Periodic Table 
The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
 SEARCH:
 By Decade
 By Type

PreSelected
Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/LeftStep Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity

By Year
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 1906 1905 1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 1895 1894 1893 1892 1891 1890 1889 1888 1887 1886 1885 1884 1883 1882 1881 1880 1879 1878 1877 1876 1875 1874 1873 1872 1871 1870 1869 1868 1867 1866 1865 1864 1863 1862 1861 1860 1859 1858 1857 1856 1855 1854 1853 1852 1851 1850 1844 1843 1842 1838 1836 1831 1830 1829 1825 1824 1817 1814 1813 1811 1808 1807 1804 1803 1802 1801 1800 1798 1794 1791 1789 1787 1783 1782 1781 1778 1775 1774 1772 1771 1766 1753 1751 1748 1735 1718 1700 1690 1687 1682 1671 1669 1624 1617 1520 1000 300 450 800 1000 2000 3500 3750 5000 6000 7000 9000
Periodic Tables referencing the text string "ADOMAH", listed by date:
1949
Catalán's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado
Two versions of Catalán's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado. The first from C.E. Moore 1949, Atomic Energy Levels, National Bureau of Standards, Circular no. 467, Washington DC, vol. 1, table 25 (1949) and the second as referenced here: http://www.miguelcatalan.net/pdfs/bibliografia/biblio09.pdf.
René Vernon, who provided the graphics, writes:
"I feel the footnote along the base of the first table could merit better attention being drawn to it. It says:
This arrangement is by Catalán. The electrons indicated in column two that are connected by braces have approximately the same binding energy. Consequently, for some elements one type of electron is preferred over another in the normal configuration, as for example, Cr, Cb, Pd, La, Ac, Th.
"The connecting braces hone in on the source of much of the controversy concerning notions of an ideal, optimal, better, this or that, or fundamental periodic table. I can't recall seeing a table with such a feature. For the second table, turning it on its side (attached) reminds of the ADOMAH [formulation].
Click on the images to enlarge:
Thanks to René for the tip!
1992
Fet's Periodic Tables
Two periodic tables by A.I. Fet from his book, "Mathematical Modeling in Biology and Chemistry. New Approach" Nauka, Sib.Dep., 1992.
Larry Tsimmerman writes:
"First formulation, Tab. 7, is precursor of Adomah PT with broken Zsequence and questionable pairing of elements in accordance with "ml". Tab. 8 is a Janet LST shown vertically. Fet discusses Periodic Table in the light of Group Theory. (The book was sent to me by Eric Scerri and it was signed by Fet for Hefferlin)."
2006
ADOMAH Periodic Table by Valery Tsimmerman
The ADOMAH periodic table is based on the Janet or leftstep periodic table. It consists of four blocks (s, p, d & f) corresponding to quantum numbers l = 0,1,2,3. Blocks are separated, shifted and reconnected with each other via diagonal lines. This arrangement creates "layers" or "strata" that retain continuity in respect to atomic number Z, in addition to usual columns and rows. Therefore, numbers shown on the right hand side of the table may represent either quantum numbers n (electronic shells) if horizontal rows are followed, or n + l if "layers" or "strata" are followed.
This feature assists in creation of electronic configurations of the elements. Elements H and He are placed in two positions that reflect their dual nature and give proper consideration to atomic structure and chemical properties of those two elements. This feature also preserves triads He, Ne, Ar and H, F, Cl. Also, the elements are placed in rectangular "boxes", so any two of such "boxes" make up a square thus symbolising electron pairs. This also cuts table length in half. Unlike the Janet table, this table is assembled from bottom up in direction of increase of quantum number n, as well as atomic weight and energy. The ADOMAH table has symmetry and, assuming total number of elements 120, can be divided in four parts of 30 elements with center point located among precious metals.
2008
ADOMAH Tetrahedron
Valery Tsimmerman has developed various periodic table formulations, available at perfect perioidic table.com.
2011
Pacholek's Multipipe 3D Periodic Table
"I've recently invented a new type of periodic table. My table is 3dimensional and is similar to the ADOMAH Periodic Table, but it's also very different from the ADOMAH Tetrahedron. Its main advantage is being fully geometric in the plane spanned by n, l and n+l quantum numbers."
