart's Chemosphere

P J Stewart, a good friend of the periodic table database, has mapped a PT onto a sphere.

PJS writes: "It is Janet Rajeuni 2014  wrapped round a sphere, going back to Mazurs 1965, and Tsimmerman 2006.  Arabic numerals indicate shells (values of principal quantum number); Roman numerals indicate periods."

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2017

Moran's Periodic Spiral (Updated)

Jeff Moran has updated his 1999 Periodic Spiral.

Click here for a larger version.

Jeff says: I offer the attached spiral formulation as a way of expressing the relationships of the f and d blocs to group 3:

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2017

Elements Known and now Named in the Year 2017

Elements in the year 2017, now the elements 113 – 118 have been named: Nihonium (113, Nh), Flerovium (114, Fl), Moscovium (115, Mc), Livermorium (116, Lv), Tennessine (117, Ts) & Oganesson (118, Og) have been named.

Taken from this Wikipedia page:

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2017

Kurushkin's Spiral Periodic Table

Mikhail Kurushkin has a way of constructing the standard long form periodic table from the Janet Left-Step formulation.

Mikhail writes in his J.Chem.Educ paper DOI: 10.1021/acs.jchemed.7b00242; J. Chem. Educ. 2017, 94, 976?979

"Addition of another s-block to the left of the left-step periodic table [enables it] to be rolled into a spiral so that the left and right s-blocks are merged together and the number of elements is exactly 118. The resulting periodic table is called the "spiral" periodic table, which is the fundamental representation of periodicity":

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2017

Restrepo's Similarity Landscape

Building Classes of Similar Chemical Elements from Binary Compounds and Their Stoichiometries by Guillermo Restrepo, Chapter 5 from: Elements Old and New: Discoveries, Developments, Challenges, and Environmental Implications p 95-110.

From the abstract:

Similarity is one of the key concepts of the periodic table, which was historically addressed by assessing the resemblance of chemical elements through that of their compounds. A contemporary approach to the similarity among elements is through quantum chemistry, based on the resemblance of the electronic properties of the atoms involved. In spite of having two approaches, the historical one has been almost abandoned and the quantum chemical oversimplified to free atoms, which are of little interest for chemistry. Here we show that a mathematical and computational historical approach yields well-known chemical similarities of chemical elements when studied through binary compounds and their stoichiometries; these similarities are also in agreement with quantum chemistry results for bound atoms. The results come from the analysis of 4,700 binary compounds of 94 chemical elements through the definition of neighbourhoods for every element that were contrasted producing similarity classes. The method detected classes of elements with different patterns on the periodic table, e.g. vertical similarities as in the alkali metals, horizontal ones as in the 4th-row platinum metals and mixed similarities as in the actinoids with some transition metals. We anticipate the methodology here presented to be a starting point for more temporal and even more detailed studies of the periodic table.

Lindsay's Periodic Table

Thanks to René for the tip!

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2018

IUPAC Periodic Table of The Elements

The 1 Dec 2018 IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) Periodic Table of The Elements. For updates to this table click here.

By virtue of its work in relation with the chemical elements, IUPAC can dispense a periodic table that is up-to-date. IUPAC involvement covers various aspects of the table and data that it unveils, and several reports and recommendations, some quite recent, attest of that input. In particular, IUPAC is directly involved in the following:

  1. establishing the criteria for a new element discovery
  2. defining the structure of a temporary name and symbol
  3. assessing claims resulting in the validation and assignation of an element discovery
  4. coordinating the naming of a new element, involving the research laboratory and allowing for public comments
  5. setting up precise rules for how to name a new element
  6. defining Group 1-18 and collective names
  7. determining which elements belong to Group 3
  8. regularly reviewing standard atomic weights

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2018

First Ionisation Energy to the Standard Form Periodic Table

There is debate amongst the cognoscenti about the 'best' representation of the periodic table, and how this 'best' formulation can be explained by [rationalized by] quantum mechanics (QM).

Many feel that the Janet PT formulation, the 'Left Step', is the ideal QM PT, but this formulation does not show periodicity very well, and there are issues with the placement of H, He, Be which spill over into questions about their placement in the standard form PT (the periodic table used in classrooms and textbooks around the world).

However, it is possible to get to the conventional standard form PT directly from the first ionisation energy data, where the 1st ionisation energy is the energy required to convert a gas phase atom (M) into its gas phase positive ion plus electron.

M(g)      →       M+(g)     +     e

The process involves:

 

Note that a similar logic can be applied to atomic radius and electronegativity data.

However, there are issues about the measurement of atomic radius, because atoms are 'soft at their edges', and gas phase atomic radius is not precisely defined. And, electronegativity is a derived parameter.

By Mark Leach

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2018

Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table (Extended)

Stowe's A Physicist's Periodic Table was published in 1989, and is a famous & well respected formulation of the periodic table.

Since 1989 quite a number of elements have been discovered and Jeries A. Rihani has produced an updated and extended version in 2017. This has been further updated, below. Click for the full size .pdf version:

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2018

Chemical Galaxy III

Updated from Philip Stewart's Chemical Galaxy II, version III shows all the recently discovered elements, including: 117 (Ts) and 118 (Og).

Click here for the full size .PDF version (which gives more data):

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2018

Hoyau's Periodic Table Formulations

From Davy Hoyau in France, a selection of periodic table formulations. Davy writes:

"I can explain how i came up to this solution, to better represent graphically the mathematics of the nature. The great advantage of that solution is to make visible how important are the subrings, and not the rings, of the electronics layers. That's why we can call this representation "the table of subrings".

"They seem to be responsible of element chemistry. However, most of time the atom is represented with the full layer, of 2, 8, 18, 32 available positions for determined quanta of energy. But the most important thing is to see how strange is the table when we only have to count the additional electrons needed to finish to fill the layers, following this suit ; 2, 6, 10, 14 (because 2+6=8, 8+10=18, and 18+14=32).

"The traditional representation make easier to follow, vertically, the type of element. For example, follow the column of copper, silver, gold & roentgenium. They have the most conductivity elements of their subrings.

"Also we can follow the column of the noble gases. And that is a surprise to find a noble gas at the only first subring of the first ring, but at all the second subrings of all other rings. That let imagine an extremely innovative way to fill the free locations of energy, not simple by adding marbles on a sequence of positions, but more like a type of musical chair game (i cant be more precise actually). That show how are possibles the "errors" of filling that this 3D representation can't show, if you watch attentively the known data on the filled layers. For example, vanadium 23 is 2-8-11-2, and chrome 24 is 2-8-13-1."

Davy has also provided some links to his ideas on the web:

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2018

Race to Invent the Periodic Table

From PBS Digital Studios, a short-but-fast-moving video about the development of the periodic table during the 19th century, and a discussion about gallium:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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2018

Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System

A spiral periodic table formulation by Nawa, called the Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System.

Click here for a larger version:

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2018

Nawa's 3-D Octagonal Pillar

A 3-D octagonal pillar periodic table model by Nawa, "acccording to Scerri's reverse engineering [of] Mendeleev's 8-column table":

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2018

Scerri's Reverse Engineered Version of Mendeleev's Eight Column Table

Eric Scerri has updated – reverse engineered – the classic Mendeleev Table, here, here & here:

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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2018

Telluric Remix

Philip Stewart writes:

The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.

My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).

The printable version is available (click here for the full size version) to make your own:

I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. stewart.phi@gmail.com

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2018

Sistema Periódico Binodico

By Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, who writes:

"Sistema Periódico Binodico. Nuevo Paradigma Matematizado. I have followed the work of the wise Mendeleev, of Emil de Chancourtois, of Charles Janet; inspired by the work of my countryman Dr. Oswaldo Baca Mendoza. It is in Spanish but soon I will have the English version."

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2018

Puddenphatt & Monagham Periodic Table

Jeries Rihani's version of R. J. Puddenphatt and P. K. Monaghan, published in1989, but is not an exact copy. The differences are as follows:

  1. It adds color: YELLOW for the s-block, GREEN for the p-block, BLUE for the d-block and PURPLE for the f-block.
  2. It avoids being congested since it excludes the electronic configurations of the elements.
  3. It is updated and includes the atomic numbers 119 and 120.
  4. It shows that it is symmetrical around the vertical axis.
  5. The f-block, like all the other blocks, ends with even atomic numbers.

Puddephatt and Monaghan say "their table is after Philips and Williams":

Ref, Phillips CSG & Williams RJP 1965, Inorganic Chemistry, I: Principles and Non-metals, Clarendon Press, Oxford, p. 40.

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2018

Periodical System (Binodic Form): a new mathematical paradigm

By Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, who writes:

"System devised and prepared by the Peruvian chemical engineer, Julio Antonio Gutiérrez Samanez, deals with a new conception of Mendeleev's Law as a mathematical function and a new description of the process of forming the series of chemical elements according to mathematical laws and dialectical processes of changes quantitative and qualitative under a dynamic spiral architecture in 3D, which is postulated as a new scientific paradigm."

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2018

Ziaei's Circular Periodic Table

Minoo Ziaei writes:

"My father, Manouchehr Ziaei, has an interesting design of the periodic table, which I helped him draw using AutoCAD. He is very keen in introducing [this formulation] to potential interested viewers, he was recommended to visit [the Chemogenesis Database of Periodic Tables] website."

Click image to enlarge:

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2018

Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass

Nagayasu Nawa, the prolific designer of periodic tables, here and here, has come up with an orbital filling periodic table and a corresponding hourglass animation. Nawa writes:

"I have turned the v.e.c. PT into the GIF animation that I call the electron hourglass, 1 second for each element. It takes 120 seconds from 1H to 120 Ubn. I have coloured orbital with colour derived from each shell's name, such as:

Click image to enlarge.

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2018

Janet's Left-Step with Ground Level Microstates

By Valery Tsimmerman, who writes:

Janet's LST with ground level microstate information and total spin graph shown for each group of elements. The top line represents number of electrons in open sub-shells (with exception of six anomalous elements). Information shows physical (spectroscopic) basis of the groups.

The zigzag line on top is a graphic representation of Hund's rule showing the total inherent spins of atoms and the total spin of Cu is 1/2, same as for Ag and Au. When it comes to ground level atomic microstates and Hund's rule Cu is not anomalous (2S1/2), despite its anomalous electron configuration.

