Periodic Table 
The INTERNET Database of Periodic Tables
There are thousands of periodic tables in web space, but this is the only comprehensive database of periodic tables & periodic system formulations. If you know of an interesting periodic table that is missing, please contact the database curator: Mark R. Leach Ph.D.
Use the drop menus below to search & select from the more than 1300 Period Tables in the database:
 SEARCH:
 By Decade
 By Type

PreSelected
Best Four Periodic Tables for Data All Periodic Tables by Name All Periodic Tables by Date All Periodic Tables by Reverse Date All Periodic Tables, as Added to the Database All Periodic Tables, reverse as Added Elements by Name Elements by Date Discovered Search for: Mendeleev/Mendeléeff Search for: Janet/LeftStep Search for: Eric Scerri Search for: Mark Leach Search for: René Vernon Search for: Electronegativity

By Year
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1982 1981 1980 1979 1978 1977 1976 1975 1974 1973 1972 1971 1970 1969 1968 1967 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 1961 1960 1959 1958 1957 1956 1955 1954 1953 1952 1951 1950 1949 1948 1947 1946 1945 1944 1943 1942 1941 1940 1939 1938 1937 1936 1935 1934 1933 1932 1931 1930 1929 1928 1927 1926 1925 1924 1923 1922 1921 1920 1919 1918 1917 1916 1915 1914 1913 1912 1911 1910 1909 1908 1907 1906 1905 1904 1903 1902 1901 1900 1899 1898 1897 1896 1895 1894 1893 1892 1891 1890 1889 1888 1887 1886 1885 1884 1883 1882 1881 1880 1879 1878 1877 1876 1875 1874 1873 1872 1871 1870 1869 1868 1867 1866 1865 1864 1863 1862 1861 1860 1859 1858 1857 1856 1855 1854 1853 1852 1851 1850 1844 1843 1842 1838 1836 1831 1830 1829 1825 1824 1817 1814 1813 1811 1808 1807 1804 1803 1802 1801 1800 1798 1794 1791 1789 1787 1783 1782 1781 1778 1775 1774 1772 1771 1766 1753 1751 1748 1735 1718 1700 1690 1687 1682 1671 1669 1624 1617 1520 1000 300 450 800 1000 2000 3500 3750 5000 6000 7000 9000
Periodic Tables referencing the text string "Tsimmerman", listed by date:
Year: 1928  PT id = 989, Type = formulation 
Corbino's RightStep Periodic Table
Published in the same year as Janet's LeftStep formulation, Corbino OM (1928) Riv Nuovo Cimento 5:LXI (and from here) produced a RightStep version.
Commenting on this formulation, Valery Tsimmerman writes:
"Corbino saw what Janet failed to see: If blocks shifted by corresponding value of quantum number l, then the rows represent electronic shells and Janet saw what Corbino fained to see, namely the Janet rule, also known as Madelung rule. Both used rectangular boxes, but neither noticed the perimeter rule."
Thanks to Valery T for the tip!
Year: 1969  PT id = 1308, Type = review formulation 
100 Years of the Periodic Law of Chemical Elements
A Soviet Union publication in Russian celebrating Medeleeve's seminal work of 1869: 100 Years of the Periodic Law of Chemical Elements, X Centennial (Jubilee) Mendeleev Congress. The work is the product of 23 Authors. (Thanks to Ann E. Robinson, René Vernon & Valery Tsimmerman for the info.)
Year: 1992  PT id = 935, Type = formulation 
Fet's Periodic Tables
Two periodic tables by A.I. Fet from his book, "Mathematical Modeling in Biology and Chemistry. New Approach" Nauka, Sib.Dep., 1992.
Larry Tsimmerman writes:
"First formulation, Tab. 7, is precursor of Adomah PT with broken Zsequence and questionable pairing of elements in accordance with "ml". Tab. 8 is a Janet LST shown vertically. Fet discusses Periodic Table in the light of Group Theory. (The book was sent to me by Eric Scerri and it was signed by Fet for Hefferlin)."