Take a look at the Picasa images here and here:
2012
Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law
Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Tetrahedron periodic table formulation and the Perfect Periodic Table website, presents a Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law:
2014
ADOMAH Periodic Table Glass Cube
Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Periodic Table and the ADOMAH Tetrahedron, has now used these ideas to produce a beautiful glass cube:
This amazing object is available for sale from Grand Illusions:
A Note by Philip Stewart stewart.phi@gmail.com
The cube represents 120 chemical elements etched into a cube of Optical Crystal glass. The s, p, d, and f blocks of the Janet periodic table form four rectangles, which are slices of a regular tetrahedron, parallel with two of its edges and with two faces of the circumscribed cube. All four quantum numbers are made visible in this arrangement. You can see a 2D version on the Perfect Periodic Table website, click on the "skyscraper" version on the right to see the tetrahedron, and go to Regular Tetrahedron at foot of page for details.
The regular tetrahedron is the only form in which slices are rectangles of different shape and identical perimeter. When each orbital is represented by a square of unit edge, the rectangles representing the blocks all have the same perimeter, which is twice the length of the edges of the tetrahedron (which are of course √2 times the edges of the cube): 18 units = 2(values of n + values of m_{l}).
Block 
values of n 
values of m_{l} 
s 
8 
1 
p 
6 
3 
d 
4 
5 
f 
2 
7 
Valery Tsimmerman, orahct@gmail.com, creator of the design, has written to me as follows:
"I just had some thoughts about the Perimeter Rule that is at the basis of the tetrahedral arrangement. Dimensions of the blocks are dictated by number of values of ml and number of values of n. We know that n governs quantization of energy. Recently I learned that quantization of the possible orientations of L with respect to an external magnetic field is often referred to as space quantization. (Serway, Jewett: Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th edition. p.1369).
"That is, m_{l} stands for space quantization. Therefore, the Perimeter Rule reflects a direct relationship between energy and space. I think that this could have some significance. The beautiful thing about the Universe is that each type of symmetry is related to some conservation law. Symmetry in time is related to energy. Therefore, n is related to time also, so, in the Perimeter Rule we have relationship between time and space on quantum numerical level. The interesting thing is that m_{l} can be positive and negative, while n can only be positive. Similarly, things can move in space in positive and negative directions, but time has only one direction. There is no negative time, just as there are no negative values of quantum number n."
Adomah is a variant of Adamah, Hebrew for 'dust of the earth', from which Adam was made (Genesis 2:7).
2014
Belikov's Modular Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
"I call this version of the Modular Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. I got the idea for it some time between 2005 and 2007, during the chemistry course at my university, in attempt to rationalize the clumsy common version I was being taught. I showed it to my chemistry teacher, but he didn't seem to be impressed much, so it went into the drawer. Recently I decided to resurrect it and publish somewhere. So I had a look on the web and found your excellent database, with hundreds of versions. After the first shock, I realized that only few are actually similar to my version. These are well known Janet's table and ADOMAH table. So, it appeared to me that the idea to group elements strictly according to filling of their atomic shells is not new. However, the way I have done it is slightly different from the mentioned tables. For example, s,p,d and f blocks of elements are completely autonomous and can be placed wherever desired (hence the name 'Modular'). This reflects the notion that there is little in common in chemical behavior between the elements in different blocks. Also, outer subshell type, energy level and electron count are clearly labeled, so that these parameters can be quickly determined for each element.
"Overall, I think that this version of periodic table allows easier understanding and transition from IUPAC table and could be implemented in school and university textbooks."
Aleksey Belikov
2015
ADOMAH Periodic Table and Normal Distribution
Valery Tsimmerman writes:
The ADOMAH, from here, resembles the normal distribution or "Bell Curve". It also mimics the distribution of electrons in orbitals:
2015
Pams Quantum Periodic Table
By Dr. N. D. Raju, the Pams Quantum Periodic Table. Read the full paper discussing the logic of the new formulation.