The diagram represents Hund's Rule that states that "the lowest energy atomic state is the one that maximizes the total spin quantum number for the electrons in the open subshell" (Wikipedia). Y-axis is the total spin and x-axis is number of electrons in open shells (with exception of six anomalous elements).

First, I would like to make couple of general comments. When discussing periodicity, they typically talk about chemical properties and electron configurations/differentiating electrons, etc, but those are not specific enough. For each electron configuration there are multiple microstates. For example, for single electron configuration of carbon there are over 30 microstates and only one of them corresponds to ground level. So, microstates express combined physical/spectroscopic properties of whole atoms and, the most important, combined properties of electrons located in open subshells.

Now, look at ground level term symbols in each group. I see amazing consistency, especially in the main groups. It tells me that groups are not only chemical, but physical!

Looking at periods one can see that all periods in s, p & d blocks begin with elements that have multiplicity M=2 and end with M=1. This is also true for f-block if it starts with La and Ac and ends with Yb and No. This puts Lu and Lr firmly in group 3. Placing La and Ac in group three ruins spectroscopic consistency.

Click here image to enlarge the PT below.

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2018

ADOMAH Periodic Table Formulation with NIST Data

By Valery Tsimmerman, who writes:

I would like to share with you another variant of my ADOMAH periodic table formulation that holds additional spectroscopic information.

Click here image to enlarge the PT below.

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2018

Simpson's 4-Dimensional Version of the ADOMAH Periodic Table

Doug Simpson writes:

"Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH table and website got me started as a periodic table hobbyist. The attached photos show what I've been up to. Valery's observation that n, l, & m conspire to generate a half-filled tetrahedral lattice inspired me to create a 4D periodic table using all four quantum numbers as coordinates."

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2018

Space's Elements in Six Dimensions

By Tom Space, The Elements in Six Dimensions, arranged by volume periods of nuclide mass averages:

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2018

Beylkin's Periodic Table of The Elements

René Vernon writes: Beylkin's Periodic Table of The Elements has 4n2 periods, where n = 2,3..., and shows symmetry, regularity, and elegance, more so than Janet's left step table.

Beylkin (an applied mathematician) writes:

"Let us take a continuous strip of paper and, on one side of the strip, write all the elements in the order of their atomic numbers. We then form a spiral with the strip such that the two most chemically distinct groups, the group of halogens (in which we include hydrogen) and the group of noble gases, are properly aligned. By flattening the strip on a plane and folding it in the middle, we obtain the new periodic table..."

Other features:

There are four new(ish) groups: Ti-Zr-Ce-Th, V-Nb-Pr-Pa, Cr-Mo-Nd-U and Mn-Tc-Pm-Np. For the actinide elements of these groups, the resemblance of the earlier actinides to their lighter transition metal congeners is well known. For the lanthanide elements, Johansson et al. (2014) wrote a nice article about Ce and its cross-road position. For Pr, Nd, and Pm, all of these are known in multiple oxidations states (+2, +3, +4 excl. Pm, and +5 for Pr only), just as the transitions metals are so known.


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2019

Archetypes of Periodic Law

Archetypes of Periodic Law by Dmitry Weise, read more on the website.

One of the creators of quantum mechanics Wolfgang Ernst Pauli wrote in his work The Influence of Archetypal Ideas on the Scientific Theories of Kepler (1948):

"The process of understanding nature as well as the happiness that man feels in understanding – that is, in the conscious realization or new knowledge – seems thus to be based on a correspondence, a 'matching' of inner images pre-existent in the human psyche with external objects and their behavior. This interpretation of scientific knowledge, of course, goes back to Plato and is, as we shall see, advocated very clearly by Kepler. These primary images, which the soul can perceive with the aid of an innate 'instinct', are called by Kepler archetypal. Their agreement with the 'primordial images' or archetypes introduced into modern psychology by C. G. Jung and functioning as 'instincts of imagination' is very extensive. A true spiritual descendant of the Pythagoreans, he attached the utmost importance to geometric claiming that its theorems 'have been in the spirit of God since eternity'. His basic principle was: 'Geometria est archetypus pulchritudinis mundi' (Geometry is the archetype of the beauty of the world)."

Dmitry writes:

"The key archetype, in our opinion, is the concept of the square and its gnomon. This is due to the well-known fact that the electron filled shell contains 2n2 electrons, and the number of electrons on the subshell is twice the odd number; the gnomon of the square. Triangle, tetrahedron, square pyramid, octahedron, pyramid-like figures composed of square layers are also considered. The methodical concept for these constructions is the figurate numbers, actively studied by the Pythagoreans. The tables of the periodic law built on the motifs of ancient folk and modern ornaments take a special place. They include not only geometric archetypes, but also magic-symbolic, cultural and religious archetypes of the collective unconscious. Note that the periodic law table, built on the basis of the Native American ornament, surpasses the modern Mendeleev table in the parameter reflecting quantum numbers in its structure."

Note the final photograph below shows Prof. Martyn Poliakoff of The University on Nottingham and Periodic Videos:

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2019

Physical Origin of Chemical Periodicities in the System of Elements

From de Gruyter: Physical origin of chemical periodicities in the system of elements, Chang-Su Cao, Han-Shi Hu, Jun Li* and W. H. Eugen Schwarz*, Pure Appl. Chem. 2019; 91(12).

Published Online: 2019-11-30 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/pac-2019-0901 (open access)

Abstract:

The Periodic Law, one of the great discoveries in human history, is magnificent in the art of chemistry. Different arrangements of chemical elements in differently shaped Periodic Tables serve for different purposes. "Can this Periodic Table be derived from quantum chemistry or physics?" can only be answered positively, if the internal structure of the Periodic Table is explicitly connected to facts and data from chemistry.

Quantum chemical rationalization of such a Periodic Tables is achieved by explaining the details of energies and radii of atomic core and valence orbitals in the leading electron configurations of chemically bonded atoms. The coarse horizontal pseudo-periodicity in seven rows of 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32 members is triggered by the low energy of and large gap above the 1s and nsp valence shells (2 ≤ n ≤ 6 !). The pseudo-periodicity, in particular the wavy variation of the elemental properties in the four longer rows, is due to the different behaviors of the s and p vs. d and f pairs of atomic valence shells along the ordered array of elements. The so-called secondary or vertical periodicity is related to pseudo-periodic changes of the atomic core shells.

The Periodic Law of the naturally given System of Elements describes the trends of the many chemical properties displayed inside the Chemical Periodic Tables. While the general physical laws of quantum mechanics form a simple network, their application to the unlimited field of chemical materials under ambient 'human' conditions results in a complex and somewhat accidental structure inside the Table that fits to some more or less symmetric outer shape. Periodic Tables designed after some creative concept for the overall appearance are of interest in non-chemical fields of wisdom and art.

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2019

Béguyer de Chancourtois' Vis Tellurique: A Better View

The content of Béguyer de Chancourtois' Vis Tellurique decanted into a flat table.

The flattened version – prepared by Conal Boyce – shows important aspects that cannot be 'read' from the helix itself.

Click to enlarge

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2019

Leach's Empirical Periodic Table

The common/conventional/standard 'medium form' periodic table is based on the 1945 Seaborg formulation, and it is interesting to explore where this formulation – and its 1939 predecessor – come from. (Interestingly, the Werner formulation of 1905 is not cited as a source and there are no other similar formulations in the (this) Periodic Table Database.)

However, it is possible to get to the common/conventional/standard periodic table directly from two readily available data-sets: (1) first ionisation energy of the gas phase atoms, and (2) atomic radius.

The procedure involved plotting the data, rotating 90°, squeezing vertically and smoothing. The points need a little tidying up, and then they can be mapped directly onto the Seaborg formulation periodic table.

The only element which does no obviously 'line-up' with the periodic table is hydrogen, but many modern periodic tables have H floating as it is not obvious if it should be considered to be a Group 1 alkali metal or a Group 17 halogen.

Note:

There are advantages and disadvantages to each data set. The 1st ionisation energy data from NIST is known with up to seven significant figures of precision, but the data jumps about at times due to the presence of the s & p-orbitals, which appears to make the data a little noisy. (Actually, this 'noise' is embedded information about the electronic structure of the atoms.) The atomic radius gives smoother data, but as gas phase atoms do not have hard edges calculated (Clementi 1967) rather than experimental values, must be used.

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2019

UCLA Periodic Table (Proposed)

Eric Scerri writes:

During an office hour here at UCLA with a couple of students – Annelise Gazale & Chidinma Onyeonwu – we came up with a 'new periodic table'.

The basis of it is related to a point you frequently make against the Left Step formulation, namely that it messes up trends in atomic radius etc.

So how about this: Traditionally on the right side of the table elements become less reactive as we move down, but on the right side of the table elements become more reactive as we move down. Consequently, the noble gases are anomalous in the way they usually sit since they become more reactive as we move down the table.

Ergo: Move the noble gases to the left edge of the table. (Yes, this has been done before of course but not for this reason.)

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Möbius-Escher Periodic Table

A comment article in Nature by Prof. Eric Scerri about quantum mechanics and the periodic table:

"Can quantum ideas explain chemistry's greatest icon? Simplistic assumptions about the periodic table lead us astray.

"Such has been the scientific and cultural impact of Dmitri Mendeleev's periodic table of the elements that many people assume it is essentially complete. [But] in its 150th year, can researchers simply raise a toast to the table's many dividends, and occasionally incorporate another heavy synthetic element?

"No – this invaluable compilation is still not settled. The placements of certain elements, even hydrogen and helium, are debated."

The article is accompanied by a fantastic illustration by Señor Salme with ideas from the Möbius strip and M.C. Escher:

Click image to enlarge:

Another Señor Salme PT image:

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2019

ElementBook Braille version of the AAE

From Roy Alexander of the AAE (Alexander Arrangement of the Elements):

"My [first] contribution to celebrate this Year of the Periodic Table is to reach out to folks who have yet to see what everyone's talking about, so they can get the feel of it: a 3D periodic table in Braille."

For the premise for this PT, here.

For your own model (with Braille) of the ElementBook: print*, cut out each part at the outside blue lines, etc.

The ElementBook Braille version of the AAE is in the beta-test phase for the rest of the year, so if any of you know of an aspiring chemist who would be willing to use it while learning (and keep me informed of that experience all year) send them to www.chemicalelementsystem.com/braille/

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2019

Kid's Periodic Table

From Cognitive Classroom, a Kid's 'cut-down' Periodic Table:

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2019

Döbereiner Revisited

Gordon Marks has developed a "Döbereiner Revisited" periodic table. Read all about it here.

