The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
|2019 has been designated the International Year of the Periodic Table as it is the 150th Anniversary of the formulation of Mendeleev's Tabelle I|
Janet's Left-Step with Ground Level Microstates
By Valery Tsimmerman, who writes:
Janet's LST with ground level microstate information and total spin graph shown for each group of elements. The top line represents number of electrons in open sub-shells (with exception of six anomalous elements). Information shows physical (spectroscopic) basis of the groups.
The zigzag line on top is a graphic representation of Hund's rule showing the total inherent spins of atoms and the total spin of Cu is 1/2, same as for Ag and Au. When it comes to ground level atomic microstates and Hund's rule Cu is not anomalous (2S1/2), despite its anomalous electron configuration.
The diagram represents Hund's Rule that states that "the lowest energy atomic state is the one that maximizes the total spin quantum number for the electrons in the open subshell" (Wikipedia). Y-axis is the total spin and x-axis is number of electrons in open shells (with exception of six anomalous elements).
First, I would like to make couple of general comments. When discussing periodicity, they typically talk about chemical properties and electron configurations/differentiating electrons, etc, but those are not specific enough. For each electron configuration there are multiple microstates. For example, for single electron configuration of carbon there are over 30 microstates and only one of them corresponds to ground level. So, microstates express combined physical/spectroscopic properties of whole atoms and, the most important, combined properties of electrons located in open subshells.
Now, look at ground level term symbols in each group. I see amazing consistency, especially in the main groups. It tells me that groups are not only chemical, but physical!
Looking at periods one can see that all periods in s, p & d blocks begin with elements that have multiplicity M=2 and end with M=1. This is also true for f-block if it starts with La and Ac and ends with Yb and No. This puts Lu and Lr firmly in group 3. Placing La and Ac in group three ruins spectroscopic consistency.
Click here image to enlarge the PT below.
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© Mark R. Leach 1999-
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