Year: 2006  PT id = 32, Type = formulation 
ADOMAH Periodic Table by Valery Tsimmerman
The ADOMAH periodic table is based on the Janet or leftstep periodic table. It consists of four blocks (s, p, d & f) corresponding to quantum numbers l = 0,1,2,3. Blocks are separated, shifted and reconnected with each other via diagonal lines. This arrangement creates "layers" or "strata" that retain continuity in respect to atomic number Z, in addition to usual columns and rows. Therefore, numbers shown on the right hand side of the table may represent either quantum numbers n (electronic shells) if horizontal rows are followed, or n + l if "layers" or "strata" are followed.
This feature assists in creation of electronic configurations of the elements. Elements H and He are placed in two positions that reflect their dual nature and give proper consideration to atomic structure and chemical properties of those two elements. This feature also preserves triads He, Ne, Ar and H, F, Cl. Also, the elements are placed in rectangular "boxes", so any two of such "boxes" make up a square thus symbolising electron pairs. This also cuts table length in half. Unlike the Janet table, this table is assembled from bottom up in direction of increase of quantum number n, as well as atomic weight and energy. The ADOMAH table has symmetry and, assuming total number of elements 120, can be divided in four parts of 30 elements with center point located among precious metals.
Year: 2007  PT id = 937, Type = data misc 
Extending the Periodic Table
The periodic table now extends to element 118, Oganesson, and scientists are attempting to go further. Below is part of a Segre chart, proton number on the yaxis and neutron number of the xaxis, from a report from the Japanese Superheavy Element Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN.
The diagram shows various nuclear reactions, for example: ^{232}Th + ^{40}Ar to make ^{272}Hs.
Thanks to Larry Tsimmerman for the tip!
Year: 2008  PT id = 88, Type = formulation 3D 
ADOMAH Tetrahedron
Valery Tsimmerman has developed various periodic table formulations, available at perfect perioidic table.com.
Year: 2010  PT id = 593, Type = data 
Nucleosynthesis Periodic Tables
The buildup of heavy elements from lighter ones by nuclear fusion.
Helium, and some lithium, was produced by cosmic (or primordial) nucleosynthesis from 2 to 20 minitues after the Big Bang, here and here:
From the Encyclopedia of Science:
Today most elementbuilding nucleosynthesis takes place in stars.
Stellar nucleosynthesis converts hydrogen into helium, either by the protonproton chain or by the carbonnitrogenoxygen cycle. As a star evolves, a contracting superdense core of helium is produced from the conversion of hydrogen nuclei into helium nuclei.
Eventually, the temperature and pressure inside the core become high enough for helium to begin fusing into carbon. If the star has more than about twice the Sun's mass, a sequence of nuclear reactions then produces heavier elements such as oxygen, silicon, magnesium, potassium, and iron. Successively heavier elements, as far as iron (in the most massive stars) are built up in later stages of stellar evolution by the triplealpha process. The heaviest elements of all are produced by explosive nucleosynthesis in supernova explosions, by mechanisms such as the pprocess, rprocess, and sprocess:
From FigShare (Athanasios Psaltis):
Our quest to explain the origin of the elements started in the late 1950's by two famous papers independently  E. M. Burbidge et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 (1957) & A.G.W. Cameron, Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 69, 201 (1957)  whose authors claimed that the elements are created in astrophysical environments. This is the wellknown periodic table of elements, but where each element is labeled by the environment that is created (e.g Supernova explosion etc.).
In 2017 the LIGO gravitional wave detector identified the merger of two neutron stars, an event which produces large quantities of gold, platinum etc. Thus, an updated periodic table of nucleosyntheis looks like this, from an interesting SDSS blog:
Conal Boyce has prepared a Janet LeftStep Nucleosynthesis Periodic Table. Conal writes:
"This formulation was created by mapping the Ivans/Johnson colorcoding scheme onto a Janet grid, using Tsimmerman halfcells. Although several attempts to contact Professor Jennifer Johnson failed, I did receive enthusiastic feedback on this LST mapping from Professor Inese Ivans, and decided to make it public on that basis."
Year: 2012  PT id = 479, Type = misc formulation 
Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law
Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Tetrahedron periodic table formulation and the Perfect Periodic Table website, presents a Mathematical Expression of Mendeleev's Periodic Law:
Year: 2013  PT id = 592, Type = formulation 3D spiral 
3D Left Step Periodic Table
By Masahiko Suenaga, Kyushu University, Japan a 3D Left Step Periodic Table.
"Inspired by the work of Dr. Tsimmerman and Dr. Samanez, I have created a new 3D Left Step Periodic Table, which resembles to Mt. Fuji, recently registered as a World Heritage site. For more information, please visit my website":
Year: 2014  PT id = 642, Type = formulation 3D 
ADOMAH Periodic Table Glass Cube
Valery Tsimmerman, of the ADOMAH Periodic Table and the ADOMAH Tetrahedron, has now used these ideas to produce a beautiful glass cube:
This amazing object is available for sale from Grand Illusions:
A Note by Philip Stewart stewart.phi@gmail.com
The cube represents 120 chemical elements etched into a cube of Optical Crystal glass. The s, p, d, and f blocks of the Janet periodic table form four rectangles, which are slices of a regular tetrahedron, parallel with two of its edges and with two faces of the circumscribed cube. All four quantum numbers are made visible in this arrangement. You can see a 2D version on the Perfect Periodic Table website, click on the "skyscraper" version on the right to see the tetrahedron, and go to Regular Tetrahedron at foot of page for details.
The regular tetrahedron is the only form in which slices are rectangles of different shape and identical perimeter. When each orbital is represented by a square of unit edge, the rectangles representing the blocks all have the same perimeter, which is twice the length of the edges of the tetrahedron (which are of course √2 times the edges of the cube): 18 units = 2(values of n + values of m_{l}).
Block 
values of n 
values of m_{l} 
s 
8 
1 
p 
6 
3 
d 
4 
5 
f 
2 
7 
Valery Tsimmerman, orahct@gmail.com, creator of the design, has written to me as follows:
"I just had some thoughts about the Perimeter Rule that is at the basis of the tetrahedral arrangement. Dimensions of the blocks are dictated by number of values of ml and number of values of n. We know that n governs quantization of energy. Recently I learned that quantization of the possible orientations of L with respect to an external magnetic field is often referred to as space quantization. (Serway, Jewett: Physics for Scientists and Engineers. 6th edition. p.1369).
"That is, m_{l} stands for space quantization. Therefore, the Perimeter Rule reflects a direct relationship between energy and space. I think that this could have some significance. The beautiful thing about the Universe is that each type of symmetry is related to some conservation law. Symmetry in time is related to energy. Therefore, n is related to time also, so, in the Perimeter Rule we have relationship between time and space on quantum numerical level. The interesting thing is that m_{l} can be positive and negative, while n can only be positive. Similarly, things can move in space in positive and negative directions, but time has only one direction. There is no negative time, just as there are no negative values of quantum number n."
Adomah is a variant of Adamah, Hebrew for 'dust of the earth', from which Adam was made (Genesis 2:7).
Year: 2014  PT id = 664, Type = formulation 
Janet Rajeuni
By Philip Stewart:
Janet Rejuvenated, with acknowledgement to Mazurs and to Valery Tsimmerman for the idea of using one square per orbital and of shifting the blocks so that each row represents one value of n, the principal quantum number.
The main objection people make to Janet is that He is placed at the head of the alkaline earth metals although it behaves as a noble gas. The essential answer is that electronic structure explains behaviour and not vice versa; like Ne (and unlike Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn), He has a complete shell. Similarly H, like C, is half way between a full and an empty shell, unlike the alkali metals and the halogens. I suggest a new argument: nobody finds it strange that the p block has a row of nonmetals at its head (and that half its members are nonmetals), so why not the s block?