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2019

Telluric Remix in Colour

Philip Stewart writes (this is the same text that accompanies the 2018 B/W version):

The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by Alexandre-Émile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.

My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).

I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. stewart.phi@gmail.com

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2019

Grainger's Elemental Periodicity with "Concentric Spheres Intersecting Orthogonal Planes" Formulation

From Tony Grainger, an Elemental Periodicity formulation with concentric spheres intersecting orthogonal planes.

Tony writes:

"I hand sketched this periodic table about a decade ago and placed it on my cubicle window at UTAS, with minimal comments from work mates. It bears some similarity to other formulations in the database, especially when cut along the left axis and laid flat. The concept of all elements of a period being aligned along orthogonal planes cutting a sphere was inherent in the original sketch. When I began using SVG about five years ago I realised I could draw this as a real projection of the 3D model. It was on the back burner, until I found the original sketch during a tidy up."

There are two images of this 3D formulation: an "inside_corner_below/outside_corner_above" (top image) and an "outside_corner_below/inside_corner_above" lower image.

 

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2019

Schaltenbrand's Helical Gathering of the Elements

From the RSC Website:

"A glistering, shining spiral made of silver, gold, platinum, palladium and a diamond forms the show-stopping apex of the tribute from the University of Cambridge's St Catharine's college to the International Year of the Periodic Table.

"Commissioned to match George Schaltenbrand's 1920 design for a helical gathering of the elements – albeit extended to all 118 current elements – and signed by Yuri Oganessian, it is almost certainly the most expensive periodic table in the world."

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Poliakoff's Inverted Periodic Table

From Nature Chemistry. Martyn Poliakoff et al write:

"The inverted periodic table is obtained by rotating the conventional one by 180° about a horizontal axis.

"a, The lighter elements are now at the bottom and the filling of the electron shells occurs upwards. Just like the traditional representation, many properties (for example, atomic number) increase across the table as one proceeds from left to right, but in the inverted version, the same properties now increase as one moves from the bottom to the top, which is the way that most graphs are plotted. Also like the conventional table, the lanthanides and actinides still sit uncomfortably in an isolated block.

"b, In principle, this could be overcome by inverting the 'long form' of the table but, like the conventional long form, it is probably too elongated to be very useful to most chemists."

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Moran's Periodic Spiral (2019)

Jeff Moran has been working on his Periodic Spiral for more than twenty years. Here is the latest iteration, click to enlarge:

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2019

NAWA's Version of Moran's Periodic Spiral

Periodic table designer Nagayasu Nawa has put his spin on Moran's Periodic Spiral:

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2019

Stewart's Quantahedron Formulation

From Philip Stewart, here & here, comes a three dimensional Quantahedron Formulation.

Philip writes:

"The Quantahedron is based on Tsimmerman's Adomah cube, realised in transparent plastic, in the usual order in which Z values are read, printed on separable blocks so that it can be assembled."

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2019

5 Periodic Tables We Don't Use (And One We Do)

SciShow says:

"From Mendeleev's original design to physicist-favorite "left-step" rendition, the periodic table of elements has gone through many iterations since it was first used to organize elements 150 years ago - each with its own useful insights into the patterns of the elements":

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2019

Papers of Mendeleev, Odlings, Newlands & Chancourtois from the 1860s

Peter Wothers from the University of Cambridge with Sir Martyn Poliakoff, of the University of Nottingham discuss the discovery/development of the periodic table in the 1860s with the original publications.

Links to some of the formulations discussed in the video:

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2019

Chemical Bonds, Periodic Table of

The Max Planck Society (M-P-G, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) has an article about the hidden structure of the periodic system.

Guillermo Restrepo, MPI for Mathematics in the Sciences:

"A periodic table of chemical bonds: Each of the 94 circles with chemical element symbols represents the bond that the respective element forms with an organic residue. The bonds are ordered according to how strongly they are polarized. Where there is a direct arrow connection, the order is clear: Bonds of hydrogen, for example, are more polarized than bonds of boron, phosphorus, and palladium. The same applies to rubidium in comparison to caesium, which has particularly low polarized bonds and is therefore at the bottom of the new periodic table. If there is no direct arrow between two elements, they may still be comparable – if there is a chain of arrows between them. For example, the bonds of oxygen are more polarized than the bonds of bromine. Bonds represented by the same colour have the same binding behaviour and belong to one of the 44 classes.":

Thanks to René for the tip!

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2019

Slightly Different Periodic Table

The Max Planck Society (M-P-G, Max-Planck-Gesellschaft) has an article about the hidden structure of the periodic system.

Guillermo Restrepo, MPI for Mathematics in the Sciences:

"A slightly different periodic table: The table of chemical elements, which goes back to Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer, is just one example of how objects – in this case the chemical elements – can be organized in such a system. The researchers from Leipzig illustrate the general structure of a periodic table with this example: The black dots represent the objects ordered by the green arrows. Using a suitable criterion, the objects can be classified into groups (dashed lines) in which the red arrows create a sub-order":

Thanks to René for the tip!

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2019

Frog Periodic Table

One of the frogs from Stockport's (UK) Giant Leap Frog Art Trail. This frog is Chemit.

Thanks to Helen P for the tip!

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2019

Group 3 of The Periodic Table

There are several ways in which the 'common/modern medium form' periodic table are shown with respect to the Group 3 elements and how the f-block is shown. Indeed, there is even some dispute about which elements constitute Group 3. There are three general approaches to showing Group 3:

(See Scerri's take and Thyssen's view on this matter.)

So, which one of the three options is 'better'?

The general feeling amongst the knowledgeable is that leaving a gap is not an option, so it comes down to:

Sc, Y, La, Ac     vs.     Sc, Y, Lu, Lr

René Vernon has looked as the properties of the potential Group 3 elements, including: densities, 1st ionisation energies, ionic radii, 3rd ionisation energies, melting points & electron affinity:

Figure 1 shows that a Z plot of the density values for Sc, Y, La, Lu Ac and Lr follows a smooth trendline.

Figure 2 shows that a Z plot of the first ionization energy values follows a smooth trendline.

Figure 3 shows that a Z plot of the 6-coordinate ionic radii for the subject elements bifurcates after Y into an -La-Ac tranche (R2 = 0.99) and a -Lu-Lr branch (0.61). The trendline for -La-Ac is smoother.

Figure 4 shows a Z plot of 3rd ionisation energy values bifurcating after Y into a -Lu-Lr tranche (R2 = 0.83) and a -La-Ac branch (0.98). The trendline for -La-Ac is smoother.

Figure 5 shows that a Z plot of the melting points bifurcates after Y into an -Lu-Lr (R2 = 0.72) tranche and a -La-Ac (0.71) branch. While the fit values for the two options are comparable, -Lu-Lr is preferred since Y and La show a greater departure from trend.

Figure 6 has a Z plot of electron affinity values bifurcating after Y into an -La-Ac tranche (R2 = 0.85) and a -Lu-Lr branch (0.99).[iii] The trendline supports Lu-Lr. The trend-lines by themselves are inconclusive: two show no difference; two support -La-Ac; two support -Lu-Lr.

Upon reviewing the data, René's comment is that: "The net result is that the two options seem inseparable" and he proposes that IUPAC adopt the following periodic table numbering system:

Professor Sir Martyn Poliakoff's [of the Periodic Videos YouTube channel & Nottiningham University] take on this matter:

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2019

Janet Rejuvenated: Stewart-Tsimmerman-Nawa

An updated version of Philip Stewart's Janet Rejuvenated by Valery Tsimmerman redrawn by Nawa.

Click here to enlarge.

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2019

Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements

Randhir Bhavial Chavhan's Third Generation Periodic Table of the Elements poster, as presented 4th International Conference on Periodic Table at St. Petersburg, Russia.

Click here, or on the image, to enlarge:

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2019

Meyer's NYT Graphic

A nice graphic by Alex Eben Meyer in the New York Times accompanying an article about the periodic table and some of Sir Martyn Poliakoff ideas.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Where Mendeleev Was Wrong

A paper by Gábor Lente, Where Mendeleev was wrong: predicted elements that have never been found, from ChemTexts https://doi.org/10.1007/s40828-019-0092-5.

As is well known, Mendeleev sucessfully predicted the existance of several elements, but he was not always correct.

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Samanez's Binodic Periodic System, New Mathematical Paradigm Poster

Julio Antonio Gutierrez Samanez (Master's student in chemical engineering at the San Antonio Abad National University of Cusco, Peru) presented a poster at the 4th International Conference on the Periodic Table arranged by IUPAC, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation, July 2019. See the high resolution .PDF file.

More here and at kutiry.com        

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2019

Mendeleev 150

Mendeleev 150 is the 4th International Conference on the Periodic Table. The event welcomed nearly 300 guests from over 30 countries and has become one of the key events of IUPAC's International Year of the Periodic Table.

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

International Year of the Periodic Table with Eric Scerri

A YouTube video about IUPAC's International Year of the Periodic Table:

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Scott Van Note Periodic Table Sculpture

On the Saatchi Art website, a 3D periodic table Sculpture by Scott Van Note.

Sculpture: Metal (Bronze). Ten made for the local ASM international chapter.

Loops and changes of direction show electron shell filling. S,P,D,F with S just a change of direction. Continuous spiral from top to bottom. New loops introduce as the electron shell would. Does not show the out-of-order shell filling.

Keywords: periodic,   science,   sculpture,   functional,   nerd

Thanks to Roy Alexander for the tip!

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2019

C&EN No Agreement

From C&EN: The periodic table is an icon. But chemists still can't agree on how to arrange it:

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Alexander Arrangement Unwrapped... and Rewrapped

In mid-2019 Roy Alexander – of the Alexander Arrangement – produced an intriguing new formulation in sketch form that shows the p, d & f blocks moving away from the s block in three dimensional space:

Roy has now expanded this into a full blown new formulation. (Click image to enlarge):

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2019

Weise's Tetrahedral Periodic Table

A Facebook video by Dmitry Weise showing how the conventional periodic table can be morphed into a tetrahedral formulation via the Janet Left Step:

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Cylindrical Periodic Table of Elements

Two YouTube videos by Takehiko Ishiguro (original & updated): Cylindrical Periodic Table of Elements.