2017
New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table
From Valery Tsimmerman, of the PerfectPeriodicTable.com and the ADOMAH Periodic Table:
"I received email from Dr. Marcus Wolf who is a chemist, working on renewable energy and electrochemical storage in Germany, near Nuremberg. He also lectures at Georg Simon Ohm, Technische Hochschule Nürnberg. Attached to his email was new version of ADOMAH Periodic Table that he created. In this new rendering he is using Jensen's Valence Manifold (VM)."
This is what Dr. Marcus Wolf wrote:
"The first one to come up with the idea of using a valence manifold VM = [e + v] as a label for the groups, was Will B. Jensen. He derived it from the very early attempts of Richard Abegg, who, at around 1904, brought up the hypothesis of 'main and countervalences', derived from the observable behavior of elements and their compounds in electrochemical experiments. Eric Scerri is citing Jensen in his latest book, in the chapter about Richard Abegg. But Jensen's proper article from 1983 or so is far more detailed and in his later publications he then introduces the valence manifold concept. Last weekend I accidentally observed another consistency between the Gvalues and their ordering and the valence electron counts, e. If you fix the e value of the starting group in a given lblock as e(initial), you could generate every Gnumber of a given group by adding the valence vacancy count, v, to it:
G = e(initial) + v.
"That is another hint for the consistency of the VM labelling concept."
2018
ADOMAH Periodic Table Formulation with NIST Data
By Valery Tsimmerman, who writes:
I would like to share with you another variant of my ADOMAH periodic table formulation that holds additional spectroscopic information.
Click here image to enlarge the PT below.
2018
Simpson's 4Dimensional Version of the ADOMAH Periodic Table
Doug Simpson writes:
"Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH table and website got me started as a periodic table hobbyist. The attached photos show what I've been up to. Valery's observation that n, l, & m conspire to generate a halffilled tetrahedral lattice inspired me to create a 4D periodic table using all four quantum numbers as coordinates."
2019
Kultovoy's Periodic Table Book
Nicolay Kultovoy, website, as sent me a copy of his Periodic Table book, entitled [Google Translate]: Book 5. Part 1108. A single quantum mechanical model of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the periodic table of chemical elements of D.I. Mendeleev.
In a mixture of Russian & English, the PDF of the book can be viewed here.
Chapter 1. Triune (electrons, nucleons, chemical elements) quantum mechanical model of Colt. Three
1.1 the Rules of filling of the orbits of electrons.
1.2 Pyramidal lattice.
1.3 models with cubic sieve.
1.4 models with facecentered lattice.
1.5 quantum Mechanical form of the periodic table of chemical elements.
1.6 StoweJanetScerri Periodic Table.
Chapter 2. A lattice model of the nucleus. Model 62
2.1 Berezovsky G. N.
2.2 I. Boldov
2.4 Konovalov.
2.5 Manturov V.
2.6 Semikov S. A.
2.7 alphapartial model of the atomic nucleus.
2.8 Burtaev V.
Chapter 3. Various lattice (crystal) model of the nucleus of an atom. One hundred five
3.0 Luis Pauling.
3.1 Valery Tsimmerman. ADOMAH Periodic Table. Model 32.
3.2 Klishev B. V. Model 31.
3.3 Garai J. Model 31.
3.4 Winger E Model 42.
3.5 Norman D. Cook. Model 41.
3.6 Gamal A. Nasser. Model 41.
3.7 D. Asanbaeva Model 41.
3.8 Datsuk V. K.
3.9 Bolotov B.
3.10 Djibladze M. I.
3.11 Dyukin S. V.
3.12 A. N. Mishin.
3.13 M. M. Protodyakonov
3.14 Dry I. N.
3.15 UlfG. Meißner.
3.16 Foreign works.
Chapter 4. Longperiod periodic table. One hundred eighty one
4.1 longPeriod representation of the periodic table.
4.2 Artamonov, G. N.
4.3 Galiulin R. V.
4.4 E. K. Spirin
4.5. Khoroshavin L.
4.6 Step form proposed by Thomsen and Bohr.
4.7 Symmetrical shape of the periodic table.
Chapter 5. Construction of a periodic table based on the structure of orbitals. Two hundred twenty one
5.1 construction of the periodic table on the basis of orbitals.
5.2 Short V. M.
5.3 Kulakov, the Novosibirsk table of multiplets.
Chapter 6. Atomic structure. Two hundred forty eight
6.1 Table of isotopes.
6.2 the structure of the orbitals.
2019
Stewart's Quantahedron Formulation
From Philip Stewart, here & here, comes a three dimensional Quantahedron Formulation.
Philip writes:
"The Quantahedron is based on Tsimmerman's Adomah cube, realised in transparent plastic, in the usual order in which Z values are read, printed on separable blocks so that it can be assembled."
2020
Rainbow Periodic Table in ADOMAH Cube
From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a version of his Rainbow Periodic Table inside Valery Tsimmerman's glass cube:
2022
Electronegativity Seamlessly Mapped Onto Various Formulations of The Periodic Table
A discussion on the Google Groups Periodic Table Discussion List, involving a René Vernon, Nawa Nagayasu & Julio Samanez (all contributors this database) lead to the development of the representations below, showing electronegativity seamlessly mapped onto a modified LeftStep Periodic Table:
Nawa Nagayasu has mapped electronegativity to Mendeleeve's formulation:
Nawa Nagayasu has mapped electronegativity onto other formulations, Julio's Binode Spiral:
and the "conventional", short, medium and long forms of the periodic table with hydrogen above and between B & C which show the botomrighttotopleft electronegativity trend:
René Vernon's 777 Periodic Wedding Cake:
Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH formulation:
Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH tetrahedron (in a glass cube) formulation:
2022
Vernon's Yin Yang of The Periodic Table
René Vernon writes:
"I was prompted to [develop] this item after reading Eric Scerri's open access article: In Praise of Triads. The nub of Eric’s article is to argue for the LST on the grounds of triad regularity, firstrowanomaly regularity, and consistency with QM.
"It occurs to me that efforts to introduce more regularity to the PT invariably introduce new irregularities elsewhere. For example, as far as triad regularity goes, the left step table (LST) with He over Be introduces its own anomaly in that no element in period 1 (H, He) is part of a triad whereas this is not the case for all periods thereafter. In contrast, all periods of the traditional table have at least one element that is part of a triad.
"As far as QM goes, this tells us that there is a theoretical regularity to the PT. This regularity can be used to inform e.g. the LST, ADOMAH or Julio’s binodes. But such depictions do not reflect the factual relationships we see amongst the chemistry of the elements as well as is the case for the conventional form. A most obvious example is that the LST, while being more consistent with QM, disrupts the bottomleft to topright trend in metallic to nonmetallic character seen in conventional tables.
(I must caveat that I'm referring to the chemistry of the elements in conditions regularly occurring on Earth. For example, it has been reported that under sufficiently high pressures the elements change their EN and electron configurations. If so, this suggests a need for a different table at high pressure.)
At this point, the chemistry educators enter the picture. They move the sblock to left. Helium is relocated over Ne on the basis of its nobility. (This could change if a few compounds of He were to be synthesized). Somewhat similarly, La was discovered well before Lu, so it ended up under Y, and most folks see no good reason to replace La with Lu. Sure, in the 32column form, the result is a split dblock but the infrequency with which the 32column form appears is such that most people are not bothered. The result is the conventional table.
Philosophically, while the n+l based LST might represent the most general form of table, the conventional table appears to currently represent the most pragmatic derivation for chemists and chemistry educators.
Since the PT is classification rather than theory, and there will thus always be hard cases at the boundaries, there will invariably be minor variations in the depiction of the conventional table with respect to e.g. the placement of H, the composition of group 3, or the length of the f block.
And there will always be tables such as MR that focus on particular perspectives of relationships among the the elements.
I’ve tried to sketch what's going in the attached image:"
What is the Periodic Table Showing?  Periodicity 
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos...
If you have any:
Queries
Comments
Suggestions
Suggestions for links
Bug, typo or grammatical error reports about this page,please contact Mark R. Leach, the author, using mark@metasynthesis.com
This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated.