The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1100 Period Tables in the database:
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Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/Left-Step Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity
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Periodic Table formulations referencing Nawa, by date:
Wollaston's Slide Rule of Chemical Equivalents
Philosophical Transactions: A Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents by William Hyde Wollaston, M.D. Sec. R.S. – or from here – has a diagram for a slide rule of chemical equivalents:
"In order to shew more clearly the use of this scale, the Plate [diagram of the chemical slide rule] exhibits two different situations of the slider, in one of which oxygen is 10 [oxygen is defined as having an atomic weight/mass of 10.00], and other bodies are in their due proportion to it, so that carbonic acid being 27,54, and lime 35,46, carbonate of lime is placed at 63.
"In the second figure, the slider is represented drawn upwards till 100 corresponds to muriate of soda [sodium chloride, NaCl]; and accordingly the scale then shews how much of each substance contained in the table is equivalent to 100 of common salt. It shews, with regard to the different views of the analysis of this salt, that it contains 46,6 dry muriatic acid [hydrogen chloride], and 53,4 of soda, or 39,8 sodium, and 13,6 oxygen; or if viewed as chlorid of sodium, that it contains 60,2 chlorine, and 39,8 sodium."
Read more in an entry concerning chemical slide rules.
Thanks to Nawa for the tip!
Wollaston's Synoptic Scale of Chemical Equivalents
It is apparent that chemistry the years 1810 to 1850 was largely concerned with discovering the whole number stoichiometric ratios of atoms in chemical compounds.
Wollaston writes in the text above:
"It is impossible in several instances, where only two combinations of the same ingredients are known, to discover which of the compounds is to be regarded as consisting of a pair of single atoms, and since the decision of these questions is purely theoretical, and by no means necessary to the formation of a table adapted to most practical purposes, I have not been desirous of warping my numbers according to an atomic theory, but have endeavored to make practical convenience my sole guide, and have considered the doctrine of simple multiples, on which that of atoms is founded, merely as a valuable assistant in determining, by simple division, the amount of those quantities that are liable to such definite deviations from the original law of Richter."
"Mr. Dalton in his atomic views of chemical combination appears not to have taken much pains to ascertain the actual prevalence of that law of multiple proportions by which the atomic theory is best supported [however] it is in fact to Mr. Dalton that we are indebted for the first correct observation of such an instance of a simple multiple in the union of nitrous gas with oxygen."
"[I have] computed a series of supposed atoms, I [have] assumed oxygen as the decimal unit of my scale [ie. oxygen = 10], in order to facilitate the estimation of those numerous combinations which it forms with other bodies. Though the present table of Equivalents, I have taken care to make oxygen equally prominent on account of the important part it performs in determining the affinities of bodies by the different proportions in which it is united to them.."
Mark Leach writes:
"When Wollaston's equivalent weights are converted from O = 10.00 to the modern value of O = 15.999, the atomic weight values can be seen to be astonishingly accurate.
"However, the language of the article is quite difficult as the meaning of many of the terms is unclear (to me, at least). For example, in modern usage adding 'ia' to a metal implies the oxide: 'magnesia' is magnesium oxide, MgO. I am not clear if this historical usage is consistent. 'Azote' is nitrogen and 'muriatic acid (dry)' is hydrogen chloride gas. I have only analyses/re-calculated the elements and a couple of common/obvious compounds:"
|Wollaston's data||Scaled to O = 15.999||Modern Values||% error|
|H (as H2)||1.32||2.112||2.016||5%|
|N (as N2)||17.54||28.062||28.014||0%|
|Cl (as Cl2)||44.10||70.556||70.900||0%|
- The elements hydrogen, nitrogen (azote) and chlorine have clearly been measured as the diatomic molecules, even if this was unknown to Wollaston in 1813.
- Phosphorus is out by 11%... [fair enough].
- Only silver is clearly wrong, but it is out by 50% so it looks like a simple stoichiometry error: Perhaps the oxide was assumed to be AgO was instead of the correct Ag2O.
Interestingly, Wollaston's analysis is far better than Daubeny's 1831 data seen in Oxford.
Read more in an entry concerning chemical slide rules.
Thanks to Nawa for the tip!
Gooch & Walker's Periodic System of The Elements
From a 1905 textbook by Gooch & Walker: Outlines of Inorganic Chemistry (see the Google Books scanned version pp273) comes an early 'right-step' periodic table. The formulation was reproduced in a 1917 textbook (lower image).
Thanks to Eric Scerri for the tip!
