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2019 has been designated the International Year of the Periodic Table as it is the 150th Anniversary of the formulation of Mendeleev's Tabelle I

Internet Database of Periodic Tables

There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but there is only one comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Dr Mark R Leach.

Use the buttons below to select from the 1000+ Periodic Tables in the database:

 pre 1900 formulations  1900 to 1949 formulations  1950 to 1999 formulations  2000 to 2009 formulations    Spiral formulations  3 dimensional formulations
 Data mapping periodic tables  Miscellaneous periodic tables  Books and reviews  non-chemistry periodic tables      All periodic tables

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Periodic Table formulations referencing Nawa, by date:

1813     Wollaston's Slide Rule of Chemical Equivalents
1813     Wollaston's Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents
1905     Gooch & Walker's Periodic System of The Elements
1946     Achimof's System
1992     Chemical Slide Rules
2011     Weise's Tetrahedron
2016     NAWA's byobu-Janet Periodic Table
2016     Clock Face Periodic Table
2016     Sensu Periodic Table
2017     NAWA's Periodic Tables
2017     Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version
2017     Moran's Periodic Spiral (updated)
2018     Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System
2018     Nawa's 3-D Octagonal Pillar
2018     Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass
2019     NAWA's Version of Moran's Periodic Spiral
2019     Janet Rejuvenated: Stewart-Tsimmerman-Nawa


Wollaston's Slide Rule of Chemical Equivalents

Philosophical Transactions: A Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents by William Hyde Wollaston, M.D. Sec. R.S. – or from here – has a diagram for a slide rule of chemical equivalents:

Wollaston writes:

"In order to shew more clearly the use of this scale, the Plate [diagram of the chemical slide rule] exhibits two different situations of the slider, in one of which oxygen is 10 [oxygen is defined as having an atomic weight/mass of 10.00], and other bodies are in their due proportion to it, so that carbonic acid being 27,54, and lime 35,46, carbonate of lime is placed at 63.

"In the second figure, the slider is represented drawn upwards till 100 corresponds to muriate of soda [sodium chloride, NaCl]; and accordingly the scale then shews how much of each substance contained in the table is equivalent to 100 of common salt. It shews, with regard to the different views of the analysis of this salt, that it contains 46,6 dry muriatic acid [hydrogen chloride], and 53,4 of soda, or 39,8 sodium, and 13,6 oxygen; or if viewed as chlorid of sodium, that it contains 60,2 chlorine, and 39,8 sodium."

Read more in an entry concerning chemical slide rules.

Thanks to Nawa for the tip!

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Wollaston's Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents

Philosophical Transactions: A Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents by William Hyde Wollaston, M.D. Sec. R.S., or from here.

It is apparent that chemistry the years 1810 to 1850 was largely concerned with discovering the whole number stoichiometric ratios of atoms in chemical compounds.

Wollaston writes in the text above:

"It is impossible in several instances, where only two combinations of the same ingredients are known, to discover which of the compounds is to be regarded as consisting of a pair of single atoms, and since the decision of these questions is purely theoretical, and by no means necessary to the formation of a table adapted to most practical purposes, I have not been desirous of warping my numbers according to an atomic theory, but have endeavored to make practical convenience my sole guide, and have considered the doctrine of simple multiples, on which that of atoms is founded, merely as a valuable assistant in determining, by simple division, the amount of those quantities that are liable to such definite deviations from the original law of Richter."

"Mr. Dalton in his atomic views of chemical combination appears not to have taken much pains to ascertain the actual prevalence of that law of multiple proportions by which the atomic theory is best supported [however] it is in fact to Mr. Dalton that we are indebted for the first correct observation of such an instance of a simple multiple in the union of nitrous gas with oxygen."