Three types of the cylindrical periodic table of elements are demonstrated with a rotating table. Comments on them are given at the end of the video (in English).



The Japanese version is here.

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2019

Global Periodic Table

Brian Gregory of keytochemicstry.com presents a Global Periodic Table.

The figure below shows the subshell strings aligned in columns based on the total pool of valence electrons as described above. This is the global periodic table. Each column constitutes a global group. Each term in column 1 launches a global period. The global periodic table is a purely mathematical matrix that assigns precise row and column coordinates to all positive integers but makes no predictions as to the order in which subshells are filled. Read more here.

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2019

Colburn's 2019 Periodic Table of The Elements

Justin Lee Colburn writes:

"What is unique to my Periodic Table is the fact that any Elements Electron Spin can be identified for Orbital Diagrams using a technique I have called 'Element Shifting'.

"Elements with an Up spin Valence Electron are shifted up and Elements with a down spin are shifted down. Also, the Hund's rule Exceptions are Highlighted in the Transition Metals so their orbital diagrams can also be identified easily.

"In addition, an accurate numbering system can be applied to all the elements with Helium placed in Group 2 instead of Group 18. I believe that quantitative data should take priority when giving elements their position, but this system is meant to be dynamic rather than static. In my Periodic Table System, (1-8) corresponds to Valence Electrons in the s and p orbitals and then the 9-18 and 19-32 corresponds to core electron in d and f orbitals .

I believe that it is important to begin by showing students the first 20 Elements FIRST because they all add Outer Valence Electrons which makes the Periodic Table logic easy to follow. Also explaining that Hydrogen and Helium are anomalies with more than one logical position, can really help clear up confusion for new students.

"After element 20, the Transition Elements such as scandium 21 begin adding core electrons in the d orbital the current standard (1-18) numbering system does not reflect this. One of the reasons why I prefer keeping the s and p block elements on the outside of the table and the f and d block elements on the inside is because of how they add electrons to their orbitals.

"I have been developing a curriculum based on this system that I believe will help students learn and understand the logic and trends of The Periodic Table more efficiently than the standard. Rather than memorizing Element information, Students will truly be able to follow the logic based on the location of the Elements, simple counting and using the numbering system."

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2019

International Year of the Periodic Table with Eric Scerri

Interview with leading expert on the periodic table and UCLA professor, Eric Scerri, to celebrate the International Year of the Periodic Table.

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2019

Elements & Anti-Elements (Atom-to-Adam)

Justin Colburn writes:

"The underlying order of the Atoms and asking the question of Intelligent Design has inspired my work. I have developed a new and improved Periodic Table of Elements that restores the Lanthanides and Actinides in their proper positions while also applying a complete and accurate numbering system. (1-8) numbering in s and p blocks correspond to Valence Electrons with (9-18) and (19-32) corresponding to core Electrons in the d and f block Elements.

"I have also inverted the Periodic Table of Elements which reflects the "missing" Anti Matter of our Universe. Unique to my Periodic Table of Elements is the ability to easily identify any Elements Electron Spin for Orbital Diagrams by shifting Elements up or down. Lastly I have highlighted some of the AUFBAU Exceptions or Electron Configuration anomalies in the transition metals. Interestingly, standing the Periodic Tables upright resembles the image of human beings, hence the title of my project, from Atom to Adam."


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2019

Tasset's Version of Schaltenbrand

Tasset's version of Schaltenbrand's Helical Periodic Table

Harry F. Tasset writes:

"I am very happy to be able to submit a periodic table that represents the culmination of many years of study. Much of my creative inspiration came from my father Everett and my two chemist brothers, Carl and Emmett. Also, I must mention Isaac Asimov.

"I have considered the gravity of this release and believe this is for the betterment of mankind. It is a moot point at this stage to regret the mistakes made in the 1930's when the Lanthanoids and Actinoids were separated, like the middle of a tree magically suspended to its side. Suffice it to say that the table was meant to be a complete whole."

Click the image to enlarge

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2019

Vernon's Oxidation Number Periodic Table

René Vernon's periodic table showing oxidation number trends.

René writes:

Click image to enlarge

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2019

IUPAC Periodic Table Challenge: Nobelium Contest

IUPAC Periodic Table Challenge: Nobelium Contest. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ci-2020-0204

After a first round based on the knowledge of the participant of the chemical elements, in this new phase of the Challenge, participants were invited to share their passion and creativity about chemistry. The entries were supposed to highlight the role of the Periodic Table in a creative manner. We received a variety of submissions including videos, poems, songs, and paintings. Entries were categorized into science, art, and outreach or community activities related to the science education and the Periodic Table. We were genuinely surprised and inspired by the dozens of pieces of art that we were receiving from all around the world. A jury as well as popular votes casted for each entry decided who were to receive the special limited edition IUPAC Periodic Tables signed by the Nobel laureates. That was one of the most difficult tasks of this activity, as the quality, originality, and diversity of the entries were truly amazing.

The artist is Swaprabha Chattopadhyay, a high school student from India.

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2020

Nuclear Periodic Table

A nuclear periodic table by Kouichi Hagino & Yoshiteru Maeno from Kyoto University published in Foundations of Chemistry here & here (open access).

"Elements with proton magic-number nuclei are arranged on the right-most column, just like the noble-gas elements in the familiar atomic periodic table.

"The periodic properties of the nuclei, such as their stability and deformation from spherical shape, are illustrated in the table. Interestingly, there is a fortuitous resemblance in the alignments of the elements: a set of the elements with the magic number nuclei 50(Sn), 82(Pb) and Fl(114) also appears as the group 14 elements in the atomic periodic table. Thanks to this coincidence, there are similarities in the alignments beyond 41(Nb) (e.g., Nb-Ta-Db or La-Ac in the same columns) in both the nuclear and atomic periodic tables of the elements.

"Related documents can be found: http://www.ss.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp/elementouch/index.html

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2020

Gierałtowski's Periodic Rotation Table

Sent by Tomasz Gierałtowski from Poland. There is no information, but Tomasz has provided construction diagrams for each period. Click the links to see these:

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2020

Nawa Version of Maeno's Nuclear Periodic Table

Nagayasu Nawa - "A Japanese school teacher and periodic table designer" - has developed two versons of the Hagino-Maeno Nuclear Periodic Table.

Nawa writes:

"I have made two Nuclear PTs based on Hagino-Maeno (2020). I have tried to express the Nuclear PT visually by using symbols such as '〇','◇','☓' or small '〇' or '●' in a binary way so that people with colour blindness could understand it. And the other have been with the ' QUAD electronic data."

Click either of the images below to enlarge:


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2020

Vernon's Periodic Table showing the Idealized Solid-State Electron Configurations of the Elements

René Vernon writes:

"I've attached a periodic table showing the solid-state electron configurations of the elements. Among other things, it provides a first order explanation as to why elements such as Ln (etc.) like the +3 oxidation state.

"The table includes two versions of the f-block, the first starting with La-Ac; the second with Ce-Th. The table with the first f-block version has 24 anomalies [with respect to Madelung's rule]; the table with the second f-block version has 10 anomalies.

"In the case of the Sc-Y-La-Ac form, I wonder if such a solid-state table is more relevant these days than a table based on gas phase configurations, which has about 20 anomalous configurations.

"Partly we use gas phase configurations since, as Eric Scerri mentioned to me elsewhere, configurations were first obtained (~100 years ago?) from spectroscopy, and this field primarily deals with gas phase atoms. That said, are gas phase configurations still so relevant these days – for this purpose – given the importance of solid-state physics?

"I've never been able to find a periodic table of solid-state electron configurations. Perhaps that has something to do with it? Then again, surely I'm not the first person to have drawn one of these?"

Click image below to enlarge:

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2020

Correlation of Electron Affinity (F) with Elemental Orbital Radii (rorb)

From Jour. Fac. Sci., Hokkaido Univ., Ser. IV. vol. 22, no. 2, Aug., 1987, pp. 357-385, The Connection Between the Properties of Elements and Compounds; Mineralogical-Crystallochemical Classification of Elements by Alexander A. Godovikov & Yu Hariya and expanded by René Vernon who writes.

René Vernon writes:

I was delighted to read about two properties that account for nearly everything seen in the periodic table.

Two properties
While researching double periodicity, I happened upon an obscure article, which simply correlates electron affinity with orbital radius, and in so doing reproduces the broad contours of the periodic table. Having never thought much about the value or significance of EA, and its absence of easily discernible trends, I was suitably astonished. The authors left out the Ln and An and stopped at Bi. They were sitting on a gold mine but provided no further analysis.

Development
I added the data up to Lr, updated the EA values, and have redrawn their graph. It is a thing of beauty and wonderment in its simplest sufficient complexity and its return on investment. I've appended 39 observations, covering all 103 elements.

Observations

Conclusion
So there it is, just two properties account for nearly everything.

Click images below to enlarge:


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2020

Vernon's Constellation of Electronegativity

René Vernon has created a "Constellation of Electronegativity" by plotting Electronegativity against Elemental Orbital Radii (rorb)

Observations on the EN plot:

    1. The results are similar to the orbital radii x EA plot, although not quite as clear, including being more crowded
    2. Very good correspondence with natural categories
    3. Largely linear trends seen along groups 1-2, 17 and 15-18 (Ne-Rn)
    4. First row anomaly seen for He (or maybe not since it lines up with the rest of group 2)
    5. For group 13, the whole group is anomalous
    6. For group 14 , the whole group is anomalous no doubt due to the scandide contraction impacting Ge and the double whammy of the lanthanide and 5d contraction impacting Pb
    7. F and O are the most corrosive of the corrosive nonmetals
    8. The rest of the corrosive nonmetals (Cl, Br and I) are nicely aligned with F
    9. The intermediate nonmetals (IM) occupy a trapezium
    10. Iodine almost falls into the IM trapezium
    11. The metalloids occupy a diamond, along with Hg; Po is just inside; At a little outside
    12. Rn is metallic enough to show cationic behaviour and falls into the metalloid diamond
    13. Pd is located among the nonmetals
    14. The proximity of H to Pd is again (coincidentally?) curious given the latter's capacity to adsorb the former
    15. The post-transition metals occupy a narrow strip overlapping the base of the refractory metal parallelogram
    16. Curiously, Zn, Cd, and Hg (a bit stand-off-ish) are collocated with Be, and relatively distant from the PTM and the TM proper
    17. The ostensibly noble metals occupy an oval; curiously, W is found here; Ag is anomalous given its greater reactivity; Cu, as a coinage metal, is a little further away
    18. Au and Pt are nearest to the halogen line
    19. The ferromagnetic metals (Fe-Co-Ni) are colocated
    20. The refractory metals, Nb, Ta, Mo, W and Re are in a parallelogram, along with Cr and V; Tc is included here too
    21. Indium is the central element of the periodic table in terms of mean orbital radius and EN; Tc is next as per the EA chart
    22. The reversal of He compared to the rest of the NG reflects #24
    23. All of the Ln and An fall into an oval of basicity, bar Lr
    24. The reversal of the positions of Fr and Cs is consistent with Cs being the most electronegative metal
    25. A similar, weaker pattern is seen with Ba and Ra. 

Click to enlarge:

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2020

Jodogne's Periodic Table of The Elements

Dr.Ir.Jodogne Jean Claude writes:

"I have the pleasure to send to you my paper on the PT which appears in Chimie Nouvelle 133 of the Soc.Royale de Chimie. However for the moment it is in French. The paper contains and explains the ultimate evolution of my preceding PT but it is the most scientifically based. Pedagogically, I believe it is interesting and easy. As you will see it keeps most of the chemical usual properties of the traditional one."


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2020

artlebedev's 100,000 Permutation Periodic Table of The Elements

Moscow-based design company Art. Lebedev Studio have released a new Periodic Table which can be adapted for any task.


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2020

Periodic Ziggurat of The Elements

By René Vernon, the Periodic Ziggurat of the Elements. Click to enlarge:

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2020

Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements

From Eric Scerri, a periodic table of books about the periodic table & the chemical elements... many by Eric Scerri himself.

Eric Scerri, UCLA, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry. See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Click to enlarge:

There is no particular connection between each of the elements and the book associated with it in the table, with the exception of: H, He, N, Ti, V, Nb, Ag, La, Au, Ac, U, Pu & Og.

The following is a list of references for each of the 118 books featured on Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements. Books published in languages other than English are shown in color. They include the Catalan, Croatian, French, German, Italian, Norwegian & Spanish languages:

1 H J. Ridgen, Hydrogen, the Essential Element, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002.
2 He W.M. Sears Jr., Helium, The Disappearing Element, Springer, Berlin, 2015.
3 Li K. Lew, The Alkali Metals, Rosen Central, New York, 2009.
4 Be S. Esteban Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009. (Spanish)
5 B E.R. Scerri. The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.
6 C U. Lagerkvist, The Periodic Table and a Missed Nobel Prize, World Scientific, Singapore, 2012.
7 N W.B. Jensen, Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905, Dover, Mineola, NY, 2005.
8 O M. Kaji, H. Kragh, G. Pallo, (eds.), Early Responses to the Periodic System, Oxford University, Press, New York, 2015.
9 F E. Mazurs, Graphic Representation of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, Alabama University Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1974.
10 Ne T. Gray, The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009.
11 Na N.C. Norman, Periodicity and the s- and p-Block Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007.
12 Mg M. Gordin, A Well-Ordered Thing, Dimitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table, 2nd edition, Basic Books, New York, 2019.
13 Al S. Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown & Co., New York, 2010.
14 Si P.A. Cox, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989.
15 P J. Emsley, The 13th Element: The Sordid Tale of Murder, Fire, and Phosphorus, Wiley, New York, 2002.
16 S P. Parsons, G. Dixon, The Periodic Table: A Field Guide to the Elements, Qurcus, London, 2014.
17 Cl P. Levi, The Periodic Table, Schocken, New York, 1995.
18 Ar B.D. Wiker, The Mystery of the Periodic Table, Bethlehem Books, New York, 2003.
19 K H. Alderesey-Williams, Periodic Tales, Viking Press, 2011.
20 Ca P. Strathern, Mendeleyev's Dream, Hamish-Hamilton, London, 1999.
21 Sc D. Scott, Around the World in 18 Elements, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2015.
22 Ti E. W. Collings, Gerhard Welsch, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, ASM International, Geauga County, Ohio, 1994.
23 V D. Rehder, Bioinorganic Vanadium Chemistry, Wiley-Blackwell, Weinheim, 2008.
24 Cr K. Chapman, Superheavy, Bloomsbury Sigma, New York, 2019.
25 Mn E.R. Scerri, E. Ghibaudi (eds.), What is an Element? Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.
26 Fe M. Soon Lee, Elemental Haiku, Ten Speed Press, New York, 2019.
27 Co J. Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
28 Ni T. James, Elemental, Robinson, London, 2018.
29 Cu E.R. Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007.
30 Zn H. Rossotti, Diverse Atoms, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
31 Ga P. Ball, A Very Short Introduction to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2004.
32 Ge I. Asimov, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Lancer Books, New York, 1966.
33 As J. Browne, Seven Elements that Changed the World, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 2013.
34 Se N. Raos, Bezbroj Lica Periodnog Sustava Elemenata, Technical Museum of Zagreb, Croatia, 2010. (Croatian)
35 Br P. Strathern, The Knowledge, The Periodic Table, Quadrille Publishing, London, 2015.
36 Kr A. Ede, The Chemical Element, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006.
37 Rb A. Stwertka, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
38 Sr E.R. Scerri, A Tale of Seven Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013.
39 Y H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007.
40 Zr M. Fontani, M. Costa, M.V. Orna (eds.), The Lost Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2015.
41 Nb M. Seegers, T. Peeters (eds.), Niobium: Chemical Properties, Applications and Environmental Effects, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2013.
42 Mo E.R. Scerri, Selected Papers on the Periodic Table, Imperial College Press, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore, 2009.
43 Tc A. Dingle, The Periodic Table, Elements with Style, Kingfisher, Richmond, B.C. Canada, 2007.
44 Ru G. Rudorf, Das periodische System, seine Geschichte und Bedeutung für die chemische Sysytematik, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1904. (German)
45 Rh I. Nechaev, G.W. Jenkins, The Chemical Elements, Tarquin Publications, Publications, Norfolk, UK, 1997.
46 Pd P. Davern, The Periodic Table of Poems, No Starch Press, San Francisco, 2020.
47 Ag C. Fenau, Non-ferrous metals from Ag to Zn, Unicore, Brussells, 2002.
48 Cd J. Van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969.
49 In M. Tweed, Essential Elements, Walker and Company, New York, 2003.
50 Sn M.E. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, Journal of Chemical Education, Easton PA, 1960.
51 Sb P. Wothers, Antimony Gold Jupiter's Wolf, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.
52 Te W. Zhu, Chemical Elements in Life, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 2020.
53 I O. Sacks, Uncle Tungsten, Vintage Books, New York, 2001.
54 Xe E.R. Scerri, (ed.), 30-Second Elements, Icon Books, London, 2013.
55 Cs M. Jacob (ed.), It's Elemental: The Periodic Table, Celebrating 80th Anniversary, Chemical & Engineering News, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 2003.
56 Ba J. Marshall, Discovery of the Elements, Pearson Custom Publishing, New York,1998.
57 La K. Veronense, Rare, Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York, 2015.
58 Ce N. Holt, The Periodic Table of Football, Ebury Publishing, London, 2016.
59 Pr S. Alvarez, C. Mans, 150 Ans de Taules Périodiques a la Universitat de Barcelona, Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2019. (Catalan)
60 Nd L. Garzon Ruiperez, De Mendeleiev a Los Superelementos, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, 1988. (Spanish)
61 Pm P. Ball, A Guided Tour of the Ingredients, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.
62 Sm S. Esteban Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009. (Spanish).
63 Eu A. E. Garrett, The Periodic Law, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1909.
64 Gd M.S. Sethi, M. Satake, Periodic Tables and Periodic Properties, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India, 1992.
65 Tb M. Eesa, The cosmic history of the elements: A brief journey through the creation of the chemical elements and the history of the periodic table, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.
66 Dy P. Depovere, La Classification périodique des éléments, De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2002. (French).
67 Ho F. Habashi, The Periodic Table & Mendeleev, Laval University Press, Quebec, 2017.
68 Er W.J. Nuttall, R. Clarke, B. Glowacki, The Future of Helium as a Natural Resource, Routledge, London, 2014.
69 Tm R.D. Osorio Giraldo, M.V. Alzate Cano, La Tabla Periodica, Bogota, Colombia, 2010. (Spanish).
70 Yb P.R. Polo, El Profeta del Orden Quimico, Mendeleiev, Nivola, Spain, 2008. (Spanish).
71 Lu E.R. Scerri, A Very Short Introduction to the Periodic Table, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.
72 Hf D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Mathematics of the Periodic Table, Nova Scientific Publishers, New York, 2006.
73 Ta P. Thyssen, A. Ceulemans, Shattered Symmetry, Oxford University Press, New York, 2017.
74 W P.W. Atkins, The Periodic Kingdom, Basic Books, New York, NY, 1995.
75 Re D.G. Cooper, The Periodic Table, 3rd edition. Butterworths, London, 1964.
76 Os E. Lassner, W.-D. Schubert, Tungsten: Properties, Chemistry, Technology of the Element, Alloys, and Chemical Compounds, Springer, Berlin, 1999.
77 Ir J.C.A. Boeyens, D.C. Levendis, Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter, Springer, Berlin, 2008.
78 Pt R. Hefferlin, Periodic Systems and their Relation to the Systematic Analysis of Molecular Data, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1989.
79 Au R.J. Puddephatt, The Chemistry of Gold, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1978.
80 Hg D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Periodic Table Into the 21st Century, Research Studies Press, Baldock, UK, 2004.
81 Tl R.E. Krebs, The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements, Greenwood Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, CA, 2006.
82 Pb E. Torgsen, Genier, sjarlataner og 50 bøtter med urin - Historien om det periodiske system, Spartacus, 2018. (Norwegian).
83 Bi K. Buchanan, D. Roller, Memorize the Periodic Table, Memory Worldwide Pty Limited, 2013.
84 Po D. Morris, The Last Sorcerers, The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table, Joseph Henry Press, New York, 2003.
85 At T. Jackson, The Elements, Shelter Harbor Press, New York, 2012.
86 Rn R.J.P. Williams, J.J.R. Frausto da Silva, The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements: The Environment and Life's Chemistry, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997.
87 Fr G. Rudorf, The Periodic Classification and the Problem of Chemical Evolution, Whittaker & Co., London, New York, 1900.
88 Ra L. Van Gorp, Elements, Compass Point Books, Manakato, MN, 2008.
89 Ac G.T. Seaborg, J.J. Katz, L.R. Morss, Chemistry of the Actinide Elements, Springer, Berlin, 1986.
90 Th G. Münzenberg, Superheavy Elements - Searching for the End of the Periodic Table, Manipal Universal Press, India, 2018.
91 Pa A. Castillejos Salazar, La Tabla Periòdica: Abecedario de la Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. Mexico, 2005. (Spanish).
92 U T. Zoellner, Uranium, Penguin Books, London, 2009.
93 Np J. Barrett, Atomic Structure and Periodicity, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2002.
94 Pu J. Bernstein, Plutonium, Joseph Henry, Washington DC, 2007.
95 Am S. Hofmann, Beyond Uranium, Taylor & Francis, London, 2002.
96 Cm H.M. Davis, The Chemical Elements, Ballantine Books, New York, 1961.
97 Bk P.González Duarte, Les Mils Cares de la Taula Periòdica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Barcelona, 2005 (Catalan).
98 Cf R. Rich, Periodic Correlations, Benjamin, New York, 1965.
99 Es E. Rabinowitsch, E. Thilo, Periodisches System, Geschichte und Theorie, Stuttgart, 1930. (German).
100 Fm P.K. Kuroda, The Origin of the Chemical Elements, and the Oklo Phenomenon, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982.
101 Md G. Villani, Mendeleev,  La Tavola Periodica Degli Elementi, Grandangolo, Milan, 2016. (Italian).
102 No J. Russell, Elementary: The Periodic Table Explained, Michael O'Mara, London, 2020.
103 Lr P. Enghag, Encyclopedia of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004.
104 Rf R.J. Puddephatt, The Periodic Table of the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972.
105 Db L. Ohrström, The Last Alchemist in Paris, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013.
106 Sg N.N. Greenwood, E. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997.
107 Bh R. Luft, Dictionnaire des Corps Simples de la Chimie, Association Cultures et Techniques, Nantes, 1997. (French)
108 Hs Science Foundation Course Team, The Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding, The Open University, Milton Keynes, 1971.
109 Mt W.W. Schulz, J. Navratil, Transplutonium Elements, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1981.
110 Ds I. Nechaev, Chemical Elements, Lindsay Drummond, 1946.
111 Rg F. Hund, Linienspektren und Periodisches System Der Elemente, Springer, Berlin, 1927.
112 Cn F.P. Venable, The Development of the Periodic Law, Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA, 1896.
113 Nh O. Baca Mendoza, Leyes Geneticas de los Elementos Quimicos. Nuevo Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Cuzco, Cuzco, Peru, 1953 (Spanish).
114 Fl B. Yorifuji, Wonderful Life with the Elements, No Starch Press, San Francisco, 2012.
115 Mc D.I. Mendeléeff, The Principles of Chemistry, American Home Library, New York, 1902.
116 Lv A. Lima-de-Faria, Periodic Tables Unifying Living Organisms at the Molecular Level: The Predictive Power of the Law of Periodicity, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 2018.
117 Ts H.B. Gray, J.D. Simon, W.C. Trogler, Braving the Elements, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1995.
118 Og E.R. Scerri, G. Restrepo, Mendeleev to Oganesson, Oxford University Press, New York, 2018.
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2020

Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements by ERS

From Eric Scerri, a periodic table of books about the periodic table & the chemical elements... by Eric Scerri, including translations.

Eric Scerri, UCLA, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry. See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Click to enlarge:

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2020

Spiral Electron Spin Periodic Table

The Spiral Electron Spin Periodic Table, By Justine Colburn, who also developed the Genesis formulation.


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2020

Lehikoinen's Circular Clock Form

Otto Lehikoinen writes:

"A circular form separating 1s orbital to the center, set it on a wall clock as there are 48 elements of main periods, thus can be used as markers for half hours. Group 4 is centered on noon and group 7 starts the afternoon, to get anions and cations with the same but opposite charge to be beside each other. Thus the noble gases are centered on midnight which is easily remembered by neon (and other noble gas) lights. The minute hand hits the 40 d-block elements giving an accuracy of 1.5 minutes and seconds could be read from lanthanides and actinides."


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2020

Vernon's Periodic Treehouse

René Vernon's Periodic Treehouse of the Elements, fearuring the World's longest dividing line between metals and nonmetals.

René writes:

I can't remember what started me off on this one. It may have been Mendeleev's line, as shown on the cover of Bent's 2006 book, New ideas in chemistry from fresh energy for the periodic law.

There are a few things that look somewhat arbitrary, so I may revisit these:

Click to enlarge:

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2020

Workshop on Teaching 3d-4s Orbitals Presented by Dr. Eric Scerri

Dr. Eric Scerri, UCLA Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, discusses many of the issues concerning the periodic table: the aufbau principle, Madelung's rule, the electronic and anomalous electronic structures of the transition elements, the Sc2+ ion, the Janet Left Step, Group 3: Sc, Y, Lu, Lr vs. Sc, Y, La, Ac, atomic spectroscopy, etc.

Many of the topics that concern those of us interested in the periodic table are discussed.

Thanks to Eric Scerri – who appears – for the tip! 
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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2020

Vernon's (Partially Disordered) 15 Column Periodic Table

A formulation by René Vernon, who writes:

"Here is a 15-column table which is a hybrid of a Mendeleev 8-column table and an 18-column standard table. The key relocations are the p-block nonmetals to the far left; and the coinage and post-transition metals under their s and early d-block counterparts.

"Taking a leaf out of Mendeleev's playbook, I ignored atomic number order when this seemed appropriate. It's refreshing to see the traditional horizontal gaps between blocks disappear. (DIM did not like these.)

"Since Dias (2004, see references below) reckoned a periodic table is a partially ordered set forming a two-dimensional array, I believe I now have a partially ordered table that is partially disordered twice over.

"The table has some curious relationships. Equally, some relationships seen in the standard form are absent. The Group 2, 3, and aluminium dilemmas disappear. This confirms my impression that such dilemmas have no intrinsic meaning. Rather, their appearance or non-appearance is context dependent."

Notes & references below.

Groups 1 to 4 have either a C or F suffix where C (nonmetal) is after the importance of carbon to our existence; and F (metal) is for the importance of iron to civilisation.

Groups 1C and 1F present the greatest contrast in nonmetallic and metallic behaviour.

Coactive Nonmetals: They are capable of forming septenary heterogeneous compounds such as C20H26N4O10PSSe.

Group 2C: Helium is shaded as a noble gas. "Heliox" is a breathing gas mixture of helium and oxygen used in saturation diving, and as a medical treatment for patients with difficulty breathing.

Group 3C: Boron over nitrogen looks odd. Yet one boron atom and one nitrogen atom have the same number of electrons between them as two adjacent carbon atoms. The combination of nitrogen and boron has some unusual features that are hard to match in any other pair of elements (Niedenzu & Dawson 1965).

Boron and phosphorus form a range of ring and cage compounds having novel structural and electronic properties (Paine et al. 2005).

Metalloids. I treat them here as nonmetals given their chemistry is predominately that of chemically weak nonmetals.

Metals: The labels electropositive; transition; and electronegative are adapted from Kornilov (2008).

Group 1F: Monovalent thallium salts resemble those of silver and the alkali metals.

An alloy of cesium (73.71%), potassium (22.14%) and sodium (4.14%) has a melting point of –78.2°C (–108.76°F) (Oshe 1985).

Silver, copper, and gold, as well as being the coinage metals, are borderline post-transition metals.

Group 2F: Beryllium and magnesium are not in fact alkaline earths. Beryllium is amphoteric rather than alkaline; magnesium was isolated in impure form from its oxides, unlike the true alkaline earths. The old ambiguity over whether beryllium and magnesium should go over calcium or zinc has gone.

Nobelium is here since +2 is its preferred oxidation state, unlike other actinoids.

Group 3F: Aluminium is here in light of its similarity to scandium (Habishi 2010).

InGaAsP is a semiconducting alloy of gallium arsenide and indium phosphide, used in lasers and photonics.

There is no Group 3 "issue" since lanthanum, actinium, lutetium and lawrencium are in the same family.

Gold and aluminium form an interesting set of intermetallic compounds known as Au5Al2 (white plague) and AuAl2 (purple plague). Blue gold is an alloy of gold and either gallium or indium.

Lanthanoids: The oxidation state analogies with the transition metals stop after praseodymium. That is why the rest of lanthanoids are footnoted in dash-dot boxes.

Actinoids: The resemblance to their transition metal analogues falters after uranium, and peters out after plutonium.

Group 4F: It's funny to see titanium—the lightweight super-metal—in the same group as lead, the traditional "heavy" metal.

This is the first group impacted by the lanthanoid contraction (cerium through lutetium) which results in the atomic radius of hafnium being almost the same as that of zirconium. Hence "the twins".

The chemistry of titanium is significantly different from that of zirconium and hafnium (Fernelius 1982).

Lead zirconate titanate Pb[ZrxTi1–x]O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) is one of the most commonly used piezo ceramics.

Group 5: Bismuth vanadate BiVO4 is a bright yellow solid widely used as a visible light photo-catalyst and dye.

Steel Friends: The name is reference to their use in steel alloys. They have isoelectronic soluble oxidizing tetroxoanions, plus a stable +3 oxidation state. (Rayner-Canham 2020).

Ferromagnetic Metals: The horizontal similarities among this triad of elements (as is the case among the PGM hexad) are greater than anywhere in the periodic table except among the lanthanides (Lee 1996). The +2 aqueous ion is a major component of their simple chemistry (Rayner-Canham 2020).

Group 8: "Rubiferous metals" (classical Latin rubēre to be red; -fer producing) is from the reddish-brown colour of rust; the most prevalent ruthenium precursor being ruthenium trichloride, a red solid that is poorly defined chemically but versatile synthetically; and the red osmates [OsO4(OH)4]?2 formed upon reaction by osmium tetroxide with a base.

Group 9: "Weather metals" comes from the use of cobalt chloride as a humidity indicator in weather instruments; rhodium plating used to "protect other more vulnerable metals against weather exposure as well as against concentrated acids or acids fumes" (Küpfer 1954); and the "rainbow" etymology of iridium.