See the website EricScerri.com and Eric's Twitter Feed
Van Spronsen, on p. 157, says:
"Achimov's system took the form of a cross-section of a pyramid. He based his system on the principle that the lengths of the periods and the analogies in properties between the elements of these periods must be clearly demonstrated."
Achimov EI 1946 Zhur. Obshchei Khim., vol. 16, p. 961
Thanks to René for the tip!
Chemical Slide Rules
The first chemical slide rules are of interest here because they are, in effect, early periodic tables. But the are more than this, as they can be used for performing chemical calculations. Writing in Bull. Hist. Chem. 12 (1992) (and here), William D. Williams of Harding University writes:
"An article by George Bodner in the Winter 1990 issue of the Bulletin described a rare chemical slide rule designed by Lewis C. Beck and Joseph Henry - their little-known Improved Scale of Chemical Equivalents. [My] paper attempts to place this slide rule in context by describing its origins, as well as some of its predecessors and successors."
Some chemical slide rules mentioned in the text:
- Chemist's Adjustable Duplex Slide Rule made by Keuffel & Esser Co., n.d., ca. 1936-1940. Here are the full instructions for use.
Nagayasu Nawa writes and provides an explanation as how Wollaston's chemical equivalents slide rules should be used:
"It is very interesting slide rule for me. Because we actually used slide rule in 1960s. There were not the electronic calculator in the world. I think it would be used as a simple slide rule of The Law of Definite Proportions by J.L. Proust 1799."
- '10 water', for example, may be hydrating water in chemical compound
- 'Chlorine' may be HClO: HCl(35) + O(10) = HClO(45), etc.
Click image to enlarge:
Thanks to Nawa for the tip!
"Three-dimensional table of the periodic law can be constructed in the form of a tetrahedron having an inner order. A comparison of the tetrahedron shells and the table of elements shows, that one tetrahedron shell corresponds to 4 periods of the 2D table."
Jess Tauber adds:
"The spheres here also aren't labeled, but I explain how they get labeled in the text accompanying the pic. Each such period (except for s-only, which are obviously simpler) we have a 'switchback' configuration. Like a road going up a mountain back and forth to minimize verticality, or a parachute folded into a pack. There are 8 different ways to do this (4 basic types in 2 chirally opposite mappings). And the original Weise-style non-continuous tetrahedron is just another way to organize half tetrahedra."
NAWA's byobu-Janet Periodic Table
Clock Face Periodic Table
The designer of the clock, Nagayasu (a Japannese school teacher), has now provided a fuller periodic table based on the same design:
Sensu or Fan Periodic Table
By NAWA, Nagayasu — A Japanese schoolteacher and periodic table designer — a "Sensu" or fan periodic table:
NAWA Periodic Tables
Nagayasu Nawa - "A Japanese school teacher and periodic table designer" - has a home page showing all his designs:
Clock Prism Periodic Table, Braille Version
From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a Braille version of the Clock Prism periodic table:
Moran's Periodic Spiral (Updated)
Jeff Moran has updated his 1999 Periodic Spiral.
Click here for a larger version.
Jeff says: I offer the attached spiral formulation as a way of expressing the relationships of the f and d blocs to group 3:
- La and Ac are assigned to the Ln and An series, respectively
- The f block series is within, though apart from, the d block
- The group 3-ish relationship of Ln and An to Sc (and, by extension, to Y) is implied
- The group 3 status of Lu and Lr is explicit
Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System
A spiral periodic table formulation by Nawa, called the Nawa–Scerri Octagonal Periodic System.
Click here for a larger version:
Nawa's 3-D Octagonal Pillar
A 3-D octagonal pillar periodic table model by Nawa, "acccording to Scerri's reverse engineering [of] Mendeleev's 8-column table":
Nawa's V.E.T. Periodic Table & Hourglass
"I have turned the v.e.c. PT into the GIF animation that I call the electron hourglass, 1 second for each element. It takes 120 seconds from 1H to 120 Ubn. I have coloured orbital with colour derived from each shell's name, such as:
- K kiwi
- L lapis lazuli
- M mauve
- N navy
- O orange
- P purple
- Q quick silver"
Click image to enlarge.
NAWA's Version of Moran's Periodic Spiral
Janet Rejuvenated: Stewart-Tsimmerman-Nawa
Nawa Version of Maeno's Nuclear Periodic Table
"I have made two Nuclear PTs based on Hagino-Maeno (2020). I have tried to express the Nuclear PT visually by using symbols such as '〇','◇','☓' or small '〇' or '●' in a binary way so that people with colour blindness could understand it. And the other have been with the ' QUAD electronic data."
Click either of the images below to enlarge:
|What is the Periodic Table Showing?||Periodicity|
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
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