"[I have] computed a series of supposed atoms, I [have] assumed oxygen as the decimal unit of my scale [ie. oxygen = 10], in order to facilitate the estimation of those numerous combinations which it forms with other bodies. Though the present table of Equivalents, I have taken care to make oxygen equally prominent on account of the important part it performs in determining the affinities of bodies by the different proportions in which it is united to them.."

Mark Leach writes:

"When Wollaston's equivalent weights are converted from O = 10.00 to the modern value of O = 15.999, the atomic weight values can be seen to be astonishingly accurate.

"However, the language of the article is quite difficult as the meaning of many of the terms is unclear (to me, at least). For example, in modern usage adding 'ia' to a metal implies the oxide: 'magnesia' is magnesium oxide, MgO. I am not clear if this historical usage is consistent. 'Azote' is nitrogen and 'muriatic acid (dry)' is hydrogen chloride gas. I have only analyses/re-calculated the elements and a couple of common/obvious compounds:"

  Wollaston's data Scaled to O = 15.999 Modern Values % error
H (as H2) 1.32 2.112 2.016 5%
O 10.00 15.999 15.999 ref. value
H2O 11.32 18.111 18.015 1%
C 7.74 12.383 12.011 3%
S 20.00 31.998 32.060 0%
P 17.40 27.838 30.974 -11%
N (as N2) 17.54 28.062 28.014 0%
Cl (as Cl2) 44.10 70.556 70.900 0%
Fe 34.50 55.197 55.845 -1%
Cu 40.00 63.996 63.546 1%
Zn 41.00 65.596 65.380 0%
Hg 125.50 200.787 200.590 0%
Pb 129.50 207.187 207.980 0%
Ag 135.00 215.987 107.870 50%
  • The elements hydrogen, nitrogen (azote) and chlorine have clearly been measured as the diatomic molecules, even if this was unknown to Wollaston in 1813.
  • Phosphorus is out by 11%... [fair enough].
  • Only silver is clearly wrong, but it is out by 50% so it looks like a simple stoichiometry error: Perhaps the oxide was assumed to be AgO was instead of the correct Ag2O.

Interestingly, Wollaston's analysis is far better than Daubeny's 1831 data seen in Oxford.

Read more in an entry concerning chemical slide rules.

Thanks to Nawa for the tip!

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Gooch & Walker's Periodic System of The Elements

From a 1905 textbook by Gooch & Walker: Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry (see the Google Books scanned version pp273) comes an early 'right-step' periodic table. The formulation was reproduced in a 1917 textbook (lower image).

Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed

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Achimof's System

Van Spronsen, on p. 157, says:

"Achimov's system took the form of a cross-section of a pyramid. He based his system on the principle that the lengths of the periods and the analogies in properties between the elements of these periods must be clearly demonstrated."

Achimov EI 1946 Zhur. Obshchei Khim., vol. 16, p. 961

Thanks to René for the tip!

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Chemical Slide Rules

The first chemical slide rules are of interest here because they are, in effect, early periodic tables. But the are more than this, as they can be used for performing chemical calculations. Writing in Bull. Hist. Chem. 12 (1992) (and here), William D. Williams of Harding University writes:

"An article by George Bodner in the Winter 1990 issue of the Bulletin described a rare chemical slide rule designed by Lewis C. Beck and Joseph Henry - their little-known Improved Scale of Chemical Equivalents. [My] paper attempts to place this slide rule in context by describing its origins, as well as some of its predecessors and successors."

Some chemical slide rules mentioned in the text:

  • Wollaston's 1813/14 slide rule of chemical equivalents: here, here & here

Nagayasu Nawa writes and provides an explanation as how Wollaston's chemical equivalents slide rules should be used:

"It is very interesting slide rule for me. Because we actually used slide rule in 1960s. There were not the electronic calculator in the world. I think it would be used as a simple slide rule of The Law of Definite Proportions by J.L. Proust 1799."

  • '10 water', for example, may be hydrating water in chemical compound

  • 'Chlorine' may be HClO: HCl(35) + O(10) = HClO(45), etc.