Year: 2015  PT id = 700, Type = formulation 
ADOMAH Periodic Table and Normal Distribution
Valery Tsimmerman writes:
The ADOMAH, from here, resembles the normal distribution or "Bell Curve". It also mimics the distribution of electrons in orbitals:
Year: 2017  PT id = 741, Type = formulation 
New Rendering of ADOMAH Periodic Table
From Valery Tsimmerman, of the PerfectPeriodicTable.com and the ADOMAH Periodic Table:
"I received email from Dr. Marcus Wolf who is a chemist, working on renewable energy and electrochemical storage in Germany, near Nuremberg. He also lectures at Georg Simon Ohm, Technische Hochschule Nürnberg. Attached to his email was new version of ADOMAH Periodic Table that he created. In this new rendering he is using Jensen's Valence Manifold (VM)."
This is what Dr. Marcus Wolf wrote:
"The first one to come up with the idea of using a valence manifold VM = [e + v] as a label for the groups, was Will B. Jensen. He derived it from the very early attempts of Richard Abegg, who, at around 1904, brought up the hypothesis of 'main and countervalences', derived from the observable behavior of elements and their compounds in electrochemical experiments. Eric Scerri is citing Jensen in his latest book, in the chapter about Richard Abegg. But Jensen's proper article from 1983 or so is far more detailed and in his later publications he then introduces the valence manifold concept. Last weekend I accidentally observed another consistency between the Gvalues and their ordering and the valence electron counts, e. If you fix the e value of the starting group in a given lblock as e(initial), you could generate every Gnumber of a given group by adding the valence vacancy count, v, to it:
G = e(initial) + v.
"That is another hint for the consistency of the VM labelling concept."
Year: 2017  PT id = 761, Type = formulation 3D 
Stewart's Chemosphere
P J Stewart, a good friend of the periodic table database, has mapped a PT onto a sphere.
PJS writes: "It is Janet Rajeuni 2014 wrapped round a sphere, going back to Mazurs 1965, and Tsimmerman 2006. Arabic numerals indicate shells (values of principal quantum number); Roman numerals indicate periods."
Year: 2018  PT id = 920, Type = formulation 3d 
Telluric Remix
Philip Stewart writes:
The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by AlexandreÉmile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.
My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).
 The Telluric Remix is topologically the same as my 'Janet Rajeuni' and 'Chemosphere': it maintains the continuous sequence of atomic numbers with the help of arrows, which cascade down, displaying graphically the Janet [Madelung] rule for the order of subshell filling.
 I have placed the s block in the centre to emphasise its pivotal nature and so that there is no question of whether it belongs on the left or on the right. Every shell (Arabic numeral) and every period (Roman numeral) ends with ns^{2}, but the ns electrons combine with f, d or p electrons of elements in the succeeding period to make their valence shells, until ns^{2}+np^{6}, which forms a noble gas. Helium, He, is also noble with a complete n=1 shell and no 1p^{6}.
 Noble gases are marked G. Groups are numbered sequentially within each block, and in general the xth member of the series has x electrons in the subshell. Exceptions are shown by a small d (or two) in the corner, signifying that a d electron replaces an s electron in the d block or an f electron in the f block (note also p in Lr). This makes it easy to determine the electronic structure of each element.
 Click here for a larger version.
The printable version is available (click here for the full size version) to make your own:
I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. stewart.phi@gmail.com
Year: 2018  PT id = 951, Type = formulation 
Janet's LeftStep with Ground Level Microstates
By Valery Tsimmerman, who writes:
Janet's LST with ground level microstate information and total spin graph shown for each group of elements. The top line represents number of electrons in open subshells (with exception of six anomalous elements). Information shows physical (spectroscopic) basis of the groups.
The zigzag line on top is a graphic representation of Hund's rule showing the total inherent spins of atoms and the total spin of Cu is 1/2, same as for Ag and Au. When it comes to ground level atomic microstates and Hund's rule Cu is not anomalous (2S1/2), despite its anomalous electron configuration.
The diagram represents Hund's Rule that states that "the lowest energy atomic state is the one that maximizes the total spin quantum number for the electrons in the open subshell" (Wikipedia). Yaxis is the total spin and xaxis is number of electrons in open shells (with exception of six anomalous elements).
