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The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables

There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.

Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1300 Period Tables in the database: 

  Text Search:       

Periodic Tables referencing the text string "Jensen", listed by date:

1836   Berzelius' Electronegativity Table
1868   Mendeleev's Handwritten Draft Periodic Table
1870   Baker's Electronegativity Table
1970   Luder's Atomic-Structure Chart of the Elements
1987   Step-Pyramid Form of the Periodic Chart
2000   Jensen Article: The Periodic Law and Table
2009   Jensen's In-Finite Form
2012   Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System
2017   New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table
2020   Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements
2021   150 Years of the Periodic Table
2024   Bilateral Symmetry in the Periodic Binodic Table

Year:  1836 PT id = 453

Berzelius' Electronegativity Table

Berzelius' electronegativity table of 1836.

The most electronegative element (oxygen or Sauerstoff) is listed at the top left and the least electronegative (potassium or Kalium) lower right. The line between hydrogen (Wasserstoff) and gold seperates the predomently electronegative elements from the electropositive elements. Page 17 and ref. 32 from Bill Jensen's Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part I: Origins of the Electronegativity Concept, J. Chem. Educ., 73, 11-20 (1996):

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Year:  1868 PT id = 193

Handwritten draft of the first version of Mendeleev's Periodic Table

From of Bill Jensen, Curator of the Oesper Collection at the University of Cincinnati:

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Year:  1870 PT id = 454

Baker's Electronegativity Table

Baker's electronegativity table of 1870 differs from Berzelius' listing of 1836 only by the addition of the newly discovered elements. Page 280 and ref. 5 from Bill Jensen's: Electronegativity from Avogadro to Pauling Part II: Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Developments, J. Chem. Educ., 80, 279-287 (2003):

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Year:  1970 PT id = 1055

Luder's Atomic-Structure Chart of the Elements

W.F. Luder, The Atomic-Structure Chart of the Elements, Canadian Chemical Education, April 1970, pp13-16.

Eric Scerri writes:

"A very nice article from 1970. This deals with the group 3 question in a very dear and simple fashion."

"I corresponded with the author in the 1980s. Also, I have always wondered where Jensen got some of his information for his article on group 3. I think it's from this and other articles by Luder. He published a number of articles in Journal of Chemical Education."

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Year:  1987 PT id = 1039

Step-Pyramid Form of the Periodic Chart

By Bill (William) Jensen, a Step-Pyramid form of the periodic chart.

This formulation is an updated version of the charts by Thomsen (1895) and Bohr (1922) with more elements, including placeholders up to 118, electronic configuration lables, etc. Read more on the Science History Institute website.

Thanks to René for the tip!

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Year:  2000 PT id = 972

Jensen Article: The Periodic Law and Table

From William (Bill) Jensen's website, an article: The Periodic Law and Table (written for Britannica on Line, Encyclopaedia Britannica: Chicago, lL, 2000, but never published. ).

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Year:  2009 PT id = 249

Steve Jensen's "In-Finite Form"

"I'm a figurative sculptor, living in Minneapolis MN. A few years ago, while looking at a two dimensional version of the periodic table, I too wondered if it would be possible to create a Periodic Table without any visual breaks in its numerical sequence. Although I had never seen anything other than the rectangular flat table, I thought I might be able to solve this spatial continuity problem three dimensionally. I also wanted to limit myself to using a 3-D "line" that had no sudden changes in direction. After coming up with what I thought was a new and unique sculptural resolution, I put the project aside. Only recently (after re-building my paper model out of a translucent material) did I do some research on the web, and immediately recognized the strong likeness between my version and the Alexander Arrangement. Even more surprising was my models' visual similarity to Crookes' figure eight design from some 111 years ago.

"Although there are obviously many inventive and well thought out responses to this design challenge, I believe that my solution is a unique one, and an improvement over some of the previous three dimensional forms. The "line" of my model allows for contiguous numerical placement of all the symbols (while maintaining group continuity along its vertical axis), even as the shape of its plan view makes visual reference to the well-known symbol for infinity. What's more, in my version, the Lanthanide & Actinide series do not occupy a separate field but are fully integrated into the continuous linear flow. This piece, which I've entitled "In-Finite Form" speaks to the mystery of the endless flow of space, even as it folds back onto itself within the confines of a finite system."

Steve Jensen ©September 2009

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Year:  2012 PT id = 501

Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System

From Eric Scerri's forthcoming book A Tale of Seven Elements (Oxford University Press, 2013) and used by permission of the author, is the most complete and up-to-date list of Books on the Chemical Elements and the Periodic Table/System, including some titles in foreign languages.

Additional books in other languages can be found listed in Mazurs, 1974

Works by D. I. Mendeleev


Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

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Year:  2017 PT id = 741

New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table

From Valery Tsimmerman, of the and the ADOMAH Periodic Table:

"I received email from Dr. Marcus Wolf who is a chemist, working on renewable energy and electrochemical storage in Germany, near Nuremberg. He also lectures at Georg Simon Ohm, Technische Hochschule Nürnberg. Attached to his email was new version of ADOMAH Periodic Table that he created. In this new rendering he is using Jensen's Valence Manifold (VM)."

This is what Dr. Marcus Wolf wrote:

"The first one to come up with the idea of using a valence manifold VM = [e + v] as a label for the groups, was Will B. Jensen. He derived it from the very early attempts of Richard Abegg, who, at around 1904, brought up the hypothesis of 'main- and counter-valences', derived from the observable behavior of elements and their compounds in electrochemical experiments. Eric Scerri is citing Jensen in his latest book, in the chapter about Richard Abegg. But Jensen's proper article from 1983 or so is far more detailed and in his later publications he then introduces the valence manifold concept. Last weekend I accidentally observed another consistency between the G-values and their ordering and the valence electron counts, e. If you fix the e value of the starting group in a given l-block as e(initial), you could generate every G-number of a given group by adding the valence vacancy count, v, to it:

G = e(initial) + v.

"That is another hint for the consistency of the VM labelling concept."

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Year:  2020 PT id = 1149

Scerri's Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements

From Eric Scerri, a periodic table of books about the periodic table & the chemical elements... many by Eric Scerri himself.

Eric Scerri, UCLA, Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry. See the website and Eric's Twitter Feed.

Click to enlarge:

There is no particular connection between each of the elements and the book associated with it in the table, with the exception of: H, He, N, Ti, V, Nb, Ag, La, Au, Ac, U, Pu & Og.

The following is a list of references for each of the 118 books featured on Periodic Table of Books About The Periodic Table & The Chemical Elements. Books published in languages other than English are shown in color. They include the Catalan, Croatian, French, German, Italian, Norwegian & Spanish languages:

1 H J. Ridgen, Hydrogen, the Essential Element, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002.
2 He W.M. Sears Jr., Helium, The Disappearing Element, Springer, Berlin, 2015.
3 Li K. Lew, The Alkali Metals, Rosen Central, New York, 2009.
4 Be S. Esteban Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009. (Spanish)
5 B E.R. Scerri. The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.
6 C U. Lagerkvist, The Periodic Table and a Missed Nobel Prize, World Scientific, Singapore, 2012.
7 N W.B. Jensen, Mendeleev on the Periodic Law: Selected Writings, 1869–1905, Dover, Mineola, NY, 2005.
8 O M. Kaji, H. Kragh, G. Pallo, (eds.), Early Responses to the Periodic System, Oxford University, Press, New York, 2015.
9 F E. Mazurs, Graphic Representation of the Periodic System During One Hundred Years, Alabama University Press, Tuscaloosa, AL, 1974.
10 Ne T. Gray, The Elements: A Visual Exploration of Every Known Atom in the Universe, Black Dog & Leventhal, 2009.
11 Na N.C. Norman, Periodicity and the s- and p-Block Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007.
12 Mg M. Gordin, A Well-Ordered Thing, Dimitrii Mendeleev and the Shadow of the Periodic Table, 2nd edition, Basic Books, New York, 2019.
13 Al S. Kean, The Disappearing Spoon, Little, Brown & Co., New York, 2010.
14 Si P.A. Cox, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1989.
15 P J. Emsley, The 13th Element: The Sordid Tale of Murder, Fire, and Phosphorus, Wiley, New York, 2002.
16 S P. Parsons, G. Dixon, The Periodic Table: A Field Guide to the Elements, Qurcus, London, 2014.
17 Cl P. Levi, The Periodic Table, Schocken, New York, 1995.
18 Ar B.D. Wiker, The Mystery of the Periodic Table, Bethlehem Books, New York, 2003.
19 K H. Alderesey-Williams, Periodic Tales, Viking Press, 2011.
20 Ca P. Strathern, Mendeleyev's Dream, Hamish-Hamilton, London, 1999.
21 Sc D. Scott, Around the World in 18 Elements, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2015.
22 Ti E. W. Collings, Gerhard Welsch, Materials Properties Handbook: Titanium Alloys, ASM International, Geauga County, Ohio, 1994.
23 V D. Rehder, Bioinorganic Vanadium Chemistry, Wiley-Blackwell, Weinheim, 2008.
24 Cr K. Chapman, Superheavy, Bloomsbury Sigma, New York, 2019.
25 Mn E.R. Scerri, E. Ghibaudi (eds.), What is an Element? Oxford University Press, New York, 2020.
26 Fe M. Soon Lee, Elemental Haiku, Ten Speed Press, New York, 2019.
27 Co J. Emsley, Nature's Building Blocks, An A-Z Guide to the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
28 Ni T. James, Elemental, Robinson, London, 2018.
29 Cu E.R. Scerri, The Periodic Table, Its Story and Its Significance, Oxford University Press, New York, 2007.
30 Zn H. Rossotti, Diverse Atoms, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
31 Ga P. Ball, A Very Short Introduction to the Elements, Oxford University Press, 2004.
32 Ge I. Asimov, The Building Blocks of the Universe, Lancer Books, New York, 1966.
33 As J. Browne, Seven Elements that Changed the World, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 2013.
34 Se N. Raos, Bezbroj Lica Periodnog Sustava Elemenata, Technical Museum of Zagreb, Croatia, 2010. (Croatian)
35 Br P. Strathern, The Knowledge, The Periodic Table, Quadrille Publishing, London, 2015.
36 Kr A. Ede, The Chemical Element, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 2006.
37 Rb A. Stwertka, The Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998.
38 Sr E.R. Scerri, A Tale of Seven Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013.
39 Y H.-J. Quadbeck-Seeger, World of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2007.
40 Zr M. Fontani, M. Costa, M.V. Orna (eds.), The Lost Elements, Oxford University Press, New York, 2015.
41 Nb M. Seegers, T. Peeters (eds.), Niobium: Chemical Properties, Applications and Environmental Effects, Nova Science Publishers, New York, 2013.
42 Mo E.R. Scerri, Selected Papers on the Periodic Table, Imperial College Press, Imperial College Press, London and Singapore, 2009.
43 Tc A. Dingle, The Periodic Table, Elements with Style, Kingfisher, Richmond, B.C. Canada, 2007.
44 Ru G. Rudorf, Das periodische System, seine Geschichte und Bedeutung für die chemische Sysytematik, Hamburg-Leipzig, 1904. (German)
45 Rh I. Nechaev, G.W. Jenkins, The Chemical Elements, Tarquin Publications, Publications, Norfolk, UK, 1997.
46 Pd P. Davern, The Periodic Table of Poems, No Starch Press, San Francisco, 2020.
47 Ag C. Fenau, Non-ferrous metals from Ag to Zn, Unicore, Brussells, 2002.
48 Cd J. Van Spronsen, The Periodic System of the Chemical Elements, A History of the First Hundred Years, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1969.
49 In M. Tweed, Essential Elements, Walker and Company, New York, 2003.
50 Sn M.E. Weeks, Discovery of the Elements, Journal of Chemical Education, Easton PA, 1960.
51 Sb P. Wothers, Antimony Gold Jupiter's Wolf, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.
52 Te W. Zhu, Chemical Elements in Life, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 2020.
53 I O. Sacks, Uncle Tungsten, Vintage Books, New York, 2001.
54 Xe E.R. Scerri, (ed.), 30-Second Elements, Icon Books, London, 2013.
55 Cs M. Jacob (ed.), It's Elemental: The Periodic Table, Celebrating 80th Anniversary, Chemical & Engineering News, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 2003.
56 Ba J. Marshall, Discovery of the Elements, Pearson Custom Publishing, New York,1998.
57 La K. Veronense, Rare, Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York, 2015.
58 Ce N. Holt, The Periodic Table of Football, Ebury Publishing, London, 2016.
59 Pr S. Alvarez, C. Mans, 150 Ans de Taules Périodiques a la Universitat de Barcelona, Edicions de la Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2019. (Catalan)
60 Nd L. Garzon Ruiperez, De Mendeleiev a Los Superelementos, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, 1988. (Spanish)
61 Pm P. Ball, A Guided Tour of the Ingredients, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002.
62 Sm S. Esteban Santos, La Historia del Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, 2009. (Spanish).
63 Eu A. E. Garrett, The Periodic Law, D. Appleton & Co., New York, 1909.
64 Gd M.S. Sethi, M. Satake, Periodic Tables and Periodic Properties, Discovery Publishing House, Delhi, India, 1992.
65 Tb M. Eesa, The cosmic history of the elements: A brief journey through the creation of the chemical elements and the history of the periodic table, Createspace Independent Publishing Platform, 2012.
66 Dy P. Depovere, La Classification périodique des éléments, De Boeck, Bruxelles, 2002. (French).
67 Ho F. Habashi, The Periodic Table & Mendeleev, Laval University Press, Quebec, 2017.
68 Er W.J. Nuttall, R. Clarke, B. Glowacki, The Future of Helium as a Natural Resource, Routledge, London, 2014.
69 Tm R.D. Osorio Giraldo, M.V. Alzate Cano, La Tabla Periodica, Bogota, Colombia, 2010. (Spanish).
70 Yb P.R. Polo, El Profeta del Orden Quimico, Mendeleiev, Nivola, Spain, 2008. (Spanish).
71 Lu E.R. Scerri, A Very Short Introduction to the Periodic Table, 2nd edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2019.
72 Hf D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Mathematics of the Periodic Table, Nova Scientific Publishers, New York, 2006.
73 Ta P. Thyssen, A. Ceulemans, Shattered Symmetry, Oxford University Press, New York, 2017.
74 W P.W. Atkins, The Periodic Kingdom, Basic Books, New York, NY, 1995.
75 Re D.G. Cooper, The Periodic Table, 3rd edition. Butterworths, London, 1964.
76 Os E. Lassner, W.-D. Schubert, Tungsten: Properties, Chemistry, Technology of the Element, Alloys, and Chemical Compounds, Springer, Berlin, 1999.
77 Ir J.C.A. Boeyens, D.C. Levendis, Number Theory and the Periodicity of Matter, Springer, Berlin, 2008.
78 Pt R. Hefferlin, Periodic Systems and their Relation to the Systematic Analysis of Molecular Data, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY, 1989.
79 Au R.J. Puddephatt, The Chemistry of Gold, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1978.
80 Hg D.H. Rouvray, R.B. King, The Periodic Table Into the 21st Century, Research Studies Press, Baldock, UK, 2004.
81 Tl R.E. Krebs, The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements, Greenwood Publishing Group, Santa Barbara, CA, 2006.
82 Pb E. Torgsen, Genier, sjarlataner og 50 bøtter med urin - Historien om det periodiske system, Spartacus, 2018. (Norwegian).
83 Bi K. Buchanan, D. Roller, Memorize the Periodic Table, Memory Worldwide Pty Limited, 2013.
84 Po D. Morris, The Last Sorcerers, The Path from Alchemy to the Periodic Table, Joseph Henry Press, New York, 2003.
85 At T. Jackson, The Elements, Shelter Harbor Press, New York, 2012.
86 Rn R.J.P. Williams, J.J.R. Frausto da Silva, The Natural Selection of the Chemical Elements: The Environment and Life's Chemistry, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1997.
87 Fr G. Rudorf, The Periodic Classification and the Problem of Chemical Evolution, Whittaker & Co., London, New York, 1900.
88 Ra L. Van Gorp, Elements, Compass Point Books, Manakato, MN, 2008.
89 Ac G.T. Seaborg, J.J. Katz, L.R. Morss, Chemistry of the Actinide Elements, Springer, Berlin, 1986.
90 Th G. Münzenberg, Superheavy Elements - Searching for the End of the Periodic Table, Manipal Universal Press, India, 2018.
91 Pa A. Castillejos Salazar, La Tabla Periòdica: Abecedario de la Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. Mexico, 2005. (Spanish).
92 U T. Zoellner, Uranium, Penguin Books, London, 2009.
93 Np J. Barrett, Atomic Structure and Periodicity, Royal Society of Chemistry, London, 2002.
94 Pu J. Bernstein, Plutonium, Joseph Henry, Washington DC, 2007.
95 Am S. Hofmann, Beyond Uranium, Taylor & Francis, London, 2002.
96 Cm H.M. Davis, The Chemical Elements, Ballantine Books, New York, 1961.
97 Bk P.González Duarte, Les Mils Cares de la Taula Periòdica, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra Barcelona, 2005 (Catalan).
98 Cf R. Rich, Periodic Correlations, Benjamin, New York, 1965.
99 Es E. Rabinowitsch, E. Thilo, Periodisches System, Geschichte und Theorie, Stuttgart, 1930. (German).
100 Fm P.K. Kuroda, The Origin of the Chemical Elements, and the Oklo Phenomenon, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982.
101 Md G. Villani, Mendeleev,  La Tavola Periodica Degli Elementi, Grandangolo, Milan, 2016. (Italian).
102 No J. Russell, Elementary: The Periodic Table Explained, Michael O'Mara, London, 2020.
103 Lr P. Enghag, Encyclopedia of the Elements, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004.
104 Rf R.J. Puddephatt, The Periodic Table of the Elements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1972.
105 Db L. Ohrström, The Last Alchemist in Paris, Oxford University Press, New York, 2013.
106 Sg N.N. Greenwood, E. Earnshaw, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1997.
107 Bh R. Luft, Dictionnaire des Corps Simples de la Chimie, Association Cultures et Techniques, Nantes, 1997. (French)
108 Hs Science Foundation Course Team, The Periodic Table and Chemical Bonding, The Open University, Milton Keynes, 1971.
109 Mt W.W. Schulz, J. Navratil, Transplutonium Elements, American Chemical Society, Washington D.C., 1981.
110 Ds I. Nechaev, Chemical Elements, Lindsay Drummond, 1946.
111 Rg F. Hund, Linienspektren und Periodisches System Der Elemente, Springer, Berlin, 1927.
112 Cn F.P. Venable, The Development of the Periodic Law, Chemical Publishing Co., Easton, PA, 1896.
113 Nh O. Baca Mendoza, Leyes Geneticas de los Elementos Quimicos. Nuevo Sistema Periodico, Universidad Nacional de Cuzco, Cuzco, Peru, 1953 (Spanish).
114 Fl B. Yorifuji, Wonderful Life with the Elements, No Starch Press, San Francisco, 2012.
115 Mc D.I. Mendeléeff, The Principles of Chemistry, American Home Library, New York, 1902.
116 Lv A. Lima-de-Faria, Periodic Tables Unifying Living Organisms at the Molecular Level: The Predictive Power of the Law of Periodicity, World Scientific Press, Singapore, 2018.
117 Ts H.B. Gray, J.D. Simon, W.C. Trogler, Braving the Elements, University Science Books, Sausalito, CA, 1995.
118 Og E.R. Scerri, G. Restrepo, Mendeleev to Oganesson, Oxford University Press, New York, 2018.
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Year:  2021 PT id = 1185

150 Years of the Periodic Table

Based on the ACS 2019 symposium "150 Years of the Periodic Table". Provides an overview of how the periodic table has evolved over the past 150 years Written by leading experts in the field: Editors: Giunta, Carmen, Mainz, Vera V., Girolami, Gregory S. (Eds.)

This book provides an overview of the origins and evolution of the periodic system from its prehistory to the latest synthetic elements and possible future additions. The periodic system of the elements first emerged as a comprehensive classificatory and predictive tool for chemistry during the 1860s. Its subsequent embodiment in various versions has made it one of the most recognizable icons of science.

Based primarily on a symposium titled "150 Years of the Periodic Table" and held at the August 2019 national meeting of the American Chemical Society, this book describes the origins of the periodic law, developments that led to its acceptance, chemical families that the system struggled to accommodate, extension of the periodic system to include synthetic elements, and various cultural aspects of the system that were celebrated during the International Year of the Periodic Table.

Contributors include: Ann Robinson, Gary Patterson, Gisela Boek, Mary Virginia Orna, Simon Cotton, Jay Labinger, Kit Chapman, Virginia Trimble, Eric Scerri, William Jensen, Pekka Pyykko, Daniel Rabinovich, Carmen Giunta, Gregory Girolami, Vera Mainz

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Year:  2024 PT id = 1303

Bilateral Symmetry in the Periodic Binodic Table

René Vernon, who developed these ideas, writes:

This table is adapted from the work of Gutiérrez-Samanez (2020), who discusses mathematising the chemical periodic system as a grid, which leads to a quadratic function or “binódica function” formed by pairs of periods or binodos (dyads).

The difference is that whereas Gutiérrez-Samanez showed the first pair of periods as H-He and Li-Be, this table shows the first period as e-n and H-He. Here, e is the electron and n is the neutron. Each pair of periods is shown pancake style rather than in a single row. The formula for the length of each paired period or binode is 2n2 = 2, 8, 16, 32.

The idea of paired periods has a long history; it seems to have originated with Werner in 1905.

According to Jensen:

"The temptation to read more into the shape of the table than is really there is almost overwhelming. Even someone as great as Werner was tempted (1905). Having postulated a missing element between H and He, he decided to perfect the symmetry of his table by guaranteeing that rows of differing length always occurred in pairs. Consequently, he further postulated a row of three missing elements lying above the H-X-He row."

Rydberg (1913, pp. 12–13) used a formula 4n^2 for the number of elements in the paired periods: 4, 16, 32, 64. This formula is also used by Gutiérrez-Samanez.

Paired periods were also used by Janet (1928), Saz (1931), Achimov (1946) and Baca Mendoza (1953).


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