Group 10: "Catalytic metals" is after a passage in Greenwood and Earnshaw, "They are... readily obtained in finely divided forms which are catalytically very active." (2002). Of course, many transition metals have catalytic properties. That said, if you asked me about transition metal catalysts, palladium and platinum would be the first to come to mind. Group 10 appear to be particularly catalytic.

References:

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2020

Shukarev's Periodic System (redrawn by Vernon)

Shukarev SA 1975, "On the image of the periodic system with the use of fifth move of late a-elements", Collection of Scientific and Methodological Articles on Chemistry. M.: Higher School, no 4, pp 3-12 (in Russian). Redrawn and commented upon by René Vernon:


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2020

Allahyari & Oganov: Mendeleev Numbers & Organising Chemical Space

This formulation may not look like a periodic table, but look again.

Zahed Allahyari & Artem R. Oganov, Nonempirical Definition of the Mendeleev Numbers: Organizing the Chemical Space, J. Phys. Chem. C 2020, 124, 43, 23867–23878, https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcc.0c07857. A preprint version of the paper is available on the arxiv preprint server.

Abstract:

Organizing a chemical space so that elements with similar properties would take neighboring places in a sequence can help to predict new materials. In this paper, we propose a universal method of generating such a one-dimensional sequence of elements, i.e. at arbitrary pressure, which could be used to create a well-structured chemical space of materials and facilitate the prediction of new materials.

This work clarifies the physical meaning of Mendeleev numbers, which was earlier tabulated by Pettifor. We compare our proposed sequence of elements with alternative sequences formed by different Mendeleev numbers using the data for hardness, magnetization, enthalpy of formation, and atomization energy. For an unbiased evaluation of the MNs, we compare clustering rates obtained with each system of MNs.






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2020

Zig-Zag Line, Periodic Table

Periodic Table showing the (regular) zig-zag line by René Vernon who writes:

"It is curious that the full extent of the line has never been properly mapped (to my knowledge).

"Elements on the downside of the line generally display increasing metallic behaviour; elements on the topside generally display increasing nonmetallic behaviour.

"When you see the line you will usually see only about a quarter of it. The line actually runs all the way across the periodic table, as shown, for a total of 44 element box sides.

"Interpretations vary as to where the line runs. None of these is better than any other of them, provided the interpretation is explained to you. The thick black line (at least in the p-block) is the most common version. The metalloids tend to lie to either side of it.

"Polonium and astatine are shown here as post-transition metals although either or both of them are sometimes shown as metalloids (or, in the case of astatine, as a halogen). Polonium conducts electricity like a metal and forms a cation in aqueous solution. In 2013, astatine was predicted to be a centred cubic-metal Condensed Astatine: Monatomic and Metallic This prediction has been cited 35 times, with no dissenters. Astatine also forms a cation in aqueous solution. Oganesson is shown as having (as yet) unknown properties.

"The dashed lines show some alternative paths for the zigzag line.

"The lower one treats the metalloids as nonmetals since metalloid chemistry is predominately nonmetallic. The lower line and the upper line are sometimes shown together used when the metalloids are treated as neither metals nor nonmetals."

And in Janet Left-Step form:

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2020

16 Dividing Lines Within The Periodic Table

René Vernon points out that there are 16 dividing lines within the periodic table.

A-Z Dividing Lines:

48-crash line: Named after the dramatic reduction in physical metallic character after group 11, Cd being Z = 48. Group 12 show few transition metal attributes and behave predominantly like post-transition metals.

Big bang line: H makes up about 73% of the visible universe.

Corrosive line: O, F, Cl = most corrosive nonmetals.

d-Block fault line: Group 3 show little d-block behaviour; group 4 is the first in which characteristic d-block behaviour occurs.

Deming line: Demarcates the metalloids from the pre-halogen nonmetals. The "reactive" nonmetals to the right of the metalloids each have a sub-metallic appearance (C, O, Se, I).

Edge of the world line: No guesses for this one.

Klemm line: Klemm, in 1929, was the first to note the double periodicity of the lanthanides (Ce to Lu). Lockyer line: After the discoverer of He, the first element not found on Earth.

Ørsted line: After the magnetic effects believed to be responsible for Mn having a crystalline structure analogous to white P; Tc: First radioactive metal; Re: Last of the refractory metals; "most radioactive" of the naturally occurring elements with stable isotopes. Fe: First of the ferromagnetic metals; Ru: First noble metal; Os: Densest of naturally occurring metals. The number of unpaired d electrons peaks in group 7 and reduces thereafter.

Platypus line: Tl shows similarities to Rb, Ag, Hg, Pb.

Poor metal line: Most metals (80%) have a packing factor (PF)3 68%. Ga: Has a crystalline structure analogous to that of iodine. BCN 1+6.* PF 39.1%. Melts in your hand. In: Partly distorted structure due to incompletely ionised atoms. BCN 4+8. PE 68.6%. Oxides in preferred +3 state are weakly amphoteric; forms anionic indates in strongly basic solutions. Tendency to form covalent compounds is one of the more important properties influencing its electro-chemical behaviour. Sn: Irregularly coordinated structure associated with incompletely ionised atoms. BCN 4+2. PF 53.5%. Oxides in preferred +2 state are amphoteric; forms stannites in strongly basic solutions. Grey Sn is electronically a zero band gap semimetal, although it behaves like a semiconductor. Diamond structure. BCN 4. PF 34.0%. Pb: Close-packed, but abnormally large inter-atomic distance due to partial ionisation of Pb atoms. BCN 12. PF 74%. Oxide in preferred +2 state is amphoteric; forms anionic plumbates in strongly basic solutions. Bi: Electronic structure of a semimetal. Open-packed structure (3+3) with bonding intermediate between metallic and covalent. PF 44.6%. Trioxide is predominantly basic but will act as a weak acid in warm, very concentrated KOH. Can be fused with KOH in air, resulting in a brown mass of potassium bismuthate.

Seaborg line: No f electrons in gas phase La, Ac and Th atoms.

Triple line: N = gas; S = solid; Br = liquid.

Zigzag lobby: H needs no intro. Li: Many salts have a high degree of covalency. Small size frequently confers special properties on its compounds and for this reason is sometimes termed 'anomalous'. E.g. miscible with Na only above 380° immiscible with molten K, Rb, Cs, whereas all other pairs of AM are miscible with each other in all proportions. Be: Has a covalent component to its otherwise predominately metallic structure = low ductility. Lowest known Poisson's ratio of elemental metals. Amphoteric; predominately covalent chemistry atypical of group 2. Some aspects of its chemical properties are more like those of a metalloid.

Zigzag line: Eponymous metal-nonmetal dividing line.

Zintl line: Hypothetical boundary highlighting tendency for group 13 metals to form phases with a various stoichiometries, in contrast to group 14+ that tend to form salts with polymeric anions.

* BCN = bulk coordination number

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2020

Split s-, p- & d-Block Periodic Table

René Vernon presents a periodic table formulation with split s-, p- & d-blocks.

The details: Group 3 as B-Al-Ga-In-Tl

Al over Sc has some history, which seems to have been forgotten.

Here are some other tables with B-Al-Sc-Y-La:

What was it that these luminaries knew about B-Al-Sc-Y-La-Ac that is deemed to be no longer relevant, and why is that the case?

Deming (1947, Fundamental Chemistry, 2nd ed. p. 617) located Al with the pre-transition metals in groups 1?2. Cox (2004, Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd ed. p. 185) refers to the pre-transition metals as those in groups 1 and 2, and Al. Here's that 2019 periodic table (by me), recording oxidation number trends, further suggesting B and Al are better placed over Sc.

In this vein, Rayner-Canham (2020, The periodic table: Past, present, and future, pp. 178–181) writes:

"It was Rang in 1893 who seems to have been the first, on the basis of chemical similarity, to place boron and aluminum in Group 3.

"Such an assignment seems to have been forgotten until more recent times. Greenwood and Earnshaw have discussed the way in which aluminum can be considered as belonging to Group 3 as much as to Group 13 particularly in its physical properties. Habashi has suggested that there are so many similarities between aluminum and scandium that aluminum's place in the Periodic Table should actually be shifted to Group 3.

"In terms of the electron configuration of the tripositive ions, one would indeed expect that Al3+ (electron configuration, [Ne]) would resemble Sc3+ (electron configuration, [Ar]) more than Ga3+ (electron configuration, [Ar]3d10). Also of note, the standard reduction potential for aluminum fits better with those of the Group 3 elements than the Group 13 elements (Table 9.2) – as does its melting point.

"In terms of their comparative solution behavior, aluminum resembles both scandium(III) and gallium(III). For each ion, the free hydrated cation exists only in acidic solution. On addition of hydroxide ion to the respective cation, the hydroxides are produced as gelatinous precipitates. Each of the hydroxides redissolve in excess base to give an anionic hydroxo-complex, [M(OH)4]... There does seem to be a triangular relationship between these three elements. However, aluminum does more closely resemble scandium rather than gallium in its chemistry. If hydrogen sulfide is bubbled through a solution of the respective cation, scandium ion gives a precipitate of scandium hydroxide, and aluminum ion gives a corresponding precipitate of aluminum hydroxide. By contrast, gallium ion gives a precipitate of gallium(III) sulfide. Also, scandium and aluminum both form carbides, while gallium does not."

To answer my own question as to why group 3 as B-Al-Sc-Y-La-Ac has been forgotten.

I suspect what happened is that it was historically known that group 3 was better represented as B-Al-Sc-Y-La-[Ac]. Then, with the advent and rise of modern electronic structure theory, B-Al- got moved to the p-block because, after all, they were p-block elements, never mind the damned chemistry. And La stayed in the d-block since it was the first element to show 5d electron, and 4f did not show until Ce. And Lu stayed where it was since even thought it was learnt that the f shell become full at Yb, rather than Lu, nothing changed about the chemistry of Lu. Nowadays, this has all been forgotten.

The modern periodic table is a chemistry-physics hybrid.

Lu in group 3 demands He over Be. La in group 3 demands B-Al over Sc. Neither option gets up. The more important consideration is to teach the history and have students and chemists appreciate both perspectives.

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2020

Rainbow Periodic Table in ADOMAH Cube

From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a version of his Rainbow Periodic Table inside Valery Tsimmerman's glass cube:


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2021

Understanding Periodic and Non-periodic Chemistry in Periodic Tables

Cao C, Vernon RE, Schwarz WHE and Li J (2021). Front. Chem. 8:813. https://doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00813

Abstract:

The chemical elements are the "conserved principles" or "kernels" of chemistry that are retained when substances are altered. Comprehensive overviews of the chemistry of the elements and their compounds are needed in chemical science. To this end, a graphical display of the chemical properties of the elements, in the form of a Periodic Table, is the helpful tool. Such tables have been designed with the aim of either classifying real chemical substances or emphasizing formal and aesthetic concepts. Simplified, artistic, or economic tables are relevant to educational and cultural fields, while practicing chemists profit more from "chemical tables of chemical elements."

Such tables should incorporate four aspects:

(i) typical valence electron configurations of bonded atoms in chemical compounds (instead of the common but chemically atypical ground states of free atoms in physical vacuum);

(ii) at least three basic chemical properties (valence number, size, and energy of the valence shells), their joint variation across the elements showing principal and secondary periodicity;

(iii) elements in which the (sp)8, (d)10, and (f)14 valence shells become closed and inert under ambient chemical conditions, thereby determining the "fix-points" of chemical periodicity;

(iv) peculiar elements at the top and at the bottom of the Periodic Table.

While it is essential that Periodic Tables display important trends in element chemistry we need to keep our eyes open for unexpected chemical behavior in ambient, near ambient, or unusual conditions. The combination of experimental data and theoretical insight supports a more nuanced understanding of complex periodic trends and non-periodic phenomena.


Thanks to René Vernon for the tip.

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2021

Crustal Abundance vs. Electronegativity

A chart by René Vernon of Elemental Abundance (g/kg log10) vs. Electronegativity, H to Bi.

René writes:

Below is a remarkable XY chart where x = electronegativity and y = crustal abundance (log10). It stops at the end of the s-process, at Bi. The abundance figures are from the CRC Hanbook of Physics and Chemistry (2016-2017).

I say remarkable as I had little idea what the chart would end up looking like when I started plotting the values.

As well as its coloured regions, I've marked out track lines for six of the main groups and one for group 3.

Observations

The rose-coloured arc on the left encompasses the pre-transition metals i.e. the alkali and alkaline earth metals and aluminium, followed by, in the orange rectangle, the rare earth metals. Opposite these regions, along the southern boundary of the green paddock, are the halogens.

In the pale yellow field sheltered by the pre-transition metals and the REM, are the 3d transition metals and, in the white corral, are 4d and 5d base transition metals. Opposite these regions, in the green paddock, are the core nonmetals H, C, N, O, P and S, with Se as an outlier.

Following in the grey blob are the post-transtion or poor metals, immediately adjacent to the bulk of the metalloids or poor nonmetals.

Finally, in the light blue patch, the noble metals are complemented by the noble gases frolicking in the open.

Abundance tends to decrease with increasing Z. Notable exceptions are Li, B, N and Si.

Curiosities

Comment

I was intrigued by the article referring to Ni and Ar, and the suggestion of Ar becoming somewhat anionic, albeit in extreme conditions (140 GPa, 1500 K)

References

Correlations

I wasn't looking for these but they at least exist as follows:

My references are:

Thus the abundance of the metals in the crust tends to fall with increasing EN.

An answer from L. Bruce Railsback, creator of the Earth Scientist's Periodic Table https://www.meta-synthesis.com/webbook/35_pt/pt_database.php?PT_id=142:

"I think I can answer one of the questions. 'Why is Si good at forming a planetary crust?' – because it's so bad at staying in the core. Silicon isn't sufficiently metallic to stay in the core. Even in the mantle and crust, it doesn't go into non-metal solids well: in cooling magmas, it's only a lesser member of the early-forming minerals (e.g., Mg2SiO4, forsterite, where it's outnumbered two to one). The mineral only of Si as a cation, SiO2 (quartz), is the LAST mineral to form as a magma cools, in essence the residuum of mineral-forming processes. At least some this thinking is at Bowen's Reaction Series and Igneous Rocks at http://railsback.org/FundamentalsIndex.html#Bowen"

Which Electronegativity Scale?

The wide variety of methods for deriving electronegativities tend to give results similar to one another.

Click to enlarge:

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2021

van Spronsen's Periodic Table: Update

René Vernon writes:

I'd never before realised how clever van Spronsen's 1969 Periodic Table is. It seems to be the ultimate logical electronic version, informed by the actual filling sequence in the gas phase atoms, rather than the idealised sequence.

So, H-He are over Li-Be.

Group 3 is Sc-Y-La-Ac since that is where the d-shell starts filling. In the rest of the d-block, there are (4+1) x d5 and (4+2) x d10.

The f-block starts with Ce, as that is where the f-shell starts filling. Notice the high degree of regularity with the 4 x f7 and the 4 x f14, and how Th is treated i.e. as 5f0.

After DIM's 8-column form, I believe the periodic family tree now looks like this:

Three split-blocks
1a. He over Ne; B-Al over Sc-Y-La-Ac = old school form
1b. H-He over F-Ne; ditto = e.g. Soddy 1914?, Kipp 1942?

Two split blocks
2a. He over Ne; group 3 as Sc-Y-La-Ac = popular form

One split-block
3a. He over Ne; group 3 as Sc-Y-Lu-Lr = Lu form 3b. He over Be; group 3 as Sc-Y-La-La = forgotten van Spronsen form

No split blocks
4. He over Be = Janet equivalent

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2021

Helix vs. Screw

Julio Antonio Gutierrez Samanez writes:

Until today, when they write about the work of Chancourtois and his telluric helix wound in a cylinder, still no one alludes to this other telluric helix wound in a cone or screw, the idea is the same: a rope that winds a geometric solid.

The first was devised in 1862, the other in 2008 (146 years later). But, there is a big epistemological difference. In the first, the elementary series presented was: 8, 8, 8, 8, 8 ..., etc., in the second it is: 2, 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32, 32. Furthermore, the division of conical radii is regulated by the function 2 (n ^ 2) = 2, 8, 18, 32...

Each binode has two spirals or two periods with the same number of elements, which correspond to the function 4 (n ^ 2). I don't think it is a discovery, it is just the conclusion of the contributions of Rydberg, Janet, and, of course, Chancourtois.

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2021

Aufbau Periodic Table

An Aufbau Periodic table designed by Steven Muov at http://murov.info/aufbaupt.htm

Steven writes:

"Science has aptly been described as a search for order in the Universe. It follows that chemistry is a search for order in matter. While the search will always be a work in progress, great strides towards the finding of order in matter resulted in 1869 when Dimitri Mendeleev stood on the shoulders of many others and published his periodic table. The table has since been modified and improved but still has a remarkable resemblance to the original Mendeleev table. Excellent compilations of many alternate periodic tables have been published that use novel and intriguing approaches (e.g., circles, spirals and 3d, but the contemporary versions of the Mendeleev table are the charts found on the walls of thousands of lecture rooms around the world. The periodic table deserves recognition as one of the milestones of science along with contributions from other sciences including but not limited to: physics by Newton and Einstein, biology by Darwin, Rosalind Franklin, Watson and Crick, astronomy by Copernicus and Galileo and geology by Wegener..."

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2021

Provisional Report on Discussions on Group 3 of The Periodic Table

Provisional Report on Discussions on Group 3 of The Periodic Table by Eric Scerri, De Gruyter | 2021

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/ci-2021-0115

The following article is intended as a brief progress report from the group that has been tasked with mak-ing recommendations to IUPAC about the constitu-tion of group 3 of the periodic table (https://iupac.org/project/2015-039-2-200). It is also intended as a call for feedback or suggestions from members of IUPAC and other readers.



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2021

Nawa's Multi Periodic Table

Nagayasu Nawa - "A Japanese school teacher and periodic table designer" - has developed a "Multi" Periodic Table with three formulations: long-form, upsidedown long-form & circular with era of discovery, electronic structure and abundance data.

Click here to download the .pdf file.

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2021

Vernon's CSF Left-Step Periodic Table.

René Vernon's CSF Left-Step Periodic Table.

"I was prompted to switch to He-Be and [to develop a Janet type] left-step periodic table. I suggest it remediates concerns about H and He, and Lu in group 3.

Pros

Cons

Click here to enlarge:

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2021

Cubical-Stair Periodic Table

Sarthak Gupta's Cubical-Stair Periodic Table (Into a Whole New Dimension):

"Looking at the Modern periodic Table, somethings always bug you. The huge gap between the s and p-block when they should be side by side. The whole f-block floating around in air when it should be there in period 6 and 7. So why not experiment with shapes and structures and come up with something more space efficient?

"The cubical Periodic table paves the way taking the periodic table into a whole new dimension. Yes! from the 118 squares, we are going to transition into 67 cubes stacked onto each other like stairs."

The Cubical-Stair Periodic Table Explained:

Advantage over the Modern PT

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2021

The Periodic Table: Is it Perfect, is it Fractured or is it Broken?

A video from Mark Leach, who writes:

The periodic table is an icon of science. Indeed, all chemical matter is made from periodic table stuff. The periodic table of 118 elements is often presented as being: (a) complete, (b) 'perfectly' described by the application of four quantum numbers with the application of some simple rules and (c) chemical structure & reactivity can be deduced from the periodicity of the Groups & Periods. However, the chemistry of the chemical elements is a little more involved than this. So, where & why does the predictability 'break'?

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2021

Vernon's Eight-Fold Way Periodic Table

René Vernon suggests that the chemical elements can be grouped into eight classes: four metallic (Active, Transition, Post-Transition and Noble) and four non-metallic (Halogen, Biogen, Metalloid and Noble gas):

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2021

Term & Spin State Periodic Table

A Tern & Spin State periodic table by Gnanamani Simiyon who writes:

"We tried to arrange the elements based on the ground state term and spin state. I attached picture of the periodic table drawn. For example, I notice that alkali metals and coinage metals grouped up indicating some relationship between the groups. Similarly with respect to alkaline Earth metals and Zinc group. We are unable to further understand other groupings based on the ground state term and spin state."

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2021

Mendeleyev Revisited

An Open Access paper: Marks, E.G., Marks, J.A. Mendeleyev revisited. Found Chem 23, 215-223 (2021).

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10698-021-09398-4

"Despite the periodic table having been discovered by chemists half a century before the discovery of electronic structure, modern designs are invariably based on physicists' definition of periods. This table is a chemists' table, reverting to the phenomenal periods that led to the table's discovery. In doing so, the position of hydrogen is clarified."


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© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –


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