First, I would like to make couple of general comments. When discussing periodicity, they typically talk about chemical properties and electron configurations/differentiating electrons, etc, but those are not specific enough. For each electron configuration there are multiple microstates. For example, for single electron configuration of carbon there are over 30 microstates and only one of them corresponds to ground level. So, microstates express combined physical/spectroscopic properties of whole atoms and, the most important, combined properties of electrons located in open subshells.
Now, look at ground level term symbols in each group. I see amazing consistency, especially in the main groups. It tells me that groups are not only chemical, but physical!
Looking at periods one can see that all periods in s, p & d blocks begin with elements that have multiplicity M=2 and end with M=1. This is also true for fblock if it starts with La and Ac and ends with Yb and No. This puts Lu and Lr firmly in group 3. Placing La and Ac in group three ruins spectroscopic consistency.
Click here image to enlarge the PT below.
Year: 2018  PT id = 952, Type = formulation 
ADOMAH Periodic Table Formulation with NIST Data
By Valery Tsimmerman, who writes:
I would like to share with you another variant of my ADOMAH periodic table formulation that holds additional spectroscopic information.
Click here image to enlarge the PT below.
Year: 2018  PT id = 977, Type = formulation 3D 
Simpson's 4Dimensional Version of the ADOMAH Periodic Table
Doug Simpson writes:
"Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH table and website got me started as a periodic table hobbyist. The attached photos show what I've been up to. Valery's observation that n, l, & m conspire to generate a halffilled tetrahedral lattice inspired me to create a 4D periodic table using all four quantum numbers as coordinates."
Year: 2019  PT id = 1050, Type = formulation 
Janet Rejuvenated: StewartTsimmermanNawa
An updated version of Philip Stewart's Janet Rejuvenated by Valery Tsimmerman redrawn by Nawa.
Year: 2019  PT id = 984, Type = formulation 3D spiral 
Telluric Remix in Colour
Philip Stewart writes (this is the same text that accompanies the 2018 B/W version):
The Telluric Helix (La Vis Tellurique) was the first graphic representation of the periodic system of the elements, conceived as a spiral wound round a cylinder. It was designed in 1862 by AlexandreÉmile Béguyer de Chancourtois, a French mineralogist. 'Telluric' is from Latin tellus, earth, recalling the 'earths', oxides, in which many elements had been discovered.
My 'Telluric Remix' is a return to the cylinder. It combines ideas from Charles Janet (8, not 7, periods, ending with ns2, defined by a constant sum of the first two quantum numbers, n and l), Edward Mazurs (all members of each electron shell in the same row) and Valery Tsimmerman, (a half square per element).
 The Telluric Remix is topologically the same as my 'Janet Rajeuni' and 'Chemosphere': it maintains the continuous sequence of atomic numbers with the help of arrows, which cascade down, displaying graphically the Janet [Madelung] rule for the order of subshell filling.
 I have placed the s block in the centre to emphasise its pivotal nature and so that there is no question of whether it belongs on the left or on the right. Every shell (Arabic numeral) and every period (Roman numeral) ends with ns^{2}, but the ns electrons combine with f, d or p electrons of elements in the succeeding period to make their valence shells, until ns^{2}+np^{6}, which forms a noble gas. Helium, He, is also noble with a complete n=1 shell and no 1p^{6}.
 Noble gases are marked G. Groups are numbered sequentially within each block, and in general the xth member of the series has x electrons in the subshell. Exceptions are shown by a small d (or two) in the corner, signifying that a d electron replaces an s electron in the d block or an f electron in the f block (note also p in Lr). This makes it easy to determine the electronic structure of each element.
 Click here for a larger version (pdf).
I have not claimed copyright; please copy and share but acknowledge my authorship. stewart.phi@gmail.com
Year: 2019  PT id = 1001, Type = review 
Kultovoy's Periodic Table Book
Nicolay Kultovoy, website, as sent me a copy of his Periodic Table book, entitled [Google Translate]: Book 5. Part 1108. A single quantum mechanical model of the structure of the atomic nucleus and the periodic table of chemical elements of D.I. Mendeleev.
In a mixture of Russian & English, the PDF of the book can be viewed here.
Chapter 1. Triune (electrons, nucleons, chemical elements) quantum mechanical model of Colt. Three
1.1 the Rules of filling of the orbits of electrons.
1.2 Pyramidal lattice.
1.3 models with cubic sieve.
1.4 models with facecentered lattice.
1.5 quantum Mechanical form of the periodic table of chemical elements.
1.6 StoweJanetScerri Periodic Table.
Chapter 2. A lattice model of the nucleus. Model 62
2.1 Berezovsky G. N.
2.2 I. Boldov
2.4 Konovalov.
2.5 Manturov V.
2.6 Semikov S. A.
2.7 alphapartial model of the atomic nucleus.
2.8 Burtaev V.
Chapter 3. Various lattice (crystal) model of the nucleus of an atom. One hundred five
3.0 Luis Pauling.
3.1 Valery Tsimmerman. ADOMAH Periodic Table. Model 32.
3.2 Klishev B. V. Model 31.
3.3 Garai J. Model 31.
3.4 Winger E Model 42.
3.5 Norman D. Cook. Model 41.
3.6 Gamal A. Nasser. Model 41.
3.7 D. Asanbaeva Model 41.
3.8 Datsuk V. K.
3.9 Bolotov B.
3.10 Djibladze M. I.
3.11 Dyukin S. V.
3.12 A. N. Mishin.
3.13 M. M. Protodyakonov
3.14 Dry I. N.
3.15 UlfG. Meißner.
3.16 Foreign works.
Chapter 4. Longperiod periodic table. One hundred eighty one
4.1 longPeriod representation of the periodic table.
4.2 Artamonov, G. N.
4.3 Galiulin R. V.
4.4 E. K. Spirin
4.5. Khoroshavin L.
4.6 Step form proposed by Thomsen and Bohr.
4.7 Symmetrical shape of the periodic table.
Chapter 5. Construction of a periodic table based on the structure of orbitals. Two hundred twenty one
5.1 construction of the periodic table on the basis of orbitals.
5.2 Short V. M.
5.3 Kulakov, the Novosibirsk table of multiplets.
Chapter 6. Atomic structure. Two hundred forty eight
6.1 Table of isotopes.
6.2 the structure of the orbitals.
Year: 2019  PT id = 1019, Type = formulation 3D 
Stewart's Quantahedron Formulation
From Philip Stewart, here & here, comes a three dimensional Quantahedron Formulation.
Philip writes:
"The Quantahedron is based on Tsimmerman's Adomah cube, realised in transparent plastic, in the usual order in which Z values are read, printed on separable blocks so that it can be assembled."
Year: 2020  PT id = 1175, Type = formulation 3D 
Rainbow Periodic Table in ADOMAH Cube
From the prolific Nagayasu Nawa, a version of his Rainbow Periodic Table inside Valery Tsimmerman's glass cube:
Year: 2022  PT id = 1241, Type = data 
Electronegativity Seamlessly Mapped Onto Various Formulations of The Periodic Table
A discussion on the Google Groups Periodic Table Discussion List, involving a René Vernon, Nawa Nagayasu & Julio Samanez (all contributors this database) lead to the development of the representations below, showing electronegativity seamlessly mapped onto a modified LeftStep Periodic Table:
Nawa Nagayasu has mapped electronegativity to Mendeleeve's formulation:
Nawa Nagayasu has mapped electronegativity onto other formulations, Julio's Binode Spiral:
and the "conventional", short, medium and long forms of the periodic table with hydrogen above and between B & C which show the botomrighttotopleft electronegativity trend:
René Vernon's 777 Periodic Wedding Cake:
Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH formulation:
Valery Tsimmerman's ADOMAH tetrahedron (in a glass cube) formulation:
What is the Periodic Table Showing?  Periodicity 
© Mark R. Leach Ph.D. 1999 –
Queries, Suggestions, Bugs, Errors, Typos...
If you have any:
Queries
Comments
Suggestions
Suggestions for links
Bug, typo or grammatical error reports about this page,please contact Mark R. Leach, the author, using mark@metasynthesis.com
This free, open access web book is an ongoing project and your input is appreciated.