The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
- By Decade
- By Type
Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/Left-Step Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 1906 1905 1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 1895 1894 1893 1892 1891 1890 1889 1888 1887 1886 1885 1884 1883 1882 1881 1880 1879 1878 1877 1876 1875 1874 1873 1872 1871 1870 1869 1868 1867 1866 1865 1864 1863 1862 1861 1860 1859 1858 1857 1856 1855 1854 1853 1852 1851 1850 1844 1843 1842 1838 1836 1831 1830 1829 1825 1824 1817 1814 1813 1811 1808 1807 1804 1803 1802 1801 1800 1798 1794 1791 1789 1787 1783 1782 1781 1778 1775 1774 1772 1771 1766 1753 1751 1748 1735 1718 1700 1690 1687 1682 1671 1669 1624 1617 1520 1000 -300 -450 -800 -1000 -2000 -3500 -3750 -5000 -6000 -7000 -9000
Periodic Table formulations from the year 1920:
Nodder's Periodic Table
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Partington's Periodic Arrangement of the Elements
From Quam & Quam's 1934 review paper.pdf
Schaltenbrand's Helical Periodic Table
G. Schaltenbrand, Darstellung des periodischen Systems der Elemente durch eine räumliche Spirale, Z. anorg. allgem. Chem., 112, 221-4 (Sept. 1920)
"The elements are arranged in order of atomic weights on an eccentric spiral. The four sets of curves include positions of similar elements. The first small turn carries H and He; the remainder of the inert elements and the halogens are on successive small turns in analogous positions.
"On the next larger turn are found the alkali, alkaline-earth, and aluminum family elements.
"The long periods require larger turns and the period containing the rare-earth elements requires the longest turn of all. Elements of the same group are found in the same plane passing through the axis of the spiral."
Commissioned in 2019 to match George Schaltenbrand's 1920 design for a helical gathering of the elements – albeit extended to all 118 current elements – and signed by Yuri Oganessian, it is almost certainly the most expensive periodic table in the world."
Kohlweiler's system of 1920 (from van Spronsen):
Black & Conant's Periodic Classification Of The Elements
From N.H. Black NH & J.B. Conant's Practical Chemistry: Fundamental Facts and Applications to Modern Life, MacMillan, New York (1920)
Eric Scerri, who provided this formulation writes (personal communication):
"Notice conspicuous absence of H. And, Conant was the person who gave Kuhn his first start in the history of science at Harvard."
René Vernon tells us that Conant and his coauthor write:
"The position of H in the system has been a matter of some discussion, but it is not of much consequence. It seems to be rather an odd element. Perhaps the best place for it is in group IA as it forms a positive ion." (p. 350)
Stewart's Arrangement of The Elements
From A.W. Stewart, Recent Advances in Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd ed., Longmans, Green and Co., London (1920)
René Vernon writes:
"Stewart discusses the 'forced symmetry' of Mendeleev's table, and the distinction between 'facetious symmetry' (as he calls it) and the actual correlation of facts (as he saw them at that time)."
237. Mendeleev... objected strongly to the employment of graphic methods of expressing the Periodic Law, on the ground that such methods did not indicate the existence of a limited and definite number of elements in each period.
239. The Periodic Table, as laid down by Mendeleeff in his writings, exhibits a symmetry which was one of its greatest assets. For some psychological reason, symmetry has an attraction for the human mind; and we are always apt to prefer a regular arrangement to one in which irregularities pre- dominate. Psychological peculiarities are, however, undesirable guides in the search for truth; and a careful examination of the Table in the light of our present knowledge will suffice to show that it can boast of no such symmetry as we are led to expect from the text-books of our student days.
For example, owing to the omission of some of the rare earth elements and by the insertion of blanks, the Table in its original form attained a very high degree of regularity; but since there are, as we know from the X-ray spectra results, only sixteen elements to fill the eighteen vacant spaces in the Table, it is evident that the symmetry of Mendeleeff s system is purely factitious.
Further, in order to produce the appearance of symmetry, Mendeleeff was forced to place copper, silver, and gold in the first group, although there is no known oxide Au2O and the stable chloride of gold is AuCl3.
These examples are well-known, and are mentioned here only for the purpose of enforcing the statement that the symmetry of Mendeleef's system cannot be sustained at the present day. Fascinating though its cut-and-dried regularity may be, we cannot afford to let symmetry dominate our minds when in actual fact there is no symmetry to be found.
240. The most superficial examination shows that, instead of being a symmetrical whole, the Table is really pieced together from a series of discrete sections.
250. The first attempt to arrange all the elements in a periodic grouping took the form of a three-dimensional model the Telluric Helix of de Chancourtois and it is not surprising that from time to time attempts have been made to utilize the third dimension as an aid to classification. It cannot be said that much light has been thrown on the matter by these essays; but some account of them must be given here for the sake of completeness.
251. The main drawback to the spiral representation appears to be that in it no new facts are brought to light, and there is no fresh collocation of the allied elements which might give it an advantage over the ordinary forms of classification. Also, in most cases it is more difficult to grasp as a whole.
253 ...if we have to choose between factitious symmetry and actual correlation of facts, we must decide in favour of the latter, discomforting though the choice may be.
255. The following new grouping seems worth considering. Although it has many good points, it is not to be regarded as a final solution, but is put forward mainly in the hope that an examination of it may suggest some more perfect system.
Pfeiffer's Periodic System of the Elements
V. P. Pfeiffer, Naturwiss. 8, 984-991 (1920), Die Befruchtung der Chemie durch die Röntgenstrahlenphysik (The fertilization of chemistry by X-ray physics).
Yoshi Maeno of Kyoto University writes:
"The question who it was who paved the way to the modern representation of the long-period periodic table is a subject of discussion. In my understanding, it was Alfred Werner in 1905. It is a pity that his invention is sometimes over criticised due to some errors in the placements and orders of some elements in his original work.
"It is much less known who first proposed the familiar form of the long-period table with the rare-earth elements as a separate table placed below the main table for convenience. It is most probably Von Paul Pfeiffer in 1920, below. In his paper, he followed Werner's work and extended the table incorporating the knowledge from X-ray physics. Pfeiffer's table preceded Deming's 1923 table and is more similar to today's standard table.
"Pfeiffer was a student and assistant of Werner at Univ Zurich (Wikipedia).
"I acknowledge Y. Hisamatsu who gave me the information of Pfeiffer's original paper."
Thanks to Yoshi Maeno of Kyoto University for the tip!
|What is the Periodic Table Showing?||Periodicity|
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos...
If you have any:
Suggestions for links
Bug, typo or grammatical error reports about this page,
please contact Mark R. Leach, the author, using firstname.lastname@example.org
This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated.