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The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.

Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1300 Period Tables in the database: 

  Text Search:       

Periodic Tables referencing the text string "ADOMAH", listed by date:

1949   Catalan's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado
1992   Fet's Periodic Tables
2006   ADOMAH Periodic Table by Valery Tsimmerman
2008   ADOMAH Tetrahedron Periodic Table
2011   Pacholek's Multipipe 3D Periodic Table
2012   Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law
2014   ADOMAH Periodic Table Glass Cube
2014   Belikov's Modular Periodic Table of Chemical Elements
2015   ADOMAH Periodic Table and Normal Distribution
2015   Pams' Quantum Periodic Table
2017   New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table
2018   ADOMAH Periodic Table Formulation with NIST Data
2018   Simpson's 4-Dimensional Version of the ADOMAH Periodic Table
2019   Kultovoy's Periodic Table Book
2019   Stewart's Quantahedron Formulation
2020   Rainbow Periodic Table in ADOMAH Cube
2022   Electronegativity Seamlessly Mapped Onto Various Formulations of The Periodic Table
2022   Vernon's Yin Yang of The Periodic Table

Year:  1949 PT id = 1052

Catalán's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado

Two versions of Catalán's Periodic System/Sistema Periodico Ampliado. The first from C.E. Moore 1949, Atomic Energy Levels, National Bureau of Standards, Circular no. 467, Washington DC, vol. 1, table 25 (1949) and the second as referenced here:

René Vernon, who provided the graphics, writes:

"I feel the footnote along the base of the first table could merit better attention being drawn to it. It says:

This arrangement is by Catalán. The electrons indicated in column two that are connected by braces have approximately the same binding energy. Consequently, for some elements one type of electron is preferred over another in the normal configuration, as for example, Cr, Cb, Pd, La, Ac, Th.

"The connecting braces hone in on the source of much of the controversy concerning notions of an ideal, optimal, better, this or that, or fundamental periodic table. I can't recall seeing a table with such a feature. For the second table, turning it on its side (attached) reminds of the ADOMAH [formulation].

Click on the images to enlarge:

Thanks to René for the tip!

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Year:  1992 PT id = 935

Fet's Periodic Tables

Two periodic tables by A.I. Fet from his book, "Mathematical Modeling in Biology and Chemistry. New Approach" Nauka, Sib.Dep., 1992.

Larry Tsimmerman writes:

"First formulation, Tab. 7, is precursor of Adomah PT with broken Z-sequence and questionable pairing of elements in accordance with "ml". Tab. 8 is a Janet LST shown vertically. Fet discusses Periodic Table in the light of Group Theory. (The book was sent to me by Eric Scerri and it was signed by Fet for Hefferlin)."


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Year:  2006 PT id = 32

ADOMAH Periodic Table by Valery Tsimmerman

The ADOMAH periodic table is based on the Janet or left-step periodic table. It consists of four blocks (s, p, d & f) corresponding to quantum numbers l = 0,1,2,3. Blocks are separated, shifted and reconnected with each other via diagonal lines. This arrangement creates "layers" or "strata" that retain continuity in respect to atomic number Z, in addition to usual columns and rows. Therefore, numbers shown on the right hand side of the table may represent either quantum numbers n (electronic shells) if horizontal rows are followed, or n + l if "layers" or "strata" are followed.

This feature assists in creation of electronic configurations of the elements. Elements H and He are placed in two positions that reflect their dual nature and give proper consideration to atomic structure and chemical properties of those two elements. This feature also preserves triads He, Ne, Ar and H, F, Cl. Also, the elements are placed in rectangular "boxes", so any two of such "boxes" make up a square thus symbolising electron pairs. This also cuts table length in half. Unlike the Janet table, this table is assembled from bottom up in direction of increase of quantum number n, as well as atomic weight and energy. The ADOMAH table has symmetry and, assuming total number of elements 120, can be divided in four parts of 30 elements with center point located among precious metals.


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Year:  2008 PT id = 88

ADOMAH Tetrahedron

Valery Tsimmerman has developed various periodic table formulations, available at perfect perioidic

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Year:  2011 PT id = 418

Pacholek's Multipipe 3D Periodic Table

"I've recently invented a new type of periodic table. My table is 3-dimensional and is similar to the ADOMAH Periodic Table, but it's also very different from the ADOMAH Tetrahedron. Its main advantage is being fully geometric in the plane spanned by n, l and n+l quantum numbers."

Take a look at the Picasa images here and here:

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Year:  2012 PT id = 479

Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law

Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Tetrahedron periodic table formulation and the Perfect Periodic Table website, presents a Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law:

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Year:  2014 PT id = 642

ADOMAH Periodic Table Glass Cube

Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Periodic Table and the ADOMAH Tetrahedron, has now used these ideas to produce a beautiful glass cube:


This amazing object is available for sale from Grand Illusions:


A Note by Philip Stewart

The cube represents 120 chemical elements etched into a cube of Optical Crystal glass. The s, p, d, and f blocks of the Janet periodic table form four rectangles, which are slices of a regular tetrahedron, parallel with two of its edges and with two faces of the circumscribed cube. All four quantum numbers are made visible in this arrangement. You can see a 2-D version on the Perfect Periodic Table website, click on the "skyscraper" version on the right to see the tetrahedron, and go to Regular Tetrahedron at foot of page for details.

The regular tetrahedron is the only form in which slices are rectangles of different shape and identical perimeter. When each orbital is represented by a square of unit edge, the rectangles representing the blocks all have the same perimeter, which is twice the length of the edges of the tetrahedron (which are of course √2 times the edges of the cube): 18 units = 2(values of n + values of ml).

values of
values of

Valery Tsimmerman,, creator of the design, has written to me as follows:

"I just had some thoughts about the Perimeter Rule that is at the basis of the tetrahedral arrangement. Dimensions of the blocks are dictated by number of values of ml and number of values of n. We know that n governs quantization of energy. Recently I learned that quantization of the possible orientations of L with respect to an external magnetic field is often referred to as space quantization. (Serway, Jewett: Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th edition. p.1369).

"That is, ml stands for space quantization. Therefore, the Perimeter Rule reflects a direct relationship between energy and space. I think that this could have some significance. The beautiful thing about the Universe is that each type of symmetry is related to some conservation law. Symmetry in time is related to energy. Therefore, n is related to time also, so, in the Perimeter Rule we have relationship between time and space on quantum numerical level. The interesting thing is that ml can be positive and negative, while n can only be positive. Similarly, things can move in space in positive and negative directions, but time has only one direction. There is no negative time, just as there are no negative values of quantum number n."

Adomah is a variant of Adamah, Hebrew for 'dust of the earth', from which Adam was made (Genesis 2:7).

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Year:  2014 PT id = 680

Belikov's Modular Periodic Table of Chemical Elements

"I call this version of the Modular Periodic Table of Chemical Elements. I got the idea for it some time between 2005 and 2007, during the chemistry course at my university, in attempt to rationalize the clumsy common version I was being taught. I showed it to my chemistry teacher, but he didn't seem to be impressed much, so it went into the drawer. Recently I decided to resurrect it and publish somewhere. So I had a look on the web and found your excellent database, with hundreds of versions. After the first shock, I realized that only few are actually similar to my version. These are well known Janet's table and ADOMAH table. So, it appeared to me that the idea to group elements strictly according to filling of their atomic shells is not new. However, the way I have done it is slightly different from the mentioned tables. For example, s,p,d and f blocks of elements are completely autonomous and can be placed wherever desired (hence the name 'Modular'). This reflects the notion that there is little in common in chemical behavior between the elements in different blocks. Also, outer subshell type, energy level and electron count are clearly labeled, so that these parameters can be quickly determined for each element.

"Overall, I think that this version of periodic table allows easier understanding and transition from IUPAC table and could be implemented in school and university textbooks."

Aleksey Belikov


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Year:  2015 PT id = 700

ADOMAH Periodic Table and Normal Distribution

Valery Tsimmerman writes:

The ADOMAH, from here, resembles the normal distribution or "Bell Curve". It also mimics the distribution of electrons in orbitals:

ADOMAH Periodic Table and Normal Distribution

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Year:  2015 PT id = 701

Pams Quantum Periodic Table

By Dr. N. D. Raju, the Pams Quantum Periodic Table. Read the full paper discussing the logic of the new formulation.

ADOMAH Periodic Table and Normal Distribution

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Year:  2017 PT id = 741

New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table

From Valery Tsimmerman, of the and the ADOMAH Periodic Table:

"I received email from Dr. Marcus Wolf who is a chemist, working on renewable energy and electrochemical storage in Germany, near Nuremberg. He also lectures at Georg Simon Ohm, Technische Hochschule Nürnberg. Attached to his email was new version of ADOMAH Periodic Table that he created. In this new rendering he is using Jensen's Valence Manifold (VM)."

This is what Dr. Marcus Wolf wrote:

"The first one to come up with the idea of using a valence manifold VM = [e + v] as a label for the groups, was Will B. Jensen. He derived it from the very early attempts of Richard Abegg, who, at around 1904, brought up the hypothesis of 'main- and counter-valences', derived from the observable behavior of elements and their compounds in electrochemical experiments. Eric Scerri is citing Jensen in his latest book, in the chapter about Richard Abegg. But Jensen's proper article from 1983 or so is far more detailed and in his later publications he then introduces the valence manifold concept. Last weekend I accidentally observed another consistency between the G-values and their ordering and the valence electron counts, e. If you fix the e value of the starting group in a given l-block as e(initial), you could generate every G-number of a given group by adding the valence vacancy count, v, to it:

G = e(initial) + v.

"That is another hint for the consistency of the VM labelling concept."

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Year:  2018 PT id = 952

ADOMAH Periodic Table Formulation with NIST Data

By Valery Tsimmerman, who writes:

I would like to share with you another variant of my ADOMAH periodic table formulation that holds additional spectroscopic information.

Click here image to enlarge the PT below.

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Year:  2018 PT id = 977

Simpson's 4-Dimensional Version of the ADOMAH Periodic Table

Doug Simpson writes:

"Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH table and website got me started as a periodic table hobbyist. The attached photos show what I've been up to. Valery's observation that n, l, & m conspire to generate a half-filled tetrahedral lattice inspired me to create a 4D periodic table using all four quantum numbers as coordinates."

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Year:  2019 PT id = 1001

Kultovoy's Periodic Table Book

Nicolay Kultovoy, website, as sent me a copy of his Periodic Table book, entitled [Google Translate]: Book 5. Part 11-08. A single quantum mechanical model of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the periodic table of chemical elements of D.I. Mendeleev.

In a mixture of Russian & English, the PDF of the book can be viewed here.

Chapter 1. Triune (electrons, nucleons, chemical elements) quantum mechanical model of Colt. Three
1.1 the Rules of filling of the orbits of electrons.
1.2 Pyramidal lattice.
1.3 models with cubic sieve.
1.4 models with face-centered lattice.
1.5 quantum Mechanical form of the periodic table of chemical elements.
1.6 Stowe-Janet-Scerri Periodic Table.
Chapter 2. A lattice model of the nucleus. Model 62
2.1 Berezovsky G. N.
2.2 I. Boldov
2.4 Konovalov.
2.5 Manturov V.
2.6 Semikov S. A.
2.7 alpha-partial model of the atomic nucleus.
2.8 Burtaev V.
Chapter 3. Various lattice (crystal) model of the nucleus of an atom. One hundred five
3.0 Luis Pauling.
3.1 Valery Tsimmerman. ADOMAH Periodic Table. Model 3-2.
3.2 Klishev B. V. Model 3-1.
3.3 Garai J. Model 3-1.
3.4 Winger E Model 4-2.
3.5 Norman D. Cook. Model 4-1.
3.6 Gamal A. Nasser. Model 4-1.
3.7 D. Asanbaeva Model 4-1.
3.8 Datsuk V. K.
3.9 Bolotov B.
3.10 Djibladze M. I.
3.11 Dyukin S. V.
3.12 A. N. Mishin.
3.13 M. M. Protodyakonov
3.14 Dry I. N.
3.15 Ulf-G. Meißner.
3.16 Foreign works.
Chapter 4. Long-period periodic table. One hundred eighty one
4.1 long-Period representation of the periodic table.
4.2 Artamonov, G. N.
4.3 Galiulin R. V.
4.4 E. K. Spirin
4.5. Khoroshavin L.
4.6 Step form proposed by Thomsen and Bohr.
4.7 Symmetrical shape of the periodic table.
Chapter 5. Construction of a periodic table based on the structure of orbitals. Two hundred twenty one
5.1 construction of the periodic table on the basis of orbitals.
5.2 Short V. M.
5.3 Kulakov, the Novosibirsk table of multiplets.
Chapter 6. Atomic structure. Two hundred forty eight
6.1 Table of isotopes.
6.2 the structure of the orbitals.

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Year:  2019 PT id = 1019

Stewart's Quantahedron Formulation

From Philip Stewart, here & here, comes a three dimensional Quantahedron Formulation.

Philip writes:

"The Quantahedron is based on Tsimmerman's Adomah cube, realised in transparent plastic, in the usual order in which Z values are read, printed on separable blocks so that it can be assembled."

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Year:  2020 PT id = 1175

Rainbow Periodic Table in ADOMAH Cube

From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a version of his Rainbow Periodic Table inside Valery Tsimmerman's glass cube:

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Year:  2022 PT id = 1241

Electronegativity Seamlessly Mapped Onto Various Formulations of The Periodic Table

A discussion on the Google Groups Periodic Table Discussion List, involving a René Vernon, Nawa Nagayasu & Julio Samanez (all contributors this database) lead to the development of the representations below, showing electronegativity seamlessly mapped onto a modified Left-Step Periodic Table:

Nawa Nagayasu has mapped electronegativity to Mendeleeve's formulation:

Nawa Nagayasu has mapped electronegativity onto other formulations, Julio's Binode Spiral:

Courtine's 1926 formulation:

and the "conventional", short, medium and long forms of the periodic table with hydrogen above and between B & C which show the botom-right-to-top-left electronegativity trend:

Jeff Moran's Spiral:

René Vernon's 777 Periodic Wedding Cake:

Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH formulation:

Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH tetrahedron (in a glass cube) formulation:

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Year:  2022 PT id = 1252

Vernon's Yin Yang of The Periodic Table

René Vernon writes:

"I was prompted to [develop] this item after reading Eric Scerri's open access article: In Praise of Triads. The nub of Eric’s article is to argue for the LST on the grounds of triad regularity, first-row-anomaly regularity, and consistency with QM.

"It occurs to me that efforts to introduce more regularity to the PT invariably introduce new irregularities elsewhere. For example, as far as triad regularity goes, the left step table (LST) with He over Be introduces its own anomaly in that no element in period 1 (H, He) is part of a triad whereas this is not the case for all periods thereafter. In contrast, all periods of the traditional table have at least one element that is part of a triad.

"As far as QM goes, this tells us that there is a theoretical regularity to the PT. This regularity can be used to inform e.g. the LST, ADOMAH or Julio’s binodes. But such depictions do not reflect the factual relationships we see amongst the chemistry of the elements as well as is the case for the conventional form. A most obvious example is that the LST, while being more consistent with QM, disrupts the bottom-left to top-right trend in metallic to nonmetallic character seen in conventional tables.

(I must caveat that I'm referring to the chemistry of the elements in conditions regularly occurring on Earth. For example, it has been reported that under sufficiently high pressures the elements change their EN and electron configurations. If so, this suggests a need for a different table at high pressure.)

At this point, the chemistry educators enter the picture. They move the s-block to left. Helium is relocated over Ne on the basis of its nobility. (This could change if a few compounds of He were to be synthesized). Somewhat similarly, La was discovered well before Lu, so it ended up under Y, and most folks see no good reason to replace La with Lu. Sure, in the 32-column form, the result is a split d-block but the infrequency with which the 32-column form appears is such that most people are not bothered. The result is the conventional table.

Philosophically, while the n+l based LST might represent the most general form of table, the conventional table appears to currently represent the most pragmatic derivation for chemists and chemistry educators.

Since the PT is classification rather than theory, and there will thus always be hard cases at the boundaries, there will invariably be minor variations in the depiction of the conventional table with respect to e.g. the placement of H, the composition of group 3, or the length of the f block.

And there will always be tables such as MR that focus on particular perspectives of relationships among the the elements.

I’ve tried to sketch what's going in the attached image:"

Click to enlarge.

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What is the Periodic Table Showing? Periodicity

© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –

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