Click image to enlarge:

Thanks to Nawa for the tip!

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Weise's Tetrahedron

Dmitry Weise shows how it is possible to go from the Janet [left-step] periodic table formulation, to a tetrahedral formulation.

Dmitry writes:

"Three-dimensional table of the periodic law can be constructed in the form of a tetrahedron having an inner order. A comparison of the tetrahedron shells and the table of elements shows, that one tetrahedron shell corresponds to 4 periods of the 2D table."

Jess Tauber adds:

"The spheres here also aren't labeled, but I explain how they get labeled in the text accompanying the pic.  Each such period (except for s-only, which are obviously simpler) we have a 'switchback' configuration. Like a road going up a mountain back and forth to minimize verticality, or a parachute folded into a pack. There are 8 different ways to do this (4 basic types in 2 chirally opposite mappings). And the original Weise-style non-continuous tetrahedron is just another way to organize half tetrahedra."

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NAWA's byobu-Janet Periodic Table

NAWA, Nagayasu: A Japanese schoolteacher and periodic table designer presents a Janet form periodic table in the traditional Japanese "byobu" style:

NAWA's byobu-Janet Periodic Table

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Clock Face Periodic Table

In 2014 Prof. Martyn Poliakoff – of YouTube fame – showed us a working Periodic Table clock, here.

The designer of the clock, Nagayasu (a Japannese school teacher), has now provided a fuller periodic table based on the same design:


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Sensu or Fan Periodic Table

By NAWA, Nagayasu — A Japanese schoolteacher and periodic table designer — a "Sensu" or fan periodic table:

Sensu or fan

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NAWA Periodic Tables

Nagayasu Nawa - "A Japanese school teacher and periodic table designer" - has a home page showing all his designs:

NAWA Periodic Tables

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Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version

From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a Braille version of the Clock Prism periodic table:

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Moran's Periodic Spiral (Updated)

Jeff Moran has updated his 1999 Periodic Spiral.

Click here for a larger version.

Jeff says: I offer the attached spiral formulation as a way of expressing the relationships of the f and d blocs to group 3:

  • La and Ac are assigned to the Ln and An series, respectively
  • The f block series is within, though apart from, the d block
  • The group 3-ish relationship of Ln and An to Sc (and, by extension, to Y) is implied
  • The group 3 status of Lu and Lr is explicit

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Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System

A spiral periodic table formulation by Nawa, called the Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System.

Click here for a larger version:

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Nawa's 3-D Octagonal Pillar

A 3-D octagonal pillar periodic table model by Nawa, "acccording to Scerri's reverse engineering [of] Mendeleev's 8-column table":

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Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass

Nagayasu Nawa, the prolific designer of periodic tables, here and here, has come up with an orbital filling periodic table and a corresponding hourglass animation. Nawa writes:

"I have turned the v.e.c. PT into the GIF animation that I call the electron hourglass, 1 second for each element. It takes 120 seconds from 1H to 120 Ubn. I have coloured orbital with colour derived from each shell's name, such as:

  • K kiwi
  • L lapis lazuli
  • M mauve
  • N navy
  • O orange
  • P purple
  • Q quick silver"

Click image to enlarge.

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NAWA's Version of Moran's Periodic Spiral

Periodic table designer Nagayasu Nawa has put his spin on Moran's Periodic Spiral:

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Janet Rejuvenated: Stewart-Tsimmerman-Nawa

An updated version of Philip Stewart's Janet Rejuvenated by Valery Tsimmerman redrawn by Nawa.

Click here to enlarge.

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pre 1900 formulations 1900 to 1949 formulations 1950 to 1999 formulations 2000 to 2009 formulations Spiral formulations 3 dimensional formulations
Data mapping periodic tables Miscellaneous periodic tables Books and reviews non-chemistry periodic tables All periodic tables

Periodic Table, What is it showing?
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© Mark R. Leach 